James (1972)

Background notes

The complete report is shown in this single web page. You can scroll through it or use the following links to go to the various chapters.

Preliminary pages (page iii)
Membership, Contents

Chapter 1 (1)
Chapter 2 (5)
The third cycle
Chapter 3 (18)
The second cycle
Chapter 4 (40)
The first cycle
Chapter 5 (49)
Organisation and development of the system
Chapter 6 (67)
Summary of the report
A note of extension (78)

Appendix 1 (80)
ATOs and other bodies supplying reports
Appendix 2 (812)
Sources of written evidence
Appendix 3 (93)
Sources of oral evidence
Appendix 4 (95)
Visits made by members of the Committee
Appendix 5 (96)
Training institutions and the teaching force 1962-70
Appendix 6 (97)
Examples of course structure for the DipHE
Appendix 7 (99)
A possible distribution of Regional Councils
Appendix 8 (105)
Training institutions: size and status
Appendix 9 (106)
List of recommendations

Index (117)

The text of the 1972 James Report was prepared by Derek Gillard and uploaded on 17 August 2008.

The James Report (1972)
Teacher Education and Training

Report by a Committee of Inquiry appointed by the Secretary of State for Education and Science, under the Chairmanship of Lord James of Rusholme

London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office 1972
Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

[title page]




Report by a Committee of Inquiry appointed by the
Secretary of State for Education and Science, under the
Chairmanship of Lord James of Rusholme.


[page ii]

Crown copyright 1972

SBN 11 270236 8

[page iii]

The Lord James of Rusholme
Elizabeth House,
York Road,
London SE1.
Telephone 01-928 9222 Ext 3306
14 December 1971

The Rt. Hon. Margaret Thatcher, MP,
Secretary of State,
Department of Education and Science,
Curzon Street House,
Curzon Street,
London, W1.

Dear Secretary of State,

You appointed this Committee with the following terms of reference:

'In the light of the review currently being undertaken by the Area Training Organisations, and of the evidence published by the Select Committee on Education and Science, to enquire into the present arrangements for the education, training and probation of teachers in England and Wales and in particular to examine:

(i) what should be the content and organisation of courses to be provided;

(ii) whether a larger proportion of intending teachers should be educated with students who have not chosen their careers or chosen other careers;

(iii) what, in the context of (i) and (ii) above, should be the role of the maintained and voluntary colleges of education, the polytechnics and other further education institutions maintained by local education authorities, and the universities

and to make recommendations.'

You further expressed the intention that we should begin work early this year and the hope that we should report within 12 months.

We now have the honour to present our report. It is unanimous except for one matter on which two of our members have entered a note of reservation at the appropriate point in the text. There are also a few questions on which these members have contributed a 'note of extension' to indicate their wish to go further than the rest of the Committee, but the recommendations contained in the report are those of us all.

We have recorded in the report the names of all those individuals and organisations who have helped by submitting written and oral evidence and other material for the Committee to study, and of the various institutions which were kind enough to receive our visits. We wish to express our gratitude to all those concerned and to the members of your department

[page iv]

and of Her Majesty's Inspectorate, who were always helpful in putting their knowledge and experience fully at our disposal.

We would like to thank in a particularly warm way our assessor, Mr Arthur Luffman, HMI, whose profound knowledge not only of teacher training but of much else made his wise contributions an integral part of all our discussions.

The novel constitution of our committee, which imposed on a fairly small number of full or part-time members the obligation to produce a report in a comparatively short time, laid a particularly heavy burden on the skill and endurance of the secretarial and supporting staff. Without the willingness and ability of Mrs Joan Greenaway to type and retype successive drafts in an apparently impossibly short time, we could not have kept within our somewhat tight programme. Finally, it is difficult adequately to express our debt to our assistant secretary, Miss Marilyn Gummer, and above all to the Secretary, Mr Richard Dellar, for their professional expertise, their tireless hard work and their unfailing patience.

Yours sincerely,



Curzon Street,
London, W1.
22 December 1971.

[page v]

The Lord James of Rusholme,
Teacher Training Inquiry,
Elizabeth House,
York Road,
London, SE1.

Dear Lord James,

Thank you for your letter of 14th December with which you sent me the Report of your Committee of Inquiry into Teacher Training. I hope you will allow me at once to thank you and the Committee for the vigour and speed with which you have conducted and completed your difficult task.

I am arranging for the Report to be published as soon as possible so that the important issues it raises can be widely considered and debated as a prelude to the consultations that I have promised before I reach any decisions. I shall be initiating these consultations in due course.

Yours sincerely,

[page vi]

Membership of the Committee

The Lord James of Rusholme (Chairman), Vice-Chancellor of the University of York.
Miss E Aggett, Headmistress of Eveline Lowe Primary School.
Mr CR English, Director General of the City and Guilds of London Institute.
Dr HG Judge, Principal of Banbury School.
Mr CP Milroy, Chief Education Officer for Gloucestershire.
Mr JF Porter, Principal of Berkshire College of Education.
Professor JR Webster, Professor and Dean of the Faculty of Education, University College of North Wales, Bangor.
Mr AGJ Luffman, HMI, Assessor.


Mr R Dellar, Secretary.
Miss ME Gummer, Assistant Secretary.

The estimated cost of the production of the report is 40,185, of which 2,940 represents the estimated cost of printing and publication, 30,575 the cost of administration and 6,670 the travelling and other expenses of members.

[page vii]


Chapter 1Introduction1.1 to 1.9
Principles of the report1.2
Background of the report1.3 to 1.8
Plan of the report1.9
Chapter 2The third cycle2.1 to 2.38
The needs of the third cycle2. 6 to 2.20
Institutional requirements and implications2.21 to 2.37
  Implications for the schools2.21 to 2.25
  Implications for FE colleges2.26 to 2.28
  Professional centres2.29 to 2.34
  Other resources and facilities2.35 to 2.36
  Administration and finance2.37
Chapter 3The second cycle3.1 to 3.53
Present objectives and problems of teacher training3.2 to 3.10
Principles for the reform of pre-service training and induction3.11 to 3.23
  First year of the second cycle3.13 to 3.19
  Second year of the second cycle3.20 to 3.23
Implications of a changed system3.24 to 3.52
  Qualifications for entry to the second cycle3.26 to 3.28
  Special courses in the second cycle3.29 to 3.31
  Teachers for further education3.32
  Terminology and second cycle awards3.33 to 3.37
  Planning and organisation of the second cycle3.38 to 3.40
  Implications for existing institutions3.41 to 3.52
Chapter 4The first cycle4.1 to 4.24
Degrees as first cycle qualifications4.3
Diploma in Higher Education as a first cycle qualification4.4 to 4.7
Structure of the diploma course4.8 to 4.17
Currency of the diploma4.18 to 4.24

[page viii]

Chapter 5Organisation and development of the system5.1 to 5.47
The need for change5.2 to 5.21
Constitution and powers of regional and national agencies5.22 to 5.32
The financing of the colleges of education5.33 to 5.35
Possible development of the system5.36 to 5.39
Action to be taken in the immediate future5.40 to 5.43
The situation in Wales: a note by one of our members5.44 to 5.47
Chapter 6Summary of the report6.1 to 6.26
Education and training6.2 to 6.16
Administration, finance and the validation of awards6.17 to 6.20
Some wider questions6.21 to 6.24
Questions of cost6.25 to 6.26

A note of extension


1. Area training organisations and other bodies from whom reports were received of the reviews undertaken in response to Mr Edward Short's letter of 19 February 1970
2. Sources of written evidence
3. Sources of oral evidence
4. Visits made by members of the Committee
5. Growth of training institutions and of the teaching force 1962-70
6. Examples of course structure for the DipHE
7. A possible distribution of Regional Councils
8. Training institutions: size and status
9. List of recommendations

[page 1]


1.1 This report describes the reform in the education and training of teachers which we wish to recommend. Its argument for fundamental change is not based upon any false assumption that the present system has, in some total sense, failed or is in imminent danger of doing so. On the contrary, the history of the colleges of education, whether LEA or voluntary, and of the departments of education, in the past 20 years of expansion and adaptation and the widely acknowledged achievements of the schools into which young teachers have taken their knowledge and skills demonstrate how much has already been achieved. Nevertheless, there is abundant evidence that the system is no longer adequate to its purposes. That inadequacy arises from an over-dependence upon initial training, as distinct from continued education and training, and from an unhelpful distinction between two kinds of training, one route for graduates and another for non-graduates. Changes must be made if the needs of the schools and of society over the next 20 years are to be met, and the system cannot be expected to reform itself as rapidly and as fundamentally as the situation requires. What is needed is firm action following the publication of such a report as this, initiated by Government and carried through by all branches of the teaching profession, by institutions of higher education and by the LEAs.

Principles of the report

1.2 Two principles have governed the thinking from which our proposals are derived, both of which are, of course, subservient to the axiom that the interests of the children and students in schools and colleges take priority over those of institutions or even of the teaching profession itself. First, proposals should be capable of speedy implementation and should relate to the immediate future, since it would be unrealistic in the extreme to attempt to construct a system capable of lasting indefinitely. The best that we could hope to do would be to ensure that the proposed arrangements offered a framework for growth and development aver perhaps the next 20 or 25 years, sufficiently flexible to accommodate the changes which will inevitably take place in that time. Secondly, the proposals should reflect and help to enhance the status and independence of the teaching profession and of the institutions in which many teachers are educated and trained. For too long the teaching profession has been denied a proper degree of responsibility for its own professional affairs. For too long, the colleges of education have been treated as junior partners in the system of higher education. It is hoped that the implementation of this report would do much to encourage both the profession and the colleges to move forward to a new degree of independence and self-determination. The application of these principles has led all of us to a solution which depends more upon the better use of resources already committed than upon a diversion of additional resources from other desirable objectives in social and educational policy.

[page 2]

Background of the report

1.3 Before the decision to set up this Inquiry, concern about the education and training of teachers had led to a study of the question by the Parliamentary Select Committee on Education and Science under the chairmanship of the Rt Hon FT Willey MP, which received and published extensive evidence from the teacher training world - invaluable evidence immediately available from the beginning of our study. Moreover, in response to a request made in February 1970 by the former Secretary of State for Education and Science, the Rt Hon Edward Short MP, the area training organisations had been conducting detailed reviews of their current procedures. The results of these reviews have become available during the course of this Inquiry and have provided a mass of statistical and factual information and informed comment for which we are very much indebted to all those who helped to complete that formidable task. (Appendix 1 lists the area training organisations and other bodies whose reviews were received). The availability of this wealth of material produced by the Select Committee and the ATOs made it possible to invite this Committee of Inquiry to complete its task within twelve months.

1.4 In addition to studying all this material, we have received and studied some 500 separate submissions of written evidence from individuals, associations and institutions and have devoted 23 working days to hearing oral evidence from individuals and representative bodies. We have visited some 50 institutions (colleges of education, universities, polytechnics and other establishments) at which we had the opportunity to talk to large numbers of staff and students. Appendices 2, 3 and 4 list the sources of written and oral evidence submitted to the Inquiry, and the institutions visited. Meetings of the Committee have filled about 50 complete working days. The Inquiry, although short term, has been intensive.

1.5 The purpose of this report is to offer specific recommendations which could be implemented speedily. It has been deliberately kept as short as is consistent with the need to develop its argument. The report does not include the statistical and factual information already available in the reports of the Select Committee and the ATOs. Nor has it been thought necessary, or appropriate in a short report, to include a lengthy historical survey of the years since the McNair Report. It is, however, necessary to recall briefly the most important of the developments of the past decade which have immediately influenced our thinking about the future.

1.6 Ten years ago the colleges of education had just embarked upon the extension of the normal teacher training course from two years to three. Throughout the 1960s there was a persistent and severe shortage of teachers and the colleges and other training institutions were therefore under continuing pressure, not only to develop new courses and assume new responsibilities, but to do so while simultaneously responding to the demands of a massive expansion of numbers. Their successes and the results achieved by training institutions and by all the agencies concerned with sustaining and running them, not least the voluntary bodies, are matters of history which are sometimes too easily forgotten. (Appendix 5 gives an indication of the size of the achievement.)

[page 3]

1.7 The last decade has also seen the publication of the Robbins Report, stimulating further the demand for higher education, and the expansion and diversification of the higher education system. There has been an unprecedented growth and development of new and existing universities, including the foundation of the Open University. The concept of a binary system of higher education has emerged together with the establishment and growth of the polytechnics as major institutions in the public sector. The institution and rapid advance of the CNAA as a degree-granting body outside the universities is proving to be a development of great significance. The DipAD has been introduced as a nationally recognised graduate qualification in art and design. The establishment of the Industrial Training Boards has laid new demands on a further education system which was already dealing with a large expansion of student numbers.

1.8 During the same period, the schools have been adapting themselves to far-reaching changes. There has been much new building and remodelling of schools, to accommodate a substantial increase in the school population. There has been a reorganisation, admittedly incomplete, of secondary education into a great diversity of forms. Teachers of the middle and upper age ranges have often had to take on new roles, for which the traditional kind of post-graduate training is not always a suitable preparation. The curricula and teaching methods in primary schools, already the subject of much innovation ten years ago, have continued to inspire experiment and new approaches. There has been a welcome, although still lamentably small, extension of nursery education. The work of the Schools Council, the Nuffield Foundation and other bodies has stimulated the study and reform of the curriculum and has helped to bring about changes in teaching methods. The importance of the principles and methods of educational technology have been more widely understood. The schools are now, of course, making plans for the imminent raising of the school leaving age. AlI these changes have been accomplished under the handicap of a persistent shortage of teachers which only now may be coming to an end.

Plan of the report

1.9 Following this chapter are three chapters discussing the education and training of teachers. That education and training is described as falling into three cycles: the first, personal education; the second, pre-service training and induction; the third, in-service education and training. The unfamiliar term 'cycles' has been deliberately chosen for these stages, in order to emphasise that this is a new concept, not to be confused with the 'parts' of some existing courses of study (for example, for certain degrees). There is then a chapter describing the organisation and development of the the new system that is proposed and a concluding chapter which gives a descriptive summary of the report as a whole. The discussion of the three cycles is not given in chronological order, as might be expected, but is deliberately presented in reverse order, partly for the sake of clarity in the development of the argument and partly to emphasise the importance of the third cycle in its own right. A large expansion of third cycle provision to give every teacher an entitlement to regular in-service education and training, is an essential precondition of a more realistic and rational

[page 4]

approach to initial training in the second cycle. A reorganisation of the pre-service training of students has, in turn, implications for the higher education which precedes it. In any case, it is well to concentrate first on the needs and aspirations of the teachers now working in the schools and colleges, who for too long have suffered from inadequate opportunities to improve their knowledge and professional skill. Most important of all, it is in the third cycle that the education and training of teachers can be, and should be, at its best. It is here that both the quality of our education and the standards of the profession can be most speedily, powerfully and economically improved. It is here, therefore, in the third cycle, that the development of our argument must begin, in the chapter immediately following this one.

[page 5]


2.1 Much of the argument of this report depends upon the proposals made for the third cycle. To none of our recommendations do we attach greater importance than to these, for they determine a great deal of the thinking which underlies the report as a whole. Any proposals to improve the methods by which a profession acquires new members must take a long time to become fully effective. Meanwhile, established members of the profession need opportunities to improve their professional status and standards. Many teachers at present are outstandingly effective and successful, have a clear understanding of their professional aims, and enjoy a high degree of satisfaction in their work. Others are less fortunate. It is no accident that teachers in the former category tend to be those who have had the benefit of in-service opportunities to extend their personal education and professional skills. It is all the more important, therefore, that every teacher should have access to such opportunities in the third cycle. The best education and training of teachers is that which is built upon and illuminated by growing maturity and experience. For this reason alone, the third cycle has prime importance.

2.2 The third cycle comprehends the whole range of activities by which teachers can extend their personal education, develop their professional competence and improve their understanding of educational principles and techniques. The term thus covers a wide spectrum, at one end of which are evening meetings and discussions, weekend conferences and other short-term activities, with limited and specific objectives and taking place usually, but not always, in the teachers' own time. At the other end are long courses leading to higher degrees or advanced qualifications, and requiring the release of teachers for full-time attendance at suitable establishments. At this end of the spectrum, too, may be periods of release to take part in curriculum development and evaluation, or in other projects and investigations. For some teachers, there may be periods of secondment to fields outside teaching, so that they may widen their experience and thereby enrich their contribution to the schools. Between lies a wide variety of courses and other activities, of different lengths and patterns, serving many different purposes. These activities may be part-time or full-time, or may include periods of both. They may take place entirely during school hours and require the release of the teachers concerned, or be entirely in the teachers' own time, or they may involve a mixture of both. For this large and complex field, it is clear that 'in-service training', however convenient as shorthand, is a very misleading term.

2.3 A great weight of evidence submitted to this Committee, orally and in writing, suggests that a much expanded and properly co-ordinated programme of in-service education and training is essential to the future strength and development of the teaching profession. We have been very much impressed by the unanimity with which a large expansion of in-service training has been urged by the associations representing not only the teachers who would

[page 6]

directly benefit, but also the many different agencies who would have to provide the courses, and the local education authorities who, in large measure, would have to foot the bill. The arguments in favour of such an expansion are very strong. It is self-evident that pre-service education and training, together with the probationary year, can be no more than a foundation. In that initial period it is impossible to foresee, let alone to provide for, all the demands that may fall on the teaching profession in future, or on individual members of it during their careers.

2.4 There has, of course, already been a considerable expansion of in-service activities. Institutes of education, colleges, universities, polytechnics and other institutions of higher education have offered courses of further academic and professional education and have contributed directly or indirectly to short courses and activities. LEAs employ professional and advisory staff, promote the majority of short courses and provide facilities, including teachers' centres. They also maintain the majority of colleges of education, finance them collectively and pay or assist with the fees of students and teachers attending approved courses at independent institutions. The DES through HM Inspectors organises courses, largely designed to deal with issues which justify national emphasis, and in association with Institutes of education provides substantial part-time courses under arrangements recently introduced. All these parties are empowered to provide courses and facilities. Teachers, individually and through their associations, have often taken the initiative. So, too, has the Schools Council. Welcome though all this activity has been, it is widely believed that provision is still insufficient to cover more than a small part of the total need.

2.5 Weaknesses in the present arrangements are that facilities, inadequate in themselves, are not always well co-ordinated, so that even within a limited programme there may still be some wasteful duplication of effort; that existing courses are not clearly related to defined stages in an individual career or to the initial training which preceded it; and that responsibilities are often not clearly prescribed or understood. The inadequacy of present arrangements cannot be denied. Teachers, whose profession is so demanding not only of personal qualities but also of knowledge and skill, must have access during their careers to a series of opportunities for in-service education and training. To be effective, a pattern of opportunities would have to bring into a working relationship individuals, schools, LEAs, the DES and the institutions providing higher education and professional training. Later in this chapter there is an attempt to describe such a pattern, but first it may be helpful to identify more clearly some of the needs which it would be designed to meet.

The needs of the third cycle

2.6 In Chapter 3 it is proposed that what has hitherto been known as the probationary year should be included, as a largely school-based element, in the initial course to be followed in the second cycle. By the end of that cycle new entrants to the profession should have acquired a measure of confidence and skill to bring to their first assignments, which their early experience of teaching will confirm and develop. In building on the foundation laid by their initial training, teachers will acquire a clearer understanding

[page 7]

of their own needs and problems. Later in their careers, fresh needs will arise and there will be new challenges. It is impossible to catalogue the diversity of needs that may arise. AlI that can be done is to illustrate, by a series of examples, how some of these needs may be identified.

2.7 All teachers ought to have opportunities to extend and deepen their knowledge of teaching methods and of educational theory. When special studies of teaching methods have identified improved techniques it is important that the results should be widely communicated to teachers in the schools. All teachers should have the opportunity to acquire a better understanding of the principles and methods of educational technology, especially if this was not imparted to them in initial training. All teachers need to keep abreast of the results of educational research and experiment, and to be informed about the use of new books, materials and equipment. Teachers in the primary schools - and those in secondary schools who are faced with illiteracy or semi-illiteracy in their pupils - will need to continue to improve their understanding and competence in the language arts, i.e. language development and the teaching of reading and writing. Although this deeper understanding, however much emphasised in initial training, cannot be fully acquired without prolonged experience, suitable in-service training, rooted in the experience teachers have already had, can be a powerful aid.

2.8 All subject specialists will need to refresh and extend their knowledge of their special interests, and general teachers to widen their command of the content of what they teach. The single-subject graduate will find gaps in his background knowledge of some parts of his subject, and he may be called upon to teach one or more subsidiary subjects in which he may understandably be less confident. There are many other ways in which teachers may wish - or need - to acquire new subject specialisms. Changes in curriculum may make new demands which teachers have to be equipped to meet. Particular examples of this are the introduction of modern mathematics, the development of science and French in primary schools and, in Wales, the growth of Welsh both as a subject of study and as a medium of instruction. Sometimes it may be a teacher's own choice to make a change. For example, a teacher of physical education may wish to develop a subsidiary subject or to reinforce a second subject which he is already teaching. There will be countless other examples of teachers who acquire new interests which they would like to develop as additional teaching skills.

2.9 Sometimes the acquisition of new subjects and skills may be dictated not so much by the inclinations of the teachers as by the needs of the schools. From time to time, shortages occur in particular subjects, such as science, mathematics, physical education for girls and religious education. It may well be that shortages of this kind will persist or recur in the future, so that some teachers will be asked to teach subjects for which their education and initial training has not prepared them. There are a number of other changes and adjustments that teachers may need to make. In recent years, for example, the teaching of young children has failed to attract - or, at least, to retain - enough new entrants, but fortunately there are many women and a few men who are drawn to this kind of work after

[page 8]

experience with other age groups. There will be other teachers, of course, who move from primary to secondary work. Teachers need further training if they are to make changes of these kinds, especially if in future (as is suggested in Chapter 3) the objectives of the initial course are limited by making the training more specialised and functional.

2.10 There are other skills which it would not be desirable to include in initial training because they are better developed on the basis of some experience of teaching: examples are librarianship, careers advice and counselling. Some teachers turn to the teaching of children who suffer from some form of handicap. Teachers of some kinds of handicapped children are required to possess special qualifications, for which in-service facilities are needed. For others, this is not the case. It is suggested in Chapter 3 that a few colleges should provide in the second cycle training in the education of handicapped children, for those students with an early vocation to this kind of work. But some teachers will discover this vocation after they have started teaching, and will need access to the right kinds of training. There are also the special demands of teaching in multiracial schools. An understanding of the multicultural nature of society should feature in any general education but it would be difficult to give all intending teachers practical experience in multiracial schools, and it would be unrealistic to include in all initial training a study of the teaching problems involved, since many teachers would not encounter them at the outset of their careers. It would be sensible for suitably placed training institutions, and other professional centres of the kind described below, to include specific preparation for this kind of work in the second year of the second cycle, and for third cycle provision of appropriate courses to be given a high priority in areas where it is required. In the third cycle, too, there should be opportunities for immigrant teachers to equip themselves to teach in British schools,

2.11 Without moving from their schools, teachers may have to adapt themselves to important changes. New teaching methods, the introduction of new elements into the curriculum, movements of population or other local factors may change the character of schools and the nature of their work, Developments in local and national policies may have radical effects upon the way of life within particular schools. Examples of this are the preparations for the raising of the school leaving age, the introduction of first and middle schools and the reorganisation of secondary schools. Changes of this kind create problems of adjustment which in-service training facilities can do much to ease, but they are perhaps problems (although on a larger scale) of the same type as those which the individual teacher may encounter when he moves from one school to another. He, too, may have problems of adjustment - to new styles of organisation, different methods of teaching, different kinds of children. The help he needs in his induction into a new post, modest though it may be in terms of resources expended, is also an example of third cycle activity.

2.12 More substantial problems are involved in the induction into the profession of re-entrants, perhaps after an absence of several years. Re-entrants of this kind should have a high claim on in-service training facilities - preferably before, or very soon after, their return to teaching. The largest

[page 9]

group of re-entrants consists of married women, whose absence to have children of their own has left them out of practice and out of touch with developments in curriculum and method. A period of part-time teaching can do a great deal to help such teachers and part-time retraining, side by side with part-time experience, can be at least as valuable as, and often more convenient than, full-time secondment to training courses.

2.13 The introduction of compulsory training for graduates means that in future all new teachers in the maintained schools will have received initial training. But there will still be a number of graduate teachers - and, in further education, non-graduates - who have not had professional training and may now wish to repair the omission. In so far as any training they receive will be 'initial' it could be held to be part of the second cycle, but its timing will place it in the third. For a number of years, teachers in this category may represent a large element in the demand for third cycle facilities.

2.14 Much the same is true not only of the many existing FE teachers, graduates and non-graduates, who have had no professional training but also of the many new entrants who lack formal professional qualifications. Any courses given to teachers in either category would be 'initial' training and thus, strictly, a second cycle activity, but it would be training given to teachers after appointment and, in some cases, after considerable teaching experience, The timing of the training, the nature of the courses and the arrangements made for mounting them and for releasing teachers to attend them, make it more convenient to consider such training as part of the third cycle. Pre-service training for FE is discussed in Chapter 3.

2.15 Many teachers in schools and colleges will gain promotion as heads of departments, deputy heads, deputy principals, heads or principals and it is right - for them and for the institutions in which they work - that they should be given adequate and systematic preparation for the larger responsibilities they have to assume. In their new posts they will have to lead staffs whose combined knowledge and experience is far wider than their own, and will have to co-ordinate and direct the talents of these teachers to the best advantage of the schools. They will need to develop a clear idea of the aims and functions of their schools or departments and to assess the present and potential contribution of those serving under them. For this role - managerial as well as professional - the right kind of training is of great importance. Moreover, the teaching profession is rightly regarded as a recruiting base for other related occupations: for example, educational psychology, educational administration, LEA advisory services, HM Inspectorate and the professional training of teachers. Teachers with ambitions in these directions will look for opportunities to prepare themselves and it should be possible within the third cycle to meet at least some of their needs. The several years' operation of the FE Staff College provides some experience on which further developments could be based.

2.16 Many witnesses have urged the importance of wider opportunities for research, not only for the staff of colleges of education but also for practising teachers. A great deal of educational research must make use of direct observations of school situations and the experience of practising teachers,

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but the conduct of research - especially of fundamental research - requires special skills and techniques and a degree of detachment not easily reconciled with the day to day demands of a teacher's work. The term is generally used, however, in a much wider sense, to include, for example, the studies in depth which experienced teachers may wish to make into particular aspects of the nature and development of children and the techniques of teaching and learning, or special studies, linked with social and community work, of the personal problems of individual children. The term also includes investigations and development projects, not least the projects sponsored by the Schools Council, in which many teachers have already been involved, The staff of colleges and schools should have the fullest opportunity to initiate or take part in such activities and the staff of colleges of education (as well as of UDEs) should have opportunities to undertake suitable 'pure' research projects. Research workers who come into the schools to pursue their studies should collaborate fully with the teachers concerned and the teachers who are involved in this way should be those who are interested in, and in sympathy with, the objects of the research. Teachers who particularly wish to take part in this kind of activity should have in-service opportunities to familiarise themselves with research techniques. 'Research' in its widest sense includes the evaluation which all schools should regularly make of their own activities, to keep under continuing review both their objectives and the results they are achieving.

2.17 Included in the third cycle must be opportunities to obtain degrees, higher degrees and advanced professional qualifications. During the next few years there will undoubtedly be heavy demands for in-service courses leading to degrees. Most non-graduate teachers will probably tend to choose BEd courses, even though the BEd in its present form may not always be as suitable and helpful as some other advanced professional qualifications. It is argued in Chapter 3 that, with the adoption of our proposals for the second cycle, there should no longer be a need for the present BEd degree as an initial qualification, but we would very much hope for its retention, and perhaps wider application, as an in-service award. There is little validity in the present distinction between Supplementary courses (designed for teachers with only two years' initial training), Advanced courses (leading to advanced professional qualifications) and BEd courses for serving teachers. The demand for Supplementary courses is of course diminishing rapidly. If Advanced courses are rigorous and substantial, and no less demanding than BEd courses, as many are, the status of the award should not be any lower. Courses of equal rigour and relevance should attract the same award, irrespective of the formal qualifications possessed by candidates at the beginning. We would very much hope that all degree-granting bodies would consider the award of the BEd degree for continuous and substantial work of high quality, lasting one year full-time or its part-time equivalent. Such an award might replace many of the existing advanced diplomas. It is hoped that awarding bodies will not think it necessary to restrict such courses to teachers with specified qualifications or length of service, and that employers, too, will make no such stipulations. The courses should be related to the needs and experience of practising teachers, and entry to them should be based solely on the suitability of the candidates and the availability of places.

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In courses leading to further professional qualifications, it would seem unnecessary to insist upon the inclusion of an academic subject. Successful candidates would receive a BEd degree, which for those who already held degrees would be a second 'first degree'. It is hoped that degree-granting bodies would give sympathetic consideration to existing holders of those advanced qualifications which were being subsumed in the new award. There will be a continuing need for a higher degrees in education, including research degrees.

2.18 In Chapter 3 it is suggested that some teachers of high quality, having been awarded the proposed professional degree of BA(Ed) after successful completion of the second cycle, should have the option of returning to one of a few selected training institutions for a further year, to take a course leading to the award of an MA(Ed). This further year might be immediately after the second, largely school-based, year of the second cycle or might follow one or more years of additional teaching experience. In either form it would clearly be an in-service qualification.

2.19 Even this brief discussion of third cycle needs points to the wide variety of courses required, but the best way of meeting some of the requirements is not necessarily by providing formal courses. For a careers teacher, for example, a full-time or part-time course might be supplemented, or replaced, by an organised period of work in the personnel departments of local industries and commerce. For a teacher of science or engineering, whether in a school or in FE, a period of full-time secondment to industry might be a worthwhile alternative to a formal course and an effective means of bringing himself up to date with new techniques and practices. A language teacher might benefit most at some stage in his career by residence abroad, a teacher of music or art by activities in his own line, not necessarily related directly to teaching, and a subject specialist by a term in a university, college of education or FE institution in which he could work in a different environment If experienced teachers could sometimes spend a term in a UDE or college of education, running courses in which they communicated their experience to young teachers, the benefits to all could be very great.

2.20 Any scheme for the third cycle should be flexible, as well as being as systematic and comprehensive as possible. The application of such a scheme would depend on the development, very largely from existing resources, of a network of new agencies, on the use of facilities for further and adult education and on access to adequate advisory services. It would also have implications for existing institutions and organisations, not least for the schools. The next section discusses these questions.

Institutional requirements and implications

Implications for the schools

2.21 in-service training should begin in the schools. It is here that learning and teaching take place, curricula and techniques are developed and needs and deficiencies revealed. Every school should regard the continued training of its teachers as an essential part of its task, for which all members of staff share responsibility. An active school is constantly reviewing and reassessing its effectiveness, and is ready to consider new methods, new forms of organisation and new ways of dealing with the problems that arise. It will set aside time to explore these questions, as far as it can within its own resources, by

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arranging for discussion, study, seminars with visiting tutors and visits to other institutions. It will also give time and attention to the introduction of new members of staff, not only those in their first year of teaching but all those who are new to the school. Heads of schools, heads of departments and other senior teachers should be especially concerned to assess the needs both of their schools and of teachers on their staff and to encourage teachers to take the opportunities offered outside the school for in-service education and training, whether these involve part-time day release, attendance at full-time courses or participation in vacation, weekend or evening activities.

2.22 It would be unrealistic to expect hard-pressed schools to take on additional responsibilities without an increase in teaching staff. Nevertheless, this degree of involvement in the purposes and practices of the third cycle is a responsibility which the schools will not wish to evade. It is fortunate, therefore, that there is now a prospect of a steady increase in the supply of teachers. A high priority should be given to improving staffing ratios so that schools are able to play their full part in the third cycle and thus help to raise the status and standards of the teaching profession as a whole. As soon as better staffing and the expansion of full-time courses allow, all teachers should be entitled to release with pay for a minimum of one school term or the equivalent (a period of, say, 12 weeks) in a specified number of years. The immediate aim should be to secure teachers' entitlement to a minimum of one term or the equivalent in every seven years, but this should be regarded as only an interim target. As soon as possible, the level of entitlement should be raised to one term in five years. It would be undesirable, at least initially, to make in-service education and training compulsory. It would also be undesirable to offer direct financial incentives to take training courses, except insofar as these courses led to qualifications recognised by the Burnham Committee as justifying salary additions. It is to be hoped that teachers would soon come to regard continued education and training as a normal and welcome feature of their professional careers. Meanwhile, an entitlement to in-service training on the scale suggested should be included in every teacher's contract of service.

2.23 The secondment of all teachers for one term in seven years, if evenly spread, would nominally represent the release of 5 per cent of the teaching staff at anyone time. The reality, however, would be very different, since the teaching force always includes a substantial number of teachers who will not remain in service long enough to be concerned with opportunities for further training and many teachers approaching the end of their careers may not choose to take training courses. Although all teachers should be strongly encouraged to take up their entitlement, there is no doubt that if the training were voluntary some teachers would choose not to do so. In practice, it is unlikely that the number of teachers released at anyone time would exceed about 3 per cent of the teaching force. Nevertheless, this would amount to a formidable burden and would create problems of organisation, particularly for small primary schools, and for specialist subjects. In some cases the employment of more part-time teachers, or the temporary full-time employment of existing part-time teachers (often acceptable to married women) might ease the problems. In others it might be necessary to increase the number and types of permanent relief staff or to make inter-school arrangements. Whatever the difficulties, they should be faced. The substantial improvement

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in staffing ratios now in prospect should help a great deal but, whatever improvements were made, a systematic programme for the third cycle, on the lines suggested here, would undoubtedly require the rearrangement of timetables and the redistribution of responsibilities, in ways that would often be difficult and inconvenient.

2.24 There is no general agreement on the most appropriate length for full-time courses in the third cycle. Nor can there be, in view of the widely differing needs to be covered. At present such courses normally last either one term or one year, although there have been experiments involving six-weeks or half-term courses with a number of schools releasing staff on a Box and Cox arrangement. Precise patterns should not be prescribed but it is important to emphasise that a teacher's entitlement to in-service training should be satisfied only by release for substantial courses, each of which should last at least four weeks full-time, or the equivalent in a coherent and continuous part-time course. Courses acceptable for this purpose would be those designated by the new regional bodies proposed in Chapter 5. Any evening, weekend or vacation courses or other short-term activities which might, or might not, involve release from school should be in addition to the basic entitlement. Many teachers already give up their own time to attend courses designed to improve their professional competence. There is no doubt that they would continue to be willing to do so. The development of longer and full-time courses should not be bought at the expense of those valuable short-term activities, which should themselves be expanded considerably. Indeed, it might be necessary to devote to them alone resources equivalent to the total now expended on third cycle courses of all kinds.

2.25 Every school should have on its staff a 'professional tutor' to co-ordinate second and third cycle work affecting the school and to be the link between the school and other agencies engaged in that work. Whether the professional tutor were the head or deputy head, as might be the case in a small school, or a designated member of the staff in a larger school, it would be important for all teachers designated as professional tutors to be among the first to be admitted to third cycle courses, so that they could be trained for their new tasks. Among the responsibilities of the professional tutor would be that of compiling and maintaining a training programme for the staff of the school, which would take account both of the curricular needs of the school and of the professional needs of the teachers.

Implications for FE colleges

2.26 In the same way, each FE college should have a suitably qualified member of staff designated as its professional tutor, with similar responsibilities for drawing up a training programme for its staff, All FE teachers in full-time service should have the right to third cycle facilities on a scale not less than that suggested above for teachers in primary and secondary schools, and the many part-time specialist teachers who work in FE should have opportunities to take suitable part-time courses of education and training.

2.27 Very many teachers for FE are recruited from other occupations and bring their accumulated experience of industry, commerce and the public service to their work in further education. In most cases, it would be

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unreasonable to expect them to undertake full-time courses of pre-service training, on students' grants in place of the salary they have been receiving hitherto. Instead, they should have opportunities to take professional training after their entry into service and, as soon as possible, they should be formally required to do so. The practical problems of immediately introducing compulsory training for all new entrants to FE teaching would be formidable, and its scope and application must initially be limited. As a first step, only entrants proposing to teach mainly the 16-19 year old age groups should be obliged to train and the amount of training might have to be quite restricted. They might be required to take, during the first two years of service, training courses amounting to not less than three months full-time or the equivalent, and wherever possible such courses should include an induction period of not less than three or four weeks full time. As more training resources were made available, the requirement for these teachers could be gradually extended to the equivalent of a second cycle course (i.e. a year based on a training institution, followed by a year of practical experience with regular release for further training) during the first five years of service.

2.28 For staff recruited to other teaching in FE there should again be the opportunity, and eventually the requirement, to take training courses during the first two years of service, amounting to not less than three months full-time or the equivalent and, once again, the training should include a short course of full-time induction. The introduction of compulsory training, even in the gradual way suggested here, would bring into even greater prominence the need to offer in-service opportunities to existing teachers in FE establishments of all kinds.

Professional Centres

2.29 The provision and management of a programme of third cycle activities on the scale proposed here, together with the training to be given to 'licensed teachers' in the second, largely school-based, year of the second cycle, as described in Chapter 3, would depend upon the existence of a country-wide network of centres, for which the title 'professional centres' is suggested. Existing professional institutions (colleges and departments of education) would normally include the functions of professional centres among their other functions, that is, in addition to their responsibilities for the first year of the second cycle and for first cycle work, but there would also need to be other centres as described below. The existing professional institutions, in assuming the functions of professional centres, would be even more widely involved than at present in a range of in-service work. They would be the main providers of full-time substantial courses, including those leading to recognised professional awards. They would become centres for expertise in learning and teaching and for curriculum development, would act as channels for interpreting the results of educational research and, in some cases, would conduct research themselves. They would make use of the part-time services of experienced teachers and LEA advisers. Their close contact with serving teachers in the schools, and especially with licensed teachers, would be of great benefit in helping them to evaluate and modify their own training procedures.

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2.30 For the proper development of tile third cycle, and to ensure that licensed teachers in the second year of their second cycle training were given the help they needed, it would be essential for all schools and FE colleges to have easy access to at least one professional centre. For this reason, there should be, in addition to the centres in existing professional institutions, other more widely dispersed centres. These would be maintained by LEAs, and in many cases developed from existing teachers' centres or placed in schools or FE colleges. The various forms of in-service training for FE teachers would make it particularly important to establish professional centres in polytechnics and other selected FE establishments, as well as in the present college of education (technical), but these centres should also be open to teachers from the schools. The institutions in question would often be able to run educational, as distinct from professional, courses which teachers from the schools would choose to follow as part of their third cycle activity. Even more important, there would be opportunities to offer professional courses which were suitable both for some FE teachers and some teachers from secondary schools: courses of this kind would not only encourage a welcome exchange of experience but would also be relevant to new and developing patterns of education for adolescents.

2.31 The number, distribution and size of professional centres (other than those based on professional institutions) would depend on local circumstances. Although there can be no hard and fast rules it is important that each centre should serve a sufficient number of teaching staff in schools and FE colleges to be economically and professionally viable, without becoming so large that teachers in the institutions with which it was associated could not develop a sense of personal engagement in its work. The extent of a local professional centre's responsibilities must obviously determine its need for accommodation. It should have its own basic premises and equipment and would need to have access to a workshop, tutorial rooms and common rooms as well as to books, materials and equipment. For many purposes, however, it could share supplementary and specialist resources with other professional centres or with other institutions, and make use of facilities, such as laboratories and gymnasia, in schools with which it was associated. Only rarely, at least during the early years, should it be necessary to envisage establishing new purpose-built professional centres.

2.32 All professional centres would have a general training role in relation to the schools with which they were linked. While it would plainly be very important that they should be consistent in achieving high standards, professional centres would vary in their emphases and specialisms. The regional organisations would recognise and approve professional centres for specific purposes, and it would be an important part of their co-ordinating and rationalising function to do so. All professional centres, wherever based, would need approval for general purposes but the length of their list of 'special approvals' would depend upon their size, their areas of excellence and the resources at their disposal. In a densely populated area in which there were several centres it would be sensible to encourage some centres to specialise in particular subjects, in addition to their general role, while other centres specialised in others. Rationalisation could go further than this: it would be open to the proposed regional agencies and their co-ordinating

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national body to designate regional, multi-regional or national centres for particular purposes. For example, a large institution with exceptional resources in science and languages might serve the immediate area for general purposes but be designated as a centre for science and languages for the region or a group of regions, and as a language centre for the whole country. Lists of all approved professional centres, and the purposes for which each was recognised, would be published and kept up to date by the regional bodies.

2.33 To obtain recognition, professional centres would have to achieve standards laid down by the regional bodies, in terms of staffing, facilities and other resources. Unless a centre satisfied the professional criteria defined by its regional body, it would not be able to function as a professional centre. Local professional centres would have close links with professional institutions accessible to them and would look to them for support and access to library and other facilities. They would have management committees, representative of the teachers in the schools and FE establishments in their locality, as well as of any training institutions with which they were associated, their providing LEAs and their regional bodies. Each would have a full-time warden, of at least senior lecturer status, who would be selected by the centre's management committee, approved by the regional body, and paid by the LEA. He would have an independent role and his chief responsibility would be to draw on all available sources to meet the training requirements of the teachers served by his centre. He would be supported by some full-time staff and by a panel of part-time tutors, drawn from experienced teachers in schools and FE colleges as well as from college and university lecturers and LEA advisers. The supporting staff would also be approved by the regional body. The warden should himself have time for study, reflection and 'training' for his task. There should be opportunities, for him and his full-time colleagues, to spend some time teaching in schools nearby. Teachers in the schools, in return, should be enabled to contribute to the work of the professional centre.

2.34 Professional centres, whether based on professional institutions or elsewhere, would become a forum for the exchange of ideas, information and experience, between new and experienced teachers, teacher trainers and LEA advisers. They would cover most of the day to day training requirements of the schools they served, and many of them would house, or arrange, more substantial courses. The third cycle courses and other activities run by these centres would be mainly for home-based students. It should be possible to cater for most of the needs by providing locally-based courses, although for some purposes (for example, courses for teachers living in thinly populated areas and special courses at regional or national centres) residential facilities would be required. They would not, however, be needed on a large scale and the prospective reduction in the number of initial training places required should make it possible to provide them without undue difficulty.

Other resources and facilities

2.35. The system outlined here would work in conjunction with other resources and facilities. Access to resource centres and library services, for example, would be important and the value of these services to practising

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teachers would be enhanced if there were established links between them and the centres to which teachers went for third cycle activities. The important place of LEA advisers in the new system has already been mentioned. They are in close touch with schools, will be aware of their day to day problems and able to assess needs as they arise and to make or suggest immediate arrangements to meet them. The extent to which LEAs are able to employ advisers is bound to vary, but after the forthcoming reorganisation of local government all LEAs should be able to employ a sufficient number of advisory staff. Advisers should work closely with professional centres of all kinds and should be able to enlist their help and advice, as well as themselves offering part-time help as tutors, examiners or members of committees.

2.36 The services of specialists from university and polytechnic subject departments would be enlisted in the provision of courses of subject refreshment for specialist teachers in schools and FE establishments. The Open University could also be a powerful influence in the third cycle, by developing specialist materials and in-service courses, e.g. in the teaching of reading. The programme of third cycle opportunities would not be confined to courses and activities specifically designed for teachers, but would include courses offered by FE establishments of all kinds, university extramural departments and other adult education bodies, as well as the Open University's degree courses.

Administration and finance

2.37 The administration and financing of third cycle facilities on the scale suggested here would need to be well planned and co-ordinated. There would have to be effective means of identifying requirements, assessing priorities and devising programmes of the various activities, within the available resources. For this, and for the purposes arising from the other proposals in this report, there would be a continuing need for a structure of regional organisations developed from, and replacing, the existing ATO system. The constitution and powers of these new bodies, and suggested arrangements for administration and the allocation of resources (for the third cycle, as for the other activities of the system) are discussed in Chapter 5.


2.38 To implement the proposals made here for the third cycle would be a major new departure, of profound importance to the future of education in this country. It would involve bringing into partnership diverse agencies - schools, universities, polytechnics, colleges of education, advisory services, teachers' centres, resource centres and further education institutions. The establishment of such a planned partnership would be more productive of quality and probably more cost effective than any other measure proposed in this report or in the evidence submitted to the Inquiry. Of all our recommendations, this deserves the highest priority.

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3.1 The recommendations which, in this chapter, we make for the pre-service training and induction of teachers (distinguished from the higher education of the potential teacher which precedes it and the in-service education which it inaugurates) are based upon three propositions. The first is that the needs of our society and the implicit standards of a key profession require that no young man or woman should be accepted for training as a teacher until a full course of higher education, of one of the varieties outlined in Chapter 4, has been completed. The second is that, whatever methods of educating and training teachers may be developed in future, the time has come to abandon the formal distinctions between the two main existing types: that is, three years of concurrent training for non-graduates and one year of consecutive training for graduates. These present distinctions, although increasingly blurred during the last decade by the development of degree work within the colleges and of concurrent courses in some universities, run sharply through the whole profession (in its career and salary patterns, for example) and are obsolete. The third proposition (elaborated in Chapter 2) is that no teacher can in a relatively short, or even in an unrealistically long, period at the beginning of his career, be equipped for all the responsibilities he is going to face. This familiar truth has been given a disturbingly sharper edge in a world of rapidly developing social and cultural change.

Present objectives and problems of teacher training

3.2 These three propositions underlie all our recommendations and can best be illustrated by reference to the evidence produced for this Inquiry. In much of this evidence, the present concurrent pattern of training in the colleges has been the subject of strongly expressed and divergent views: it has been both vigorously attacked and stoutly defended. Objective study of the facts leads inescapably to the conclusion that while there are great virtues in the present pattern, there are also a number of serious weaknesses. Study of the evidence and observation of the situation in the colleges make it clear that most of these weaknesses are symptoms of structural inadequacies in the present system rather than of incompetence in its administration or operation. That system in its present form, as has already been affirmed, is linked to a dual pattern of teacher training. The concurrent form of training within the colleges of education suffers from a conflict and confusion of objectives. The colleges are required at one and the same time to extend for three years the personal education of the student and to train him as a teacher. Exegesis may soften this distinction - for example, by emphasising the role of 'Education' itself in the enrichment of the intellectual life of the student, or by relating the main subject to the problems of teaching it to pupils in the secondary schools. Discussion with college of education lecturers, and even more with students, suggests that such exegesis sometimes glides into special pleading. Nobody would propose that personal education and professional training are logically incompatible, but under the present

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arrangements their simultaneous coexistence as valid objectives for the whole of the three year course must be seriously questioned. The problem is illustrated by the diffuse role which tutors in colleges are expected to fulfil. Lecturers appointed for their qualifications, ability and teaching skill in an academic discipline may, for example, have to take responsibility for the professional preparation of teachers of young children.

3.3 Because the objectives of the present system are too broad, it is difficult for colleges to rationalise their resources. This is not to say that planning is entirely lacking: the DES has, for example, required the colleges to observe a 'balance of training' and therefore to concentrate upon the training of teachers for primary rather than secondary schools, as well as to make special efforts to increase the training of secondary school teachers of certain shortage subjects. But rationalisation has stopped there. Colleges, concerned with providing a wide range of options and with attracting to themselves same of the best sixth formers, have often spread their resources too thinly over the ground. Many colleges are therefore providing an unrealistic range of subjects and courses, without being able to commit to them adequate resources. Many colleges, in short, are trying to do too many things and the opportunities for developing particular excellences are not sufficiently exploited. Where efforts are made to invest staff time in uneconomic courses, other necessary commitments have to be sacrificed. In colleges with large numbers of main subject offerings and small groups of students, the Education department is often so overloaded as to make a mockery of its own principles. A series of main subject or BEd groups of three or four is sometimes bought at the expense of overcrowded Education lectures. It is no longer realistic to invite colleges to educate and train teachers without some more systematic definition of objectives.

3.4 The objectives of colleges are unhelpfully diffuse in yet another sense. In practice, although not of course in theory, colleges are required to produce fully finished teachers at the end of three years, or less. Existing opportunities for in-service education and training are, as has been argued in Chapter 2, inadequate. In fact, colleges are expected, by the schools and the public, to 'give' the young teacher in training all the skills he will need, in a succession of varied jobs. Such an expectation is unrealistic and colleges are often vocal in rejecting it. The perspectives of initial training can be correctly viewed only when it is known that for all teachers that training will include an effective induction into teaching and be followed by a continuing series of opportunities for in-service education and training.

3.5 The conflicts between education and training, the unrealistic width of subject and other offerings in many colleges and the poverty of in-service training conspire to impose severe limitations on the present effectiveness of initial training. At the same time, there is a proliferation of suggestions for the inclusion of new, or the restoration of old, elements in the programme of training. To this Inquiry, as of course to the colleges themselves, have been put persuasive arguments for the incorporation in that programme of such matters as library work, careers advice, personal counselling, work in deprived areas, the teaching of children with serious emotional disturbance, an understanding of our multicultural society, first aid ... In such a hubbub of competing priorities it may not be surprising, although it is

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certainly alarming, that such matters as the teaching of reading should sometimes appear to be neglected. The assertion that such essentially relevant and practical elements are not presented with sufficient clarity and emphasis is widespread. It may be concluded that, with things as they are, the colleges are asked to do too much, are left with no rational basis for discrimination and are often unable to give enough time to aspects of training which they and the profession recognise as central.

3.6 Much of what has been said about the problems of three-year training also applies to the present arrangements for the training of graduates. There is often the same proliferation of subject options. Many courses place too much emphasis on educational theory at the expense of adequate preparation for students' responsibilities in their first professional assignments. The knowledge that in-service opportunities are scanty leads to a similar overloading of initial programmes. Post-graduate training thus shares many of the frustrations of the three year course.

3.7 Such frustrations can be detected only too readily whenever teaching practice is discussed. Many students are vehement in asserting that teaching practice is one of the most valuable and one of the worst conducted parts of their training. The arrangements made for it are subject to severe strain, and in some areas, approach breakdown. Many teachers in schools remain in ignorance of the purpose of teaching practice and, even more important, of the contribution to it expected of them. Tutors, as the number of students has increased and their placements become more distant, have spent more time in travelling to and from schools and less in supervising students. They may find themselves trying to help students in a school situation with which they are themselves unfamiliar. The result is sometimes that students may receive little detailed professional guidance.

3.8 We have been impressed by the volume of comment stressing at once the importance and the inadequacy of teaching practice; precisely the same comment must be made on the probationary year. It is difficult to write in measured terms of the gap which here separates theory from practice. The theory is irreproachable. The young teacher, coming fresh from college or department of education, has been given some of the basic skills. He now needs practice under genial and expert supervision to develop those skills, to mature his style, to relate the theory he has mastered to the practice in which he is now involved. His college teachers maintain a lively interest in him. His wise seniors in his first school introduce him, by example and precept, to an understanding of professional attitudes and to an appreciation of what his particular school is, how it works, how decisions are taken, how parents are involved. The specialist adviser of the LEA helps him, introducing him to other young people working in similar fields, involving him in a programme of further training and consolidation. An enlightened headmaster ensures that both the weight and the character of the timetable given to the young teacher reflect the special conditions of his first year of salaried employment.

3.9 Such an account would probably surprise most of the probationary teachers who might read it. No doubt, practices vary and some LEAs, schools and colleges are more conscientious and successful than others.

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Nevertheless, the characterisation which follows will be recognised by many as uncomfortably near the truth. The probationary teacher, in fact, leaves his college on the last day of term and never hears of or from it again. Nor does the school to which he goes communicate with the college, even if difficulties arise. He is pleasantly received at his school (as would be any newly appointed member of staff, whether or not in a first appointment) and introduced, formally or informally, to the ways of the place. No one suggests to him that he is in a special situation, or entitled to unusual help. He may be invited by the LEA to attend a tea party but will probably not go and, if he does, that will be his last meeting with its officers or advisers. He teaches a full timetable including one or two of the notoriously difficult groups of pupils. No one goes near him in the mistaken belief that to do so would be to interfere with his professional integrity. At the end of the year he receives a note informing him that the probationary year has been satisfactorily completed, and he is now a fully qualified teacher. This gap between theory and practice reflects an equally alarming gap between the interpretation of the probationary year by colleges and departments on the one hand and schools on the other. Colleges rightly insist that a profession should accept a major responsibility in incorporating its own members and, in any case, they cannot themselves do everything, and cannot produce a standard and universally valid form of training which will enable everyone to do everything everywhere. The schools rightly insist that 'the system' does in fact presuppose that a new teacher is fully trained, and they are given neither resources nor encouragement to become effective partners in the training.

3.10 Nothing has impressed, or depressed, us more than the gross inadequacy of the present arrangements for the probationary year. This inadequacy has hampered even the most enlightened of current procedures and has sometimes left unchecked practices which are so much less enlightened as to imply incompetence and irresponsibility. To assume that any of the large scale changes that are needed can be produced merely by exhortation is to misunderstand completely the nature of the problems with which we have been concerned. What is true of the probationary year is true, as has been argued throughout this chapter, of pre-service training as a whole. The faults are faults of structure, and only changes in that structure could permit us to hope for genuine reform. The division between graduate and non-graduate training, the confusion between education and training, the diffusion of educational effort within the colleges, the inevitable incompleteness of initial training by itself, the multiplication of desirable objectives and the relative neglect of necessary ones, the frustrations of teaching practice and of the probationary year: these collectively produce a problem to be solved by changes based on the principles outlined in this report.

Principles for the reform of pre-service training and induction

3.11 All our proposals depend for their force upon what is argued and recommended in Chapter 2. These paragraphs (3.11 - 3.23) assume an established pattern of continuing education and training of teachers, and take the twin objectives of initial training as being to equip the student to be

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as effective a teacher as possible in his first assignment and to provide him with a basis upon which his in-service training can be methodically built. Equally, of course, they assume that, as is proposed in Chapter 4, the student has in the formal sense 'completed' his initial higher education and is now sharply motivated towards teaching. The principles on which action should be based are outlined in paragraphs 3.12 - 3.23; some of the admittedly difficult implications of such action are then considered in the rest of the chapter.

3.12 Initial teacher training must be extended over at least two years of which the first would be spent in a college or university or polytechnic department of education, and the second 'in' (although that will prove to be too simple a preposition) a school or FE college. The closest analogies - although they will prove dangerously misleading - in the present situation are the post-graduate training year and the probationary year. Students in the second cycle would, as will be made clear in Chapter 4, come from a wide variety of educational backgrounds. Some would have followed one of the broad range of degree courses at a university, polytechnic or college of education. Of those, some would have included educational studies in their courses, and some not. Another very large group of students would enter the second cycle after completing their studies for the Diploma in Higher Education, a new qualification proposed in this report (see Chapter 4). Of those, many, but not all, would have chosen to include educational studies in their programmes of work.

First year of the second cycle

3.13 Just as students enter the second cycle from a wide variety of first cycle courses and institutions, so they will have widely different expectations in embarking upon professional training, will ultimately work in a diversity of schools and colleges, and will equip themselves through many varied courses in institutions of different types. It would be both impracticable and improper for us to attempt to prescribe the details of second cycle courses. Such decisions will rightly be the prerogative of the colleges and departments of education, whether acting separately or collectively. This report confines itself to a statement of the principles upon which a re-examination and redesign of training courses should be based.

3.14 The first year of the second cycle, whether followed in a college or a department of education, should be sharply focused and its objectives specified as precisely as possible. There are distinct and proper differences of content and style in the education to be provided at this stage for, to take but three examples, the married woman who, having decided to become a teacher, wishes to teach infants in an inner city school, the student who has just completed an honours degree in physics and wishes to teach that subject in a sixth form college and the man who, armed already with a Diploma in Higher Education, proposes to join a secondary school as a teacher of humanities. It may become possible to draw up, for the guidance of those planning courses, inventories of training which would be subject to continuous revision and would seek to identify those skills and that information which a teacher needs before he can effectively contribute to the teaching work of

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any school in his or her chosen field. In the first year of the second cycle the emphasis then should be unashamedly specialised and functional. We should abandon the pretence that it is possible to train, during the initial period, a 'teacher'. The aim, at this stage, should be to prepare a student to work within a defined area - an area that may, of course, be defined in a variety of ways, e.g. age of pupil, or subject. The first year of training of the modern languages teacher would, for example, include as a major element not only the techniques of language teaching but also some appreciation of the theoretical background against which those techniques must be understood and evaluated. The relevance of their training to the work they are going to do must be apparent to all students and in particular to mature students.

3.15 Unreasonable ambition in planning is the greatest enemy of effective initial training. There are many components of teacher training which should be firmly excluded from the second cycle, in the sense that no attempt should be made at this stage to equip students to practise all the skills they will need throughout their careers. Clear candidates for such exclusion would be counselling in all its varieties and careers work. Of course, as with librarianship, a general introduction to the principles of such work might well be included in initial courses. But the right way of producing the best counsellors and careers teachers is through in-service training, that is in the third cycle when the teacher has acquired the school experience and the personal maturity that are essential. Once a national policy for second and third cycle training has been defined and the balance of resources between them established, the essential conditions will exist for determining in general terms which of the teacher's roles are appropriate to each stage of his development.

3.16 The second cycle should concentrate on preparation for work appropriate to a teacher at the beginning of his career rather than on formal courses in 'educational theory'. To make such a statement is to invite the charge of philistinism, of undervaluing the intellectual content of educational studies, of depriving the young teacher of the conceptual framework within which he may integrate his learning and his experience. This is, it may well be objected, to court disaster by exposing the intellectually under-prepared teacher to a barrage of conflicting advice and practices. These objections have force, and must be met here since the assertion that second cycle training should be both specialised and functional is central to the position adopted in this report. The argument should be about balance and timing rather than about rigidly exclusive alternatives. It is not suggested that educational studies - that is, the history, philosophy, psychology and sociology of education - should be banished from the second cycle curriculum but only that their role should be seen as contributory to effective teaching. The study of these disciplines is of great value. Indeed, we urge in Chapter 4 that they should become more commonly integrated in undergraduate and other first cycle studies, and have already argued in Chapter 2 that they should be encouraged in the third cycle. It must be doubted, however, whether such studies, especially if presented through the medium of lectures to large groups of perplexed students are, in terms of priorities, a useful major element in initial training. A rudimentary introduction is all that can realistically be attempted at this stage,

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even if some part of that introduction has already been given in the first cycle. For most students, reflection is more likely to be illuminating after, not before, the experience of teaching and this is why it would be better in any case for the bulk of such studies to be deferred from the second to the third cycle. It is not their importance but their placing which needs to be challenged. The present system, unless and until it is fundamentally reformed, with the confusions inherent in concurrence and the inadequacy of in-service provision, inhibits any such deferment. The argument is, however, that the system needs to be changed.

3.17 Two main principles should govern the planning of work in the first year of the second cycle. The first, already illustrated, is that the purposes of initial training must be clearly understood, and that that understanding must be reflected in what is done by and for students. One implication of this is that there should be full consultation with entrants to second cycle training, to advise them on the most appropriate courses to follow in the first year. The second principle is that of continuity and balance, applied to first and second as to third cycles. The division into cycles has been made in the interests of clarity of presentation and ease of administration, but it is plain that the division cannot be rigid. If what a student is expected to achieve in the second must be defined with reference to what he will be encouraged to undertake in the third, then equally what is prescribed for him in the second must assume and complement what he has already undertaken in the first. The clearest example of the application of this principle lies in the field discussed above, that of educational studies. Students who had accomplished no such studies in the first cycle (for example, within the offerings of the Diploma in Higher Education or as part of a joint degree) must be required to spend proportionately more time on them in the second cycle than students who had already reflected and written upon such matters. For some students embarking on the second cycle without previous introduction to educational studies, special arrangements would have to be made to provide suitable additional courses or studies. A highly qualified subject specialist turning to primary school work may have much to give but only if that contribution is built on an understanding of how children learn and on the ability to establish rapport with them. These qualities can be properly developed only by working with children in school and for such students practical experience of this kind might comprise a substantial part of their second cycle course.

3.18 To assert that the emphasis in the second cycle should be upon specialisation is not to fall into the trap of subject-mindedness. Many students entering the second cycle would be more concerned, to use the well-worn phrase, with teaching children than with teaching subjects. Nor should this distinction itself be equated with one between teaching older and teaching younger children, and still less with one separating students with a university background from those with a college background. The educational system needs teachers of high ability not only to specialise in the teaching of mathematics or French to pupils of all or most ages but also to work with younger children or with the large numbers of children of secondary school age for whom a subject-centred approach may not be appropriate.

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3.19 In the first year of the second cycle practical experience should certainly be included. It is, however, hoped that the approach could be at once more precise and more flexible than at present. Practical experience during this year should be devised with three clearly defined objects. First, it should provide a basis for the illustration and reinforcement of theoretical studies. There are different ways of achieving this, of which a period of continuous teaching practice is not necessarily the most effective method or the best use of time. In some cases results at least as satisfactory could be achieved by activities within the college, such as the use of rnicroteaching techniques, work with small groups of school children brought into the college for the purpose, and the critical observation of films and video tape recordings. The second object of practical experience should be to familiarise the student with the teaching situation. This would require a continuous but not necessarily long period in a school. We would suggest that the minimum period should be four weeks but the length, and the balance between this and other types of practical experience, must vary according to the needs and intentions of individual students. Some students would, we very much hope, have been brought into contact with children in schools during their first cycle course but others would not. Despite the practical difficulties, students should be encouraged to spend, say, two or three weeks in a school immediately before the start of the second cycle. The third object of practical experience should be to satisfy regional bodies of students' suitability to undertake the next stage of training. Teaching competence should no longer be the subject of a graded assessment but should be assessed on a simple pass/fail basis.

Second year of the second cycle

3.20 At the end of that first year the student would take up an assignment in a school and begin to receive a salary. The emphasis during the year must lie upon further training to complete the initial phase. The new teacher would be, in most of the senses important to him, a 'full' member of staff. At the same time, the requirement would be laid upon the head of the school that he should have regard to the special position of the licensed teacher (see below, paragraph 3.33). The new teacher should have the support of an experienced colleague and not be expected to take full responsibility for all aspects of the role he will eventually assume. He should receive from the head and those colleagues explicitly designated by him advice and help not only on matters directly related to his job but also on a wide range of more general professional matters, such as relations with parents, teachers, HMI, LEA officers, governors and managers, standards of discretion and confidentiality, pastoral responsibilities and management patterns within the school. The kind of help to be given to the new teacher would depend upon a variety of local and special factors, such as the age range of pupils within the school, the social environment, the size of the school, the climate of relationships within it and the subject or specialist interest of the teacher. The same pattern cannot be right for a three-teacher school in a rural area and a large urban comprehensive school, but the principles underlying the definition and division of responsibilities should have universal validity.

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3.21 The second year of the second cycle would be an essential part of the initial training course and as such must demonstrably be very much more than merely an improved version of the probationary year. Moreover, it would not be enough simply to identify the second year of initial training as being school-based, and to insist that each school must take measures to give effect to such an identification. Chapter 2 has already described the strong supporting network of professional centres, including the existing professional institutions, which must be developed, to meet both the general needs of the third cycle and the specific needs of licensed teachers in the second. The new teachers with whom we are here concerned would be assigned to specific professional centres, released to them for at least one fifth of their working time, which does not necessarily mean one day a week, and look to them for the reinforcement of the on-the-job training already available in their schools. Although it would be an oversimplification to describe a year in the conditions here outlined as being an extension and deepening of what is now called 'teaching practice', it is because of this new approach to meeting the needs of licensed teachers that the formal commitment to such practice in the first year of the second cycle could, and should, be limited.

3.22 Before joining his first school, a licensed teacher would meet the school's professional tutor (see paragraph 3.50 below) who would introduce him to the ways in which he could find help within the school itself. The professional tutor, in consultation with the staff of the licensed teacher's assigned professional centre, would work out with him the programme of continued studies he would pursue during that year. Such programmes would be subject to scrutiny by the regional bodies. The part played by professional centres in the new style of initial training would vary according to circumstances. A teacher of geography in a comprehensive school in a country town might rely for specialist subject advice almost exclusively on his own head of department and the professional centre would supply reinforcement of a more general kind to the training programme. A teacher of French in a middle school in a densely populated urban area within which several centres were established, might be attached to that professional centre which had been chosen to specialise upon work in foreign languages in addition to its more general programme. A teacher in a rural area with widely dispersed schools might need to be released on a block system for periods of residence at a professional centre serving a wide area and there could be circumstances in which teachers were released for periods of block attendance even at their local centres.

3.23 It has already been said in Chapter 2 that all professional centres, whether based on existing professional institutions or elsewhere, would have to achieve standards acceptable to their regional body, for the purposes for which they were recognised. The particular standards required of centres taking an important part in the professional training of new entrants would mean that not all centres approved for third cycle activities would be able to fulfil a second cycle role. Wherever it was feasible, licensed teachers might go to the professional centres in the institutions where they had spent the first year of the second cycle. In many cases, however, this would be

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impracticable and attendance at another centre, institution-based or locally-based, would be necessary. Sometimes such a change of focus would be desirable in any case, in serving a teacher's special interests. The warden at a professional centre would be aware of, and able to call on, all the expertise available in his region and his chief responsibility in the second cycle would be that of facilitating licensed teachers' professional development, by putting them in touch with the right tutors to help them. Professional centres would give licensed teachers both a means of sharing experience with others and a point of reference independent of their schools and the LEAs employing them.*

Implications of a changed system

3.24 In the remainder of this chapter, some of the implications of these proposals for the second cycle will be briefly examined, and some of the thinking pointing forward to our conclusions on regional and national organisation exposed. The proposal that there should be a common form of training - common, that is, in principles of organisation, in length, in the status of the qualification, but not at all in content and style - has far-reaching implications. Candidates for teacher training would come from a wide variety of institutions and with an equally wide variety of qualifications. There would not be one type of special training for graduates as such, nor should it be assumed that UDEs would recruit their students exclusively among those already holding degrees, and still less that colleges would recruit to their second cycle courses only those who had been awarded a Diploma in Higher Education within the college sector. There would be opportunity for interchange of students among institutions at the end of the first cycle, and although many students in the colleges would no doubt prefer to take the first year of the second cycle in the institutions in which they had attained their diplomas, they would not be obliged to do so; nor would movement at the end of the first cycle be only between college and college or university and university. In making the choice of second cycle institutions students would have to consider their ultimate aim, in terms of subject, specialism or age range of the children they wished to teach.

3.25 Students holding approved first cycle qualifications would thus be eligible to apply for any of the second cycle places available. A student who had taken a single subject honours degree would probably choose a course concentrated on a relatively narrow range of teaching subjects but there is no reason why he should not be able to choose another type of course, subject to the condition already mentioned that he might need to do additional work in educational studies. Similarly, a student to whom a Diploma in Higher Education in appropriate subjects had been awarded must be free to apply for a course which would equip him to teach his chosen subjects in a secondary school. It is at this point that the part played by teacher training in dividing the profession might be significantly reduced. It is at this point that national decisions about the number and kinds of new teachers required could be applied to an admissions policy and made at least partially effective throughout the school system within twelve months of their application.

*Two of us consider that the professional institution or centre should actually assign each licensed teacher to a tutor, to carry forward the work of the first year and thus ensure greater continuity between the two years of the cycle. See the Note of Extension on page 78.

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Qualifications for entry to the second cycle

3.26 In Chapter 5 it is argued that the proposed regional agencies, acting within guidelines laid down by the national body, would be responsible for determining the conditions of entry to the second cycle. Practising teachers, an essential element in the structure as a whole, must be given a place in the selection of candidates for entry into professional training. Supply requirements, as defined by central government, would clearly not only determine the total number of second cycle places but would also influence their distribution between the various specialisms, skills, types of schools and age ranges of the children to be taught. There can be no doubt that, with the adoption of our proposals and the projected general expansion of higher education, the number of holders of acceptable first cycle qualifications willing to proceed to teacher training would exceed the number of teachers required. The function of the proposed regional organisations, in advising professional institutions on their admissions, would thus be the very important one of ensuring that the candidates who were accepted were those who would best meet the needs of the schools. This would mean, in practice, that there should not be any question of giving preference to any whole class of applicants, e.g. holders of university or CNAA degrees. That the schools will need a plentiful supply of teachers with these degrees cannot be doubted but all our observation and experience leads us to assert that large numbers of teaching posts, in secondary as well as in primary schools, are better filled by teachers whose educational background is broader and less specialised. The same can be said of specialist teachers of such subjects as music or art. The schools will need specialists of this kind and holders of approved qualifications in these subjects would be formally eligible for admission to teacher training. But where their studies had been too narrowly specialised, and carried on in isolation from students following other courses, they might not necessarily, in practice, be accepted in preference to others offering the same subjects, whose first cycle background was broader. Indeed, it is undesirable that any entrants to teaching should have spent both first and second cycles in small highly specialised institutions. There is one group of applicants in a special category: those students with a strong and early motivation to teaching, who demonstrated their intention by choosing education-oriented courses in the first cycle. They would probably be such eminently acceptable candidates for the second cycle that, in practice, they would be able to pursue their first cycle courses from the outset in the confidence that, subject to satisfactory performance, they would become teachers. This consideration touches on, and is one specific illustration of, a major principle which would have to underlie selection policy: namely, that great weight would have to be given to candidates' personal qualities, motivation and experience as well as to their formal qualifications.

3.27 Many witnesses have argued that the intermission of at least a year between school and college would be of inestimable value to intending teachers and, indeed, to other students as well, in terms of the increased maturity and extended experience they would derive from it. There would be everything to be said for sixth formers undergoing this broadening experience before going on to higher education, whether the time were

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spent in employment or in some form of voluntary service, at home or overseas. We would not think it right that an interval between school and college should be formally prescribed, and certainly not for intending teachers alone, but we would see advantages in its becoming a known practice of the regional bodies to advise professional institutions to give preference, other claims being equal, to those who had not proceeded straight from school to higher education or, indeed, from the first to the second cycle.

3.28 Another important principle in selection policy would be that the second cycle course would not be shortened for any candidates, although for mature graduates and certain other entrants with high academic qualifications, a special form of course in this cycle might, as is argued below, be appropriate. Besides determining the number of special admissions of this kind, the regional bodies would have another important area of discretion. In establishing the conditions of entry to the second cycle, they would have the power to accept other awards, in lieu of normal first cycle qualifications; where, in their judgement, these, together with candidates' personal qualities and experience, gave grounds for confidence that with second cycle training the applicants would make acceptable teachers. In particular, special consideration might need to be given to the qualifications possessed by candidates for admission to the present colleges of education (technical) and to those of the part-time FE teachers who decided to embark upon full-time teaching, many of whom would already possess qualifications gained by part-time courses of three or four years after the age of 18. For all such candidates, the regional bodies should be able to prescribe, where necessary, suitable courses of study before entry into the second cycle, so that they could gain the same terminal qualification as that of other teachers who completed the cycle.

Special Courses in the Second Cycle

3.29 The arrangements proposed here would make it possible to respond to a plea often made in evidence submitted to this Committee: a plea that there should be special training arrangements for certain highly qualified young men and women who may be deterred from joining the teaching profession by the unwelcome rigidity of the training requirement. No apology is needed for asserting that society cannot afford to close the teaching profession to some of the ablest of our young people. Nor is any apology needed for asserting that all such candidates, however able and however determined to teach, are entitled to an adequate course of study and practice in preparation for their first appointments. It may, however, be unwise and counterproductive to insist that a gifted young student who has completed the three years for an honours degree in, say, mathematics and then successfully completed two years' research or further study leading to the award of a higher degree should thereafter be required to follow yet another year of full-time study before being allowed to teach. A similar case can be made for mature graduates who are attracted to teaching after working in other occupations. Under present regulations they are not obliged to train, although they might be very willing to do so but for the fact that at a time of probably high domestic commitment they could not afford to spend a year or more on a student's grant taking a full-time course. In future

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years, there will be men and women of this kind who, because they have graduated after the introduction of compulsory training, will be subject to the training requirement. We recommend that it should lie within the discretion of the regional bodies to admit such candidates to the second cycle and, having satisfied themselves that the preparation would be fully adequate, to allow such teachers to be licensed (in the sense defined below in paragraph 3.33) and to take up provisional appointments at once, to define the maximum limits of their teaching commitment, to require that they remain licensed without becoming 'registered' for at least two years, and to prescribe for them a programme of study composed, for example, of attendance at summer schools, completion of prescribed courses offered by a professional institution or by the Open University, and attendance regularly at a professional centre. We have no doubt that, within two years, such teachers would have achieved a standard of professional competence at least equal to that of younger entrants following the normal second cycle course. The number of such exceptional admissions to a special second cycle course would not be proportionately large, and would need to be regulated by the regional bodies on the basis of guide lines laid down by the national agency.

3.30 The conceptually sharp distinction between first and second cycle courses would also provide a framework for the design and operation of the more specialist type of course. A few examples may suffice. A teacher of physical education or home economics will have attended a first cycle course at a college or, in some cases, a university or polytechnic and he or she may have deliberately chosen an institution known to be strong in the appropriate second cycle work and, very reasonably, to have included the special subject or interest as a non-vocational element in the first cycle course. But there can be no formal requirement that this should have been done. In either case, the plan appropriate for the second cycle is sufficiently clear: the first year to be spent in a college with the appropriate bias and then a year in the first assignment with attachment to a professional centre.

3.31 It is our view that all students in the second cycle should receive a general introduction to the problems of children with learning difficulties and that some, in a few selected colleges, should follow special courses in remedial education. There should also be a few selected colleges where students with an early vocation to work with handicapped children could specifically prepare themselves in the second cycle to teach children suffering from those forms of handicap where the possession of special qualifications is not a requirement. Generally speaking, however, the major provision of courses to equip teachers to deal with the more serious problems of handicap or maladjustment should be in the third cycle.

Teachers for further education

3.32 The pattern proposed in this report for second cycle courses could be readily adapted to the courses provided in the colleges of education (technical). These institutions would provide a particular kind of second cycle course. The organisation of the two year course might be the same as in other colleges, i.e. a first year based on the training institution, followed by a year of practical experience during which new teachers would be released for further training for the equivalent of not less than one day a week. Alternatively, the present type of sandwich course might be retained and

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slightly modified, so that students spent the first and fourth terms in a training institution and devoted the other four terms of the two year cycle to practical experience, with regular release for further training. In either form (and provided students' entry qualifications were recognised as acceptable first cycle qualifications), successful completion of such a course would lead to the same terminal award as for other teachers (see paragraph 3.34 below), although the categories of 'licensed' and 'registered' teachers (paragraph 3.33 below) would not apply to teachers employed in further education. It has already been suggested in Chapter 2 that what is called the problem of the 'backlog', i.e. training for existing FE teachers who have had no professional preparation for their work, could best be dealt with as part of the arrangements for the third cycle. It is also suggested in Chapter 2 that the training needs of the large number of FE teachers who are recruited at a mature age directly from other occupations, who in many cases could not be expected to take full-time pre-service courses, could also be most conveniently treated as though they were third cycle needs.

Terminology and Second Cycle Awards

3.33 If conclusion [sic - confusion?] is to be avoided a new terminology must be accepted for the levels of qualification through which an aspiring teacher would pass. A student at the end of the first cycle would be neither more nor less than a student in higher education with a widely recognised award, whether a degree, a diploma or some other qualification. If he were admitted to teacher training and prospered, then at the end of the first year of the second cycle he would become a 'licensed' teacher. Such licensing would be, however, provisional and would do no more than admit him to the second year of the cycle and allow him to undertake for a year four fifths of a normal teaching commitment in the post for which he had been selected and for which he was receiving a salary. If this year were also completed successfully he would be admitted as a registered teacher*. Such registration would be by no means automatic. Doubts, even at this late stage, about his competence as a teacher might prompt the regional body, in consultation with the LEA and the professional institution or centre, to prescribe a further year of work and study within the second cycle or, in exceptional circumstances, to refuse registration. It is naturally hoped that, given scrupulously careful selection for admission to the second cycle and continuous assessment and advice during the first year of that cycle, such failures would be comparatively rare. In practice, where a licensed teacher was in difficulty in his first year, perhaps because of misplacement or because he had made a bad start in his first school, reference to the LEA should make it possible to transfer him to another school in which he could make a fresh start. 3.34 Students who, at the time of growing competition for places in higher education and for the available places in teacher training, had successfully completed at least two years in the first cycle and two in the second should enjoy graduate status. They would have entered the second cycle as holders of an acceptable qualification in higher education and would thereafter have demonstrated, in their first appointments as well as in their college-based or department-based work, their mastery not only of a range of

*The use of the term 'registered teacher' in this report is not intended to prejudge the outcome of current discussions of the possible establishment of a Teaching Council.

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disciplines but also of the fundamental skills and insights of teaching. We therefore recommend that all such successful students and teachers should be awarded a general degree of BA(Education). Such an award would presuppose that the regional body had considered with favour not only the reports submitted by his school and his employers on a teacher's performance in his first year of practical work but also a certificate from his professional centre that he had completed an approved programme of further studies during that same year.

3.35 The regional body for the area in which a successful student took the first year of the second cycle would, on the judgement of his training institution, recommend his recognition by the Secretary of State as a licensed teacher. The award of the degree of BA(Ed) would depend on the recommendation of that regional body, not necessarily the same as the first one, in whose area he had completed the second cycle and this recommendation would depend on the assessments referred to. It is undeniable that there would be problems of coordination here. Nevertheless, the arrangements proposed would be demonstrably stronger, in our view, than those now operating and likely to be more effective in improving the professional formation of teachers than would be a simple extension of orthodox training to a four or five year concurrent course in the colleges and a two year course for graduates.

3.36 The successful introduction of the BA(Education) would make it unnecessary to retain the present form of the BEd degree as an initial qualification, although it would have an important future as an in-service award. The existing BEd degree has been the subject of a great deal of material submitted to us and of much discussion, among ourselves and with others. Many students and colleges have welcomed the existence of this route to graduate status; a number of colleges have found it the occasion for a closer involvement with universities, including the establishment of links with university departments other than the Education Department; and there is evidence that arrangements for the BEd, and the framing of its regulations by senates, have brought an understanding of the problems of teacher education to some of those in universities not previously aware of them. There is no doubt that the establishment of the BEd has been the result of devoted work by many people in universities, colleges and elsewhere. On the other hand, it is also true that much of the evidence has expressed a widespread disappointment with the degree: with the very limited extent to which it is available; with inconsistencies between different areas in such matters as entry standards, arrangements for the selection of students and the status of the award (general, classified honours or unclassified); with its adverse effect on the pattern of courses for students not proceeding to the degree and on the staffing ratios applying to these courses; and with the fact that, although designed as a degree for professional teachers, it has kept students away from the professional situation for periods well in excess of a year before their entry into teaching and, by its compulsory inclusion of an academic subject, has often been inappropriate for many non-specialist teachers. It has been strongly affirmed that the BEd in its present form is not well suited to its purpose. Under the arrangements proposed here for the new degree of BA(Education), the award would be dependent on the satisfactory fulfilment of a professional role in the schools as well as on academic attainment.

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3.37 It is important, however, not to overlook those able students, with a clear motivation to teaching, who in the present system have the opportunity, at least in many areas, of obtaining an honours BEd. There is no doubt in our minds that in the professional degree of BA(Ed) it would be inappropriate to distinguish between general and honours degrees or to award classified honours. Nevertheless, it would be wrong to discourage any students of high intellectual quality wishing, for example, to teach young children and to carry their studies to a higher level. Such students, having successfully completed the second cycle and received the award of the BA(Ed), should have the option of returning to one of a few selected professional institutions for a further year leading to the award of an MA(Ed). This additional year might either be end-on to the second cycle, thus completing a kind of sandwich course, or be preceded by a year or more of teaching experience. In either form the award would be essentially a third cycle qualification and has already been referred to in Chapter 2.

Planning and organisation of the second cycle

3.38 Following the determination by central government of the size and composition of the total supply of teachers required, decisions on the number and type of second cycle places that are needed and on their distribution and relative concentration or dispersal will have to be clear and authoritative. In our view, decisions of this sort can best be taken by national and regional bodies of the type outlined in Chapter 5. Similarly, sound decisions on the most effective deployment of resources, on the degree of specialisation among institutions, on the strategy for the development of centres of excellence, on the balance within institutions of first, second and third cycle courses, will not emerge as a consensus or from adjustment to the entirely natural collective ambitions of institutions. These decisions must be taken within a pattern of strong regional and national agencies. We have been impressed by the uneven spread of resources and by the inevitable waste that results from the existence of uneconomic courses of training, particularly in certain specialist subjects. It would be very much better, for the morale of institutions and the quality of the teachers they produce, if colleges and departments were to specialise in fields in which they were able to attain high standards and some large institutions were to develop a wide range of second and third cycle courses.

3.39 In all the arrangements proposed in this chapter the regional and national agencies would have the important and demanding tasks of making sure that policy was clear, that overlapping or fundamental contradictions were avoided and that responsibilities were understood in colleges, departments, LEAs and schools. Given a firm declaration of national policy, there is no reason why these difficult tasks of definition should not be undertaken successfully in close consultation with representatives of the directly interested parties. It would be necessary to ensure that, although each regional body could and should make its own detailed regulations to ensure that proper standards were achieved in both years of the second cycle, such regulations should be concordant with the general policy defined, at an early date and before the full operation of these arrangements, by the national body.

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3.40 It is necessary to stress the importance and urgency of the work which would have to be undertaken by the proposed agencies as soon as decisions to implement these recommendations and to create such bodies had been announced. They would have to define the standards required for the award of a BA(Ed) and to offer guidance on the content of first cycle courses in many fields, on the distribution of responsibilities between schools, colleges and departments, on the appropriateness of certain studies and activities in the first and second years of the second cycle, on the distribution of the approved total provision of second cycle places, on the balance of regional and institutional commitment to first, second and third cycle activities, on the policies to be followed in selecting students for second cycle places. Finally, they would need - subject by subject, specialism by specialism, age group by age group - to provide guide lines on the planning and distribution of courses in the second and third cycles. To do all this, they would need to draw into consultation all those with specialist insights to contribute to the detailed elaboration of the new strategies, once these had been accepted in principle. It is clear that such consultation, without which the proposals would be meaningless, would require first the creation of the appropriate agencies and the establishment of their responsibilities. It is also clear that the development of these strategies would have important implications for the existing institutions concerned: the UDEs, the polytechnic departments of education, the colleges of education and the schools.

Implications for existing institutions

3.41 On the basis of the proposals put forward here it will be seen that, in terms of their general educational objectives, no clear or formal distinction could be made between university departments of education and colleges of education in their second cycle role, despite distinctions of a constitutional and administrative order. A question therefore arises: if both types of institution were receiving similarly qualified students, training them for work in a wide variety of schools, specialising in particular fields, how and by whom and on what criteria would decisions be taken on the distribution of initial training places? It is obvious that the rationale is now wearing very thin for the universities to train subject specialists for the more academic work in secondary schools and the colleges to offer more broadly-based training for work in the primary schools and for the less specialised work in the secondary schools.

3.42 It has been suggested by a few witnesses that UDEs should cease to be involved in the initial training of teachers so that all second cycle activities would take place in the colleges. We emphatically reject this radical proposal and have a number of reasons for doing so. The UDEs should continue to pursue fundamental research and advanced study in education. We welcome their increased participation in recent years, not only in research financed by the Social Science Research Council and the DES, but also in curriculum research and development projects sponsored by the Schools Council, the majority of which are located in Departments and Institutes of Education. This work obviously benefits from being carried out in a university setting where it is possible to have an exchange of ideas and indeed an interchange of staff with other

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departments but there would be an equally obvious impoverishment if the work of UDEs were divorced from that day to day contact with teachers and schools that results from their responsibilities for second cycle courses. University first degree courses which include the study of education should be encouraged. An active education department will have close relationships with schools and can serve as a link between them and other departments of the university: it is a link which both sides increasingly desire and will increasingly need if there is to be a big expansion in third cycle provision of courses for the refreshment of subject specialists in the schools. The involvement of part of the university in the training of leachers will likewise act as one of the ways in which closer relationships can be built up with colleges of education.

3.43 Having said all this, and accepting the importance of maintaining the direct interest of the universities in educational research and the value of enlarging the place of education in first cycle studies, we would not expect to see any large expansion in the provision of second cycle places (i.e. in present terms, places for postgraduate training) within the university sector. The major areas for growth in such provision should be the colleges of education. We would recommend, however, that in future planning priority should be given to building up existing UDEs, perhaps to a minimum of 200 students. We would like to see departments specialising in the teaching of certain subjects or groups of subjects, in which they would become centres of excellence, especially in the development of third cycle courses. If UDEs are to provide first and second cycle courses, are to be increasingly concerned with research and development, and are to make a significant contribution to third cycle work, we think that their staffing ratios would need to be at least as generous as in other university departments and that they would also need an administrative staff sufficient to plan and coordinate their many activities.

3.44 Expansion of teacher training in the polytechnics should concentrate on the development of training for FE teachers and should include the provision of third cycle courses for FE teachers and subject specialists from the schools. Existing polytechnic departments of education might move away from their present emphasis on training for primary school work and towards the preparation of teachers for the older age groups in schools and FE colleges. In developing such training they could make better use than at present of the specialist resources and facilities of their parent institutions.

3.45 It is obvious that of all the institutions concerned, the colleges of education would be the most affected by the proposals of this report. The recommendations of this chapter would require them to redesign their training programmes and to become involved more closely than before in the professional training of teachers in their first year of service. They would therefore form a new and closer relationship with schools and, by their contact with licensed teachers coping with their first professional assignments, would add a new dimension to their experience. They would be more fully involved than at present in third cycle activities. Since they would, however, be expected to make important new departures in the development of first cycle courses, a fuller discussion of the implications for the colleges must be deferred to Chapter 5.

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3.46 The implications for the schools would be far-reaching and varied. Our proposals would require changes in the methods of selecting teachers for their first posts. For the licensed teacher the second year of the second cycle would be crucial: on his performance in this year would depend the award of the BA(Ed) and his admission to full membership of the profession. If, as has been suggested, much of the responsibility for what happened during that year were to rest with the teachers in the schools it would be essential for them to have a greater part in the selection of new teachers than is generally the case at present. We have been told that it is possible for a young teacher to arrive at his school at the beginning of term not only without having visited it to meet the children who will be in his care but without having met the head teacher. The details of how new teachers are actually taken into the service of LEAs may legitimately vary from place to place, but in our view there are two general principles which should be universally applied. The first is that LEAs should take particular care in matching new teachers to the schools in which they will start teaching and the second is that practising teachers (especially the heads of the schools in question) should be involved in the selection process. Special attention would need to be given to the placement of those licensed teachers (described in paragraph 3.29) for whom it is envisaged that the whole of the second cycle would be school-based, with access to professional centres.

3.47 The schools and the teachers in them would be asked to undertake new roles in teacher training. Indeed, if these proposals were accepted, the teaching profession in this country would have a share in training its own members and establishing its own standards which would be almost certainly greater than that enjoyed by teachers anywhere in the world. There would inevitably be corresponding obligations and schools must be given the resources and skills they would plainly need to discharge them effectively. Teachers in schools would be more closely involved than at present in planning and supervising practical work in the first year of the second cycle; they would have great responsibilities (outlined in paragraphs 3.20 - 3.22 above) for the new teachers in the second year of that cycle, in assisting them to master some at least of the necessary techniques and at the same time introducing them in a particular school to a large and complex profession; we propose that they should be associated with the selection of students for the second cycle and with the selection of licensed teachers; teachers during their first year would be making, in quantitative terms at least, a smaller direct contribution than at present to the teaching programme of the school. The release of new teachers in their first year might present special problems in primary, and more particularly infants, schools. The risk of disturbance to the children and of breaks in the development of their relationships with their new teachers would be very real, but would be much less serious if the schools were staffed generously enough to ensure that the timetabling was not dependent on a full contribution by new teachers. The improving supply of teachers should make this increasingly possible. Disruption and disturbance could perhaps be reduced still further if the teachers were released for relatively long, and consequently less frequent, block periods of study. Nevertheless, all these changes would represent 'burdens' for the school, and to them should of course be added the extra load

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inseparable from the proposals made in Chapter 2 for the development of in-service education and training.

3.48 We have considered different methods of enabling the schools to accept the increased loads which the proposals given here would involve. Our conclusion is that the problem could not be solved by the creation of, for example, 'a national system of school~based tutors', however attractive this solution might appear on first examination. In a scheme in which some tutors had responsibilities in schools other than their own and some held joint appointments between a school and the regional body, it would often be difficult to determine by whom tutors should be appointed and how their responsibilities should be divided. Moreover, the fact that some schools would be dependent upon tutors who were not on their own staffs would be inconsistent with the aim of encouraging all schools to play a full part in teacher training. These difficulties point towards a differently constructed solution.

3.49 The most urgent need would be that the staffing of the schools should be improved so that the teaching profession as a whole might be enabled to accept the new roles being proposed. All, or nearly all, teachers would be directly affected by the reforms and the extra load placed upon them could not be individualised. Most of them would be involved in helping students and the new teachers; many of them would be drawn into the work of the professional centres; all of them would be undertaking some of the extra work generated by the absence on third cycle courses at anyone time of a number of their colleagues. Only if the staffing ratio in all schools were improved could such extra work be accepted without seriously reducing the effectiveness of the daily work of the schools. There can be no doubt that the investment would be amply repaid in the greater effectiveness of the whole teaching profession.

3.50 Each school must have a member of staff nominated as a professional tutor. That tutor should act as the coordinator for all second and third cycle work affecting the school. He would be the link between the school and all other agencies engaged in that work; he would have general oversight of all the practical experience of professional work that new teachers undergo in the first year of their appointment; he would assist his colleagues in their choice and pursuit of third cycle courses. The position of the professional tutor within the school would naturally depend on the size of the school and other local factors. In a small school, for example, the head himself or his deputy might be designated as the professional tutor. In large schools, one member of staff might spend the greater part of his time discharging the responsibilities here outlined and he should of course be recognised and paid as a major head of department. If it is important that no school should be without a professional tutor, it is equally important that he should be properly prepared for his work. It would not be enough simply to affix labels to a number of teachers already in the schools, however effective and conscientious they might be. Such teachers would need early opportunities of working in the colleges and departments, of coming to understand the objectives and methods of work of those institutions, of being brought fully up to date with the best new practice, of appreciating more than they possibly can at present all that is involved in

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the increasingly intricate task of training new teachers. It is for this reason we recommend that the first teachers to be admitted to third cycle courses should be those designated as professional tutors within the schools. Nothing could do more to draw the 'teacher trainers' and the experienced teachers in the schools into a new partnership, upon the effectiveness of which the success of all these proposals would depend.

3.51 Nothing in these proposals should be allowed to inhibit one very encouraging development which has been noted in recent years: namely, the steps taken by some UDEs and colleges to draw serving teachers directly and formally into their work. The examples we have studied deserve to be widely copied. Every UDE or college should set aside each year sufficient funds to recruit, as associate tutors or whatever they may be called, some of the best and most enterprising teachers known to them. Such teachers would not be receiving this special recognition for work undertaken within their own schools, for example with students on teaching practice, but rather for their contributions to work within the department or college in conducting seminars, in giving lectures, in attending planning meetings, in advising students. Such tutors would be selected by the department or college itself and responsible to it, on a part-time basis. Their role would need to be clearly understood and sharply differentiated, because it would be related to the college or department, from that within the school of the professional tutor or of any head of department or other experienced teacher taking a special responsibility for students or teachers in their second cycle. In some cases there would be great value in seconding teachers full-time for periods of work as associate tutors of this kind and if it were possible also to second some college tutors for spells of work in schools, so much the better.

3.52 Where FE colleges were used for giving practical experience to students in the first year of the second cycle or for employing new teachers in the second year, in conditions which would justify the award of the BA(Ed), the regional bodies would need to be satisfied with the arrangements made, and particularly that the professional tutors in those colleges - necessary, in any case, for the coordination of their colleagues' third cycle activities - were suitably qualified teachers. Similar considerations would apply to independent and direct grant schools. The present situation is that teachers may not complete their probationary year in such schools, but in our view any of these schools should be acceptable for the purposes of the second cycle provided that they satisfied the requirements of their regional body. These requirements would include not only the designation of suitably qualified teachers as professional tutors but also the release of these tutors for appropriate third cycle courses of preparation and the submission to the regional body of reports on licensed teachers' performance.


3.53 This chapter started from three propositions. One was that the present dual system of training must be ended. The recommendations of this chapter indicate how this could be done. Their adoption would ensure that divisions in the teaching profession need no longer be perpetuated or widened by a divisiveness in training procedures. Another proposition, the implications of

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which have already been explored in Chapter 2, was that adequate in-service opportunities must be available to teachers. Every word written about initial training in this chapter presupposes that it will be the first stage only in a continuing process. The third proposition was that all those entering teacher training would have already achieved a good standard and a widely recognised qualification in higher education - that they were all actual or potential graduates. That proposition must now, in Chapter 4, be expanded and defended.

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4.1 Fundamental to the proposals made in this report for the initial training of teachers is the belief that all those entering teacher training should have already achieved a good standard in higher education. This chapter explores the nature and scope of that education, seeks to establish the general principles upon which colleges of education, polytechnic departments of education and perhaps in time other institutions could base new courses of study, and describes the qualifications to which those courses should lead.

4.2 The discussion in the previous chapter of the concurrent course recognised the existence in the initial preparation of the teacher of two elements which can in theory be sharply distinguished, even if in application they are often blended. The first of these is the acquisition of the theoretical and practical expertise comprehended by the study of education. For many teachers this, as is implied by the whole argument of Chapter 3, would be postponed to the second and third cycles, but it is hoped that other intending teachers would elect to make it an element in their first cycle studies and that institutions (universities, polytechnics and other colleges, as well as colleges of education) would permit such a choice to be given effect. The second element, inadequately but evocatively labelled 'the personal education' of the student, is the particular subject of this chapter. We believe that there are general principles which should give shape to that 'personal education', whatever the type of work which may later be undertaken by the potential teacher, and that the work of the students following a first cycle programme in a college of education, with which this report is, by its very nature, most directly concerned should combine the advantages of study in depth with the merits of a more broadly based education.

Degrees as first cycle qualifications

4.3 For the man or woman who will be mainly concerned with the teaching of one or two subjects to a relatively high level, a degree course, whether in a university or elsewhere, may well provide the most appropriate educational base and we would expect that for many teachers success in obtaining a university or CNAA degree would be the most suitable way of satisfying the requirements of the first cycle. This statement must, however, be qualified in three ways. First, since most degree courses make no specific provision for continuing general education, it is even more essential for the intending teacher than for others to accept the responsibility for self-education which this omission lays upon him and to use his leisure during his degree course, or the opportunities provided by a well-conceived professional course in the second cycle, to consider the applications of his subject and to widen his horizons beyond his special interests. Secondly, we welcome and would encourage those degree courses in which education is studied as part of a joint degree, for example in physics and education or in a modern language and education. There may well be scope for the development of joint degrees in, say, mathematics and the philosophy of education or in history and the

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psychology of education, and holders of such degrees might be especially welcome in primary schools. In joint degrees the educational studies can be a broadening influence on the student's development and the vocational flavour of this part of his work will often increase his motivation towards his specialist studies. Thirdly, although a university or CNAA degree is the natural and proper form of the first cycle for some teachers, it by no means follows that it is the most desirable one for all. Indeed, a note of caution is needed at this point. As the number of graduates coming out of the universities and polytechnics increases, more of them will no doubt seek entry into teaching - and sometimes in kinds of teaching for which they are fitted neither by their subject-centred education nor by any strongly felt personal interest. Where some highly qualified graduates in specialist fields are also motivated towards, say, working with young children they may well become distinguished teachers of infants and be of great value to the schools. But they are likely to remain few.

Diploma in higher education as a first cycle qualification

4.4 For very many teachers a different kind of preparation is needed, and it is suggested that this could be provided in a two year course leading to the award of a Diploma in Higher Education. Such a course would be a more appropriate foundation, not only for many teachers in first and middle schools, but also for many of the non-specialist teachers of adolescents who are needed in secondary schools and FE colleges. It is a course which the colleges of education will be especially well fitted to provide, since it develops naturally from the present pattern of their work and makes use of the expertise which they have already built up. A common course of professional training, extending over two years for all, would thus be preceded by a diploma course for some teachers and a degree course for others. There should be no implication that one route is more difficult or more prestigious than the other. The distinction means simply that different kinds of teaching, not necessarily related to types of schools or to the ages of the children to be taught, may require different kinds of preparation.

4.5 The main concern of this Committee has been to study and reflect on the education, training and probation of teachers and our terms of reference have encouraged us to consider whether it is possible to break down what is often described as the 'isolation' in which many teachers are at present educated. Many voices have urged that prospective teachers should not be obliged to commit themselves at the age of 18 to a course which can lead only to a teaching qualification. It is argued that students following courses which may lead to teaching should have the opportunities enjoyed by students in other sectors of higher education of moving in other directions without disadvantage and that the presence in institutions attended by potential teachers of students proceeding to other careers would end the 'isolation' of which complaint is made. Such criticisms and proposals point towards a consecutive pattern of preparation for teaching, in which a student's formal commitment to professional training need not come until after a period of 'uncommitted' education.

4.6 We have at the same time been urged to protect the interests of those students who, from the outset, have a teaching career clearly in view. Many

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students do embark on their higher education with the clear intention of becoming teachers. It would be curiously unjust and unwise to place arbitrary obstacles in the way of those very students whose strong and early motivation gives promise of their becoming some of the most effective and dedicated teachers. Proposals for the first cycle must make it possible for such students to choose from among the available options a course which is similar in many important respects to the concurrent courses now offered in the colleges of education. The arrangements for the diploma course outlined below would allow such a choice to be made. Some colleges should have the opportunity to concentrate on courses of this type. The colleges likely to choose such a line of development might include those at present specialising in preparing teachers of physical education or home economics as well as those with a justly high reputation for training teachers of young children. There would be nothing whatever to prevent their continuing in their specialist role if they wished to do so.

4.7 Fears are sometimes expressed that the supply of teachers would be at risk if students in the colleges of education were systematically given the choice of entering careers other than teaching. The proposals in this report would, however, in no way inhibit students who were already determined to teach, and many students following the diploma course, with no predisposition towards teaching, might well be attracted to it by their experiences on the course. Moreover, as has already been mentioned, there is likely to be a substantial increase in the number of graduates coming forward from the universities, polytechnics and other institutions. The number of applicants qualified and willing to proceed to teacher training may be expected to exceed the number of second cycle places likely to be needed. Some of the problems of selection for the second cycle which therefore arise have been discussed in Chapter 3.

Structure of the diploma course

4.8 Throughout the discussion which follows two points must be kept in mind: the importance of the general principles and the freedom of colleges and other institutions to interpret them in a variety of ways. Reference has already been made to the merits both of study in depth and of a broadly based education. These elements must be combined and interrelated, as 'special' and 'general' studies, in the Diploma in Higher Education. Such a synthesis would serve the needs of teachers without in any way diminishing the value and attractiveness to other students of the course proposed. In special studies the aim will be to encourage the student to pursue his chosen subjects in some depth and to acquire some degree of mastery of them. In general studies the aim will rather be to stimulate individual thought and discussion, to enable the student to realise the kind of problems and experiences that exist in fields outside his own, to make good the deficiencies in his intellectual and cultural awareness and above all to tempt him to further efforts of self-education in directions which he had not previously considered.

4.9 Colleges should attempt to avoid any rigid curricular or organisational separation between special and general studies, or between personal studies and those which may have a bearing on a subsequent occupational choice.

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To establish principles and determine emphasis is not to create compartments and departments. The creation of a Department of General Studies within a college of education is a singularly unattractive prospect, although it would certainly be desirable for a member of the staff to be responsible for coordinating his colleagues' efforts in this area of the college's work. Here, then, the principles underlying general and special studies will be elaborated. In Appendix 6 are some examples of a pattern of courses in which - for those students who so wish - educational studies could be incorporated in their programmes.

4.10 The aim of a course in general studies should be to provide stimulus to the student, an incentive to self-education, and an attitude of critical awareness. Studies of this kind provide an opportunity to raise and discuss questions of importance without an obligation to pursue each one in all its specialist connotations. One of the tasks of general education is to make good some of the cultural deficiencies of those who propose to be teachers of others. The course must therefore aim at providing some essential background in the main areas of human thought and activity, i.e. the humanities (above all literature), mathematics and the sciences (including their applications in practical situations), the social sciences, and the arts. No list of possible themes within such areas can be inclusive, and it is anticipated that all colleges will choose to provide, in addition to the type of specifically education-oriented courses outlined in paragraph 4.13, courses of a more general character drawing their materials, methods and insights from the field of educational studies.

4.11 Although ideally every student should follow a course made up of elements selected from all or most of these areas, there should be sufficient flexibility to ensure that no one finds himself forced to meet some arbitrary requirement by resorting to a process of mere memorising. It is probable that no two institutions could or should devise identical courses in the area of general studies. Such courses should arise from a process of intense and continuing discussion among the staff, in which the most fundamental questions about curriculum are asked. The courses should thus reflect, and be enlivened by, the genuine interests of the teachers. In the hands of the skilful and enthusiastic teacher many apparently narrow and irrelevant courses can become vehicles for an authentic general education. We have found in a number of colleges evidence that there were teachers who, given the opportunity, would derive a new sense of purpose from devising courses of this type, but who at present feel themselves frustrated by a false conception of academic respectability. It is clear, too, from the reports of some of the ATO reviews invited by the former Secretary of State, that a number of colleges are only too anxious to break new ground in this way and that some of them have already made a start in doing so.

4.12 Many of the principles underlying a wise approach to general studies apply with equal force to special studies. Others, however, need to be introduced. One is that the student's choice of options in his general studies course must be related to his choice of special studies. A student studying mathematics as a special subject will not, for example, normally include this option as part of his general studies course. Another principle is that

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the choice of special studies will depend both on the student's own preference and on the staffing and other resources of the college. One of the most obvious weaknesses of the present organisation of the colleges is a wasteful diffusion of effort. The attempt to offer too wide a range of options and the proliferation of small teaching groups in BEd courses have often led to an unfortunate misuse of resources. The standard of teaching in educational studies and the staffing ratio in the Education department have often suffered. There must, therefore, be a rationalisation of the special subjects offered by individual colleges. There might be some special subject options offered by only a few colleges, which could then become real centres of excellence in those fields. The administrative machinery by which such a rationalisation could be accomplished is discussed in Chapter 5.

4.13 A further principle on which the diploma should be based is that the course should be suitable for those students intending to teach as well as for those with other objectives. The range of special studies offered to students should therefore include some with a direct and obvious relevance to teaching as a career. Students who wished to do so could then study, say, 'child development' and social psychology as special subjects in their diploma course and thus make progress towards their occupational goals. Moreover, just as students specialising in modern languages, geography or biology are encouraged to do field work, so students whose special studies were directed towards teaching should have the opportunity, as part of their first cycle course, to study a variety of social agencies, including not only a selection of widely differing schools and FE establishments, but also such places as community homes, probation hostels, juvenile courts, local government agencies and the personnel departments in factories. This kind of experience, although particularly appropriate for the future teacher or social worker, would also form a valuable part of the education of many other young people in the colleges, who might have chosen some aspect of educational studies as part of their general studies programme.

4.14 It is possible that in this way some students who were undecided on a career when they started on the course might be drawn to teaching or to youth or social work by seeing something of the challenges and opportunities of work of this kind. In the places where practical observation is part of the course, many students - especially, as one would expect, those intending to teach or enter related careers - establish with particular schools or other institutions informal contacts which go far beyond those required by their course work. There are many cases where students regularly visit and 'help' in schools in their free time, and accompany them on camps and excursions in the holidays. This kind of experience helps to bring into a consecutive some of the advantages associated with a concurrent course.

4.15 Three examples may be given of the ways in which the 'committed teacher' may be helped to see the relevance of either his general or his special studies to the career he proposes to follow. First, there cannot be any barrier between 'a subject' and the methods by which a lecturer can communicate to others the satisfaction he gets from it. The study of philosophy for intending teachers, to give another example, is rightly defended as of great value in introducing students to a variety of fundamental problems and to

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the technique of asking and answering questions in the pursuit of truth. It so happens that some of the questions of most absorbing interest to the intelligent student arise from a study of education. One of the greatest of philosophical works is also perhaps the most stimulating of all books on education, The Republic. In the first cycle, those who are intending teachers and those who are not can profit from a common course in which some examples of philosophical questions are drawn from the one experience they all have in common, that is the experience of being educated. To give a third example, some of the novels that should be introduced to all students, either in a literature course or elsewhere, concern the experiences of childhood and youth, and will be of professional interest to the intending teacher even if the main purpose of reading them is to enrich the personal lives of a whole group, whether teachers or not. Indeed, the teaching of almost any subject, to intending teachers and other students alike, should be illuminated by some awareness of its relationship to other areas of knowledge and its reference to the social, political, economic, cultural and technological conditions of contemporary society. Given the right kind of teaching, the problem of reconciling the virtues of concurrent and consecutive courses becomes much less formidable, even if the main solution of it must be the inclusion among the special subject choices of the study of subjects closely related to education.

4.16 The methods of teaching are themselves of vital importance. Since the underlying aim is to stimulate thought and interest, discussion is better than lecturing. It is in seminar or tutorial groups that individuals recognise the value of interests outside their special studies, and it is in such groups that some aspects of those books and other works that form the great tradition of culture can be discussed. Another important feature of the diploma course should be the provision of ample opportunities for individual work. Although much of the criticism of the work in the colleges is exaggerated or misconceived, there is no lack of evidence that students, even if not overworked, are over-taught. This state of affairs arises in some cases from the desire to achieve inappropriate standards, often simply of factual information. It sometimes arises also from a compartmental view of the work of a college, so that the student's programme is not considered as a coherent whole. If the diploma course is to give the right kind of education, the student must have sufficient hours in the week to work independently and to read widely for himself. If it is objected, as it sometimes is, that the students are too immature to take advantage of such opportunities, then the ethos of the colleges must be so altered as to encourage this kind of self-education. Towards this alteration of attitude, the development of a satisfactory programme of general studies should provide a considerable stimulus.

4.17 Some examples of how courses for the DipHE might be constructed are given in Appendix 6. It will be seen that the programmes outlined there would in effect consist of specialised studies occupying two thirds of the student's time, and general studies occupying the remaining one third. In one of the two examples given the student's educational studies could be identified as part of his special studies, but not in the other. Other examples could readily be given in which educational studies were not represented in either category of curricular analysis. We recommend that general studies should

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normally occupy one third of the time and that the full course should last for two years, believing that period to be sufficient to provide a genuine educational experience without delaying unreasonably, for students with a strong and admirable vocation towards teaching, entry into those practical situations that they are so often eager to encounter.

Currency of the diploma

4.18 It has been emphasised that, in accordance with our terms of reference, our first concern in devising the diploma that is discussed here was to ensure that it would be a suitable educational base on which the subsequent professional training of many teachers could rest. It must also be stressed that such a diploma could fulfil several other important functions. That it would do so is central to our recommendations.

4.19 The course described here would provide a higher education of value in itself: for a number, perhaps an increasing number, of students the diploma could well be a terminal qualification. It is one of the curiosities of higher education in this country that for the 18 year old school leaver who does not want to enter employment immediately there is virtually no alternative, apart from certain kinds of training that are specifically vocational, to a 3-year course leading either to a degree or to a teaching qualification. The diploma suggested here would offer a 2-year course consisting of both a general education and some specialised elements, which themselves might look to future occupational choices, for example languages or economics for students thinking of a career in business. It has been suggested that such a qualification would be welcomed not only by business, industry and the public service but also by the schools. The schools may see it, for many of their sixth formers who require higher education, as a welcome alternative to the present university courses which are not necessarily well-suited to the aptitudes and aspirations of all those who are formally qualified to take them. It would be naive to disregard completely the weight of responsible university opinion questioning whether there is sufficient motivation for university courses, as at present conceived, on the part of many of the formally qualified students who choose to follow them. If these misgivings are justified one solution might be to modify entirely the idea of a university. Another would be to offer a different course, equally suitable for able students but so broadened in scope that it would provide a more satisfying educational experience for many of them. The latter solution is the one recommended here.

4.20 The Diploma in Higher Education, given its content and character, would not only be a terminal qualification for many students and the basis for the professional training of many teachers. but could also increasingly provide an appropriate educational basis for training in other professions. If so, this professional training would often be given in institutions other than those in which the students had taken their diplomas.

4.21 Some students following the diploma course might wish to continue rigorous academic study to a higher level. Of these, some might be acceptable candidates for university or CNAA degree courses and it is to be hoped that, although the number of transfers would probably be small, institutions offering these courses would feel able to accept such

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students and give them credit for their two years' higher education. For some others, there should be opportunities within the college system to pursue degree courses based on, and developed from, the new courses designed for the DipHE, which would often meet their needs better than existing degree studies. It should be possible, therefore, for certain large colleges, at least one in each of the areas covered by the regional organisations described in Chapter 5, to offer courses leading to both general and honours degrees of this new and unconventional kind. Where necessary, students for these courses would transfer from other colleges to those designated by the national agency to provide such degree courses. To offer degrees of this kind would increase the variety of courses available in the college system and enrich the academic community in which many teachers would be educated and trained. The development of work so much in keeping with the spirit of the diploma would carry little risk of distorting the pattern of work for the majority of students in the colleges.

4.22 It is important to consider whether the diploma should be awarded as a 'package', on performances in all its constituent elements, or whether it should be a 'subject' award, the candidate obtaining a diploma specifying his performance in the constituent parts. Our preference inclines us strongly towards the first alternative, in which the diploma, like a degree, is conceived as a unified qualification. If the diploma became simply a subject examination, it would show a traditional and limited approach, very much out of sympathy with the spirit in which it was conceived. Both students and lecturers might tend to overemphasise the importance of special studies, to the neglect of those general studies which are of fundamental importance to all students. The development of new approaches to general studies and of experiment with unit courses, giving flexibility in programming and a maximum freedom of choice to students, would be inhibited by a subject-based approach. The diploma should be so designed as to emphasise the interrelationship of various approaches to academic study and the importance of aesthetic and practical experiences, not often catered for in the present system of higher education. To submit this course to the arbitrary assessment of separate 'subjects' in the traditional style would destroy its coherence and restrict the radical new approach and experimentation which are central to the concept. On the other hand, it is obvious that for some kinds of professional training, or some occupations, certain combinations of subjects would be more suitable than others, and there can be no doubt that the general currency and acceptability of the diploma would be enhanced if it specified the particular strengths possessed by its holders. On balance, we would think that the best solution would be so to frame the regulations for the diploma that all diplomas, when awarded, would also be endorsed with any special subject successes achieved.

4.23 At present it is possible for students to enter colleges of education with five O Levels only, although a considerable and growing number of candidates have one, two or three A Levels. Further, with the increase over the next decade in the number of those leaving school with two A Levels, it is certain that the qualifications expected from entrants to the colleges will rise. A number of witnesses have maintained that entry to colleges should immediately be fixed at two A Levels to bring their formal standards into line with

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the university sector, not least in order to raise the prestige both of the colleges and of the teaching profession. This argument has force and would become even stronger with the introduction of the Diploma in Higher Education. What standing could such an award have if entry to the course leading to it were below A level standard? Several witnesses have, on the other hand, drawn attention to the fact that to raise substantially and immediately the entry standard to the colleges would lead to a shortfall in the supply of certain categories of teacher. They have also argued persuasively that there are very many students, some with experience and qualifications not directly related to A Levels, who have the qualities of personality and interest which will enable them to be excellent teachers. The value of two A Levels as a criterion of suitability for higher education is widely doubted and it is probable that over the next few years the whole A Level structure will be substantially modified and that other examinations may be introduced alongside it. Most important of all, although it is clear that many more potential entrants to the colleges could pass one or two A Levels if they had to, it is likely that their education in the sixth form would be distorted in the process. On balance, it is recommended that while the possession of two A Levels should be the normal requirement for entry upon a diploma course, exemptions should be generously given at any rate for several years.

4.24 The proposals in this chapter would depend on the acceptance of the diploma as a valuable qualification and no award can acquire high prestige overnight. The question of what body should be responsible for its award is of great importance and is subject to three major considerations: first, that the diploma must achieve high status and national currency; secondly, that individual colleges must enjoy a great measure of freedom in devising courses and in examining them; and thirdly, that the machinery for administering the diploma must be in operation very quickly. These are among the questions discussed in the next chapter.

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5.1 The present system of area training organisations based on some universities is derived from the conclusions of the McNair Committee, or more precisely of the half of the Committee whose recommendation on this particular question is reflected today in the pattern of all but one of the ATOs. The even division of opinion on this question within the McNair Committee indicates the difficulty of devising an acceptable national scheme for administering the education and training of teachers. The proposal in the Robbins Report for developing the links between universities and colleges of education was based upon the assumption that universities would introduce courses that were much broader and less specialised, at least in their first year. In the event, the proposal for a closer formal relationship between universities and colleges was not accepted by the government of the day and, on the whole, the universities did not develop along the suggested lines. The association between colleges and universities has continued to be one in which universities are the predominant partners in ATOs. Although it would be folly to dissociate the universities from teacher education and training, the time has now come for major modifications of the present relationship.

The need for change

5.2 One strong reason for changing the system is that the colleges have outgrown the pattern designed for them. Since the Robbins Report, and even more plainly since the McNair Report, the colleges have grown in status and confidence. They are now seen to be an integral part of the higher education system and an increasing number of their students have successfully completed a sixth form education. A growing proportion of those students possess the formal qualifications for degree work, and such work has been developed in most of the colleges. Many of the colleges are large and aspire to a greater measure of control over their own destinies. Here, then, is a major reason for change: the colleges have grown up and should be encouraged to move forward to a new degree of independence.

5.3 As the colleges have grown and developed, the whole system of higher education has become very different from that in which the area training organisations were established. The development of the binary system, the designation of polytechnics and the growing interest of the polytechnics in teacher education are changes that raise new questions. What does it mean, and why is it desirable, for the teacher training department to have a relationship with a university, here represented by the ATO, which is apparently not felt necessary by other departments within the same polytechnic? Similarly, the growth of the university sector, including the foundation of the Open University, raises important questions and offers opportunities for new developments. There are now well over 30 universities in England and Wales: why is it good for some to be bases for ATOs and

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not others? As many of the links between colleges and universities are now related to subjects as well as to professional training, why should not all universities be concerned? Although there is no universally ideal size for an ATO, can it be claimed that the present wide variations are desirable, or helpful in clarifying the notions of what an ATO is for and what it does?

5.4 The boundaries of ATOs often bear little relationship to those of local education authorities and this leads to difficulties, for example, in the elaboration of any policy for in-service training. The imminent reorganisation of local government must lead to the overdue revision of ATO boundaries which, in view of the growth in the number of universities and the rapid development of the polytechnics, must surely be accompanied by some redefinition and redistribution of responsibilities. The present system is irrational and wasteful and, unless action is taken, likely to become more so.

5.5 Nor are the shortcomings of the present system at regional level alone: there is no national agency, apart from the DES, to coordinate all teacher training activities and it is doubtful whether the functions of central planning and control should be exercised indefinitely, in however efficient and enlightened a manner, by the DES. There is a clear need for a national body in which central government decisions, once formulated, can be elaborated in terms of the action to be taken throughout the system. The lines of planning and control running between colleges, universities, LEAs, schools, ATOs and the DES are not as clear as they need to be, more especially as the number and complexity of decisions grow. The ATOs have no responsibility for, nor control over, the financing and provision of resources, including staff, facilities and equipment for the colleges. School and LEA representatives on the ATOs are often unsure of their role in contributing to the formation of policy.

5.6 To the pressures for change inherent in the present system must be added those which would be created by the fresh responsibilities flowing from a decision to implement the recommendations made elsewhere in this report. Several factors derived from these proposals point towards a more fundamental review of regional and national organisation than that already known to be necessary. First, the development of third cycle work changes very substantially the general pattern for the continuing education and training of the teacher. What is envisaged is not a minor adjustment to be painlessly accommodated within the present system. Although many ATOs are as active in providing and coordinating in-service training as the limitation of their resources allows, the comprehensive and very much expanded scheme of opportunities in the third cycle which is now proposed could not be planned and managed within their present pattern. Nor, given the scope and variety of the work known to be involved, is it self-evident that universities would themselves welcome such a role or wish to accord to it a high priority in the allocation of their own resources.

5.7 Secondly, one of the implications of that expansion, as of the proposals for the second year of the second cycle, is the establishment and growth of a network of professional centres which will include not only all the

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professional institutions but also centres set up in schools, FE colleges. teachers' centres and elsewhere. The work of the professional centres must cohere in an effective regional and national pattern and the establishment of that pattern will be a major responsibility of the new agencies proposed in this report.

5.8 Thirdly, an implication of equal importance is the creation of an effective partnership in teacher training to include the active participation of teachers working in the schools and FE colleges. The agencies must include those teachers in the process of policy-making as well as in its detailed application.

5.9 Fourthly, if the proposals of this report are adopted, a completely new approach to qualifications for students and for teachers will be introduced, and new patterns of study established in colleges. There must be reciprocity between regional agencies in the acceptance of the DipHE and the BA(Ed) as qualifications for entry to second and third cycle courses in their constituent professional institutions, and the establishment of that reciprocity will require the creation of new and authoritative organs of consultation. With the introduction of the DipHE, the colleges will include students who are not intending teachers and, in the course of time, other institutions may incorporate the diploma in their programmes of work.

5.10 Fifthly, the new patterns of study will often depend upon a grouping of colleges and, in some cases, the transfer of students between them. Some students, for example, will wish to transfer from one college to another in order to follow the appropriate specialist course for the first year of the second cycle. The economies and higher standards flowing from specialisation presuppose rationalisation which in turn requires machinery to ensure that wise decisions are not only taken in theory but also applied in practice. The agencies must therefore have a clearly recognised responsibility for making to their constituent members recommendations on the distribution of the resources made available by central policy decisions.

5.11 No attempt is made at this stage to distinguish in principle between decisions to be taken by a national agency, for example, on overall questions arising from national policy on manpower planning, or the priorities to be observed in the provision of third cycle courses, and those best taken regionally, such as which college should concentrate on what, how many and which categories of mature students may be admitted to the special second cycle courses? It is, however, obvious that the complex reforms outlined in this report require that regional and national decisions should be seen to cohere and to follow a rational sequence.

5.12 A new system will be needed to respond not only to the pressures for change in the existing situation, but also to the heavy additional demands which these new factors would imply. Two features of the proposed system which have already been mentioned need to be expanded at this point. The first is that the universities would be intimately involved, both in the process of teacher training and in the structure of the system. They would nominate members of the new regional agencies and be represented on appropriate committees and sub-committees. Many of their staff, it is hoped, would

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continue to act as external examiners for the colleges. Their education departments would provide key members of appropriate committees and many university teachers from other specialist departments would have a significant contribution to make to third cycle activities, especially in courses of subject refreshment for specialist teachers in the schools. The links of the universities with teacher training would be those of an open partnership of institutions of higher education.

5.13 The second feature of the system deserving emphasis is that the structure and operation of the system would reflect the enhanced status and independence of the colleges. It is clear that the proposals of this report would require - and enable - the colleges to take a long step forward: professionally, by enlarging their responsibilities in a much strengthened scheme for the formation of teachers; academically, by inviting them to take a lead in the development of new and broader patterns of higher education. They would be full partners in the administration of the system at regional and national levels. There are other important ways in which the status of the colleges should be recognised. Their broader role as major institutions of higher education and teacher training requires that their staffs should in all respects be treated as generously as those of other institutions of higher education. Members of their staff should have improved in-service opportunities for personal and professional education and should increasingly be encouraged to take sabbatical leave for research and to undertake periods of relevant secondment.

5.14 The scheme proposed would bring together, in a concerted working relationship in each region, all the professional institutions (colleges of education and departments of education in universities and polytechnics) together with separate representation of all universities and polytechnics in the region, all the local education authorities and the teachers in the schools and FE establishments. There would also be some additional membership as elaborated below. Although all universities would therefore be involved in the new system, it would be disingenuous to deny that what is being proposed must represent a radical change in the present relationship between some universities and the education and training of teachers or that the colleges have derived certain advantages from their present association with universities. In the course of our studies, our visits to institutions and our discussions we have given careful attention to the arguments in favour of a universal retention of the present system.

5.15 Those arguments include that of prestige by association. It is said that lecturers in the colleges feel that their position as scholars is enhanced by a formal university connection and that students applying to the colleges are attracted by the knowledge that the institution of their choice is in some way connected with a particular university. The argument from academic freedom asserts that the universities exert not a dictatorial power but a beneficent influence in protecting the colleges' academic integrity from improper interference by LEAs or by the DES. A development of this argument is that the removal of the present university dominance of the area training organisations would create a 'power vacuum': to end the dominance of one partner would invite the dominance of another. These are arguments

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that are often cogently advanced by those with great experience in the field and the plea that the colleges should be allowed to continue to look to the universities is clearly - at its best - saying something important. The colleges rightly see themselves as places of learning. The universities are, or should be, the highest manifestation of the life of learning and it seems to follow, therefore, that it is right for the colleges to work under the auspices and ultimately the guidance of the universities.

5.16. Our rejection, after prolonged reflection and discussion, of some of the conclusions alleged to follow from the arguments summarised here is based upon two convictions. First, we are persuaded that the reality of the present situation is very different from the theory which those arguments propound. Secondly, we recognise that the situation has already changed, is still changing and, if our other proposals are adopted, will change so radically as to call for major reforms. The case for maintaining the present arrangements must be examined in greater detail. The argument from prestige by association, for example, raises difficulties. Whatever theoretical advantage college lecturers may derive from their link with a parent university, it is often more apparent than real, except in the extremely important matter of the opportunities given for personal and professional relationships between college and university staff. It is precisely these opportunities which the proposed system, so far from restricting, should do much to enhance and extend. Again, it is claimed that for a number of prospective students the choice of college may be influenced by the differing policies of parent universities, in such matters as the regulations relating to the BEd degree, but there is no reason to suppose that students in general are attracted to the colleges by the university link. Indeed, it is uncertain whether many applicants are initially aware that the college of their choice has a connection with a particular university and still less certain that they understand the nature of the association.

5.17 Placing undue emphasis on the present link with universities has its own attendant dangers. The most obvious of these is that some colleges have been encouraged to strive for the wrong kind of excellence. Their courses have in many cases become too academic, in the bad sense which that word should never have acquired. In an attempt to make the college courses academically 'respectable' students are sometimes fed with a diet of theoretical speculation, based on researches the validity and scholarship of which are not always beyond question. There are, of course, ATOs where far more enlightened procedures prevail but too often the desire to imitate the university of which the college is an ill-defined part has led to a distortion of syllabuses. There is another, and more insidious, danger of the university connection in its present form. What are the practical and psychological effects of recognising another body of higher status, which is yet in many ways similar, as the guardian of one's standards? Our visits to colleges have pointed to a possible answer. In a number of cases the atmosphere encountered could only be described as one of competent acquiescence, although there was ample evidence of the readiness of colleges in general to take a much stronger hand in the management of their own affairs. It seems clear that the effect of the university control can, at its worst, be one of enervation.

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5.18 The relationship enjoyed by a college through its ATO is not, in practice, with the university itself but with the Institute or School of Education which in some cases is an appendage whose function is only dimly understood by many university teachers. The creation of the BEd degree has made a greater number of those in universities aware that they have a share in the training of teachers, by bringing the regulations for that degree directly before senates and by involving, as examiners, numbers of university teachers who are not concerned with the certificate in education. But whether all, or indeed many, of the universities responsible for ATOs feel a widespread and deep involvement with the education and training of teachers, our evidence leads us to doubt. It is not a criticism of universities to say this. They are themselves faced with a series of weighty questions about such matters as size, content of courses, internal organisation and the balance between teaching and research. To expect them, as universities, to carry administrative responsibility for planning the training of all teachers even without the additional responsibilities our proposals would lay upon them is to put on them a burden that is at once inappropriate and too heavy. There are perhaps good grounds for the hope that the universities will welcome a system relieving them of this kind of responsibility for the education and training of teachers, while encouraging them to contribute in full measure to the academic future of the colleges. The proposals of this report should stimulate such participation.

5.19 The argument from academic freedom would have had greater force a few years ago, before the changes brought about as a result of the Weaver Report. In our visits to colleges very little evidence was found that principals or members of their staffs felt their freedom to innovate or to develop within present resources threatened either by local education authorities or by the DES. There has been no indication that the colleges need the kind of bulwark against outside pressures that the present structure is said to provide. It is perhaps over-scholastic to point to an apparent contradiction in the views of those who advance the argument that a departure from the present system of administration would create a power vacuum: it is indeed difficult to concede that a power vacuum might be created by removing a power the very existence of which is strenuously denied. The major response to this argument is that a new agency, balancing all the strong interests involved but dominated by none, should become its own source of power. It would have its own Director and administrative staff, its own source of finance - as we shall be suggesting, directly from the DES - and its own premises, for which it would pay rent, perhaps in a suitably placed central college of education or in a university, if the premises now occupied by the ATO were suitable and the university were willing to lease them for this purpose. It would appoint its own committees and sub-committees and conduct its own negotiations with outside bodies. Such an agency, with its internal distribution of power, would be very well placed to resist undue pressures from any of its constituent members as well as to close ranks against any unwarrantable pressure from outside.*

*NOTE OF RESERVATION: Two of us do not share the view expressed in paragraphs 5.16 - 5.19 of the influence of the universities on the colleges. Our experience of teacher education suggests that any examples of false academicism or enervation that may exist have far more complex causes than merely the nature of a college's link with a university. JFP and JRW.

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5.20 The criticisms of the existing system rehearsed here are put forward in an attempt to reflect faithfully the widespread discontent at the way things work at present, but most of the criticisms are in effect comments on the system itself rather than on the spirit in which it is operated or the skill of those who run it. The system is at fault because it has been outdated, not least by the consequences of its own successes. After the publication of this report, there will no doubt be wide discussion of what is urged in this chapter. To any consideration of the role of the universities in the education and training of teachers one distinction is fundamental. That is the distinction, implied in what has already been written in the various chapters of this report, between what may be labelled the professional/planning and the academic/awarding functions of any organisation, such as the present ATO, which exercises a regional responsibility in teacher education and training. It has been maintained that it would be unrealistic to invite the universities to undertake, in the new situation already described, the first of these sets of functions: the case for the new regional body is, in our view, established beyond all reasonable doubt. The academic/awarding functions may, however, be discharged in a number of ways. Whichever methods are adopted, the national agency working through the regional bodies must be satisfied that the nature of the qualification is such as to be an acceptable basis for professional training. In some cases the DipHE may be awarded by the national agency itself working through the regional bodies. We hope and believe that the regional bodies will be strong and independent enough to administer the award on behalf of the national body should this be necessary. In view of the CNAA's sympathetic attitude to innovation and its concern for individual colleges, most of us hope that the academic/awarding functions, which may include the award of degrees in designated colleges, will be discharged by that body, while accepting that a university able and willing to adopt such a role cannot and should not be formally inhibited from so doing. Two of us* believe that universities should be actively encouraged to assume these responsibilities. The most obvious example of a university which might be willing to accept the obligations implicit in our recommendations and be prepared to validate the DipHE in a form acceptable to the national agency is the University of Wales. Special conditions that apply to Wales are outlined in a note contributed by one of our members and placed at the end of this chapter. 5.21 The best contribution that we can make to the discussion of future patterns or organisation is a description, in a detail which is meant to be illustrative rather than definitive, of the constitution and powers of the agencies needed to put into effect the recommendations of this report.

Constitution and powers of regional and national agencies

5.22 The term area training organisation would no longer be appropriate for the regional agencies proposed, as the institutions with which they would be dealing would have important functions in general education, as well as in professional training. We recommend the term Regional Council for Colleges and Departments of Education (RCCDE).

5.23 In determining the number of these bodies and the size of the areas to be covered by them, it would be important to ensure that each region was large

*See 'A Note of Extension' at the end of the report.

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enough to contain a sufficient number and variety of institutions, schools and LEAs to give the RCCDE adequate standing and resources, but not so large as to be unwieldy or to prevent close personal links between people with common interests. Questions of geography and means of communication would obviously be important. So, too, would be the fact that the development and coordination of facilities within the regions would be a more complicated task if RCCDE boundaries cut across those of the LEAs proposed in the forthcoming reorganisation of local government. The problems raised where the areas served by major institutions, particularly in their third cycle work, overlapped the boundaries of the proposed RCCDEs would probably be less serious.

5.24 If the recommendations in this chapter were adopted in principle, it would be useful to embody a proposed scheme in a consultative document for discussion with all the parties concerned. The important criteria would be that each RCCDE should represent and bring into partnership all the colleges, universities, polytechnics and LEAs in the region; that its Governing Council should be as small as would be consistent with adequate representation of the interests involved; and that much of its effective power should be delegated to appropriate committees. We ourselves have done some preliminary 'paper' planning, to satisfy ourselves that an improved and rationalised scheme on the lines proposed here would be feasible in principle. The results are necessarily too tentative to be included in our recommendations, but an illustrative example is given in Appendix 7. In this example it is suggested that a division of England and Wales into 15 regions would be practicable. Of these regions, Wales would be one and the lLEA area would be another. In cases where LEAs maintained colleges outside their own boundaries, the authorities in question would also be represented on the RCCDEs for the regions in which their out-county colleges were located.

5.25 In this 15-region model for the whole country, a typical RCCDE would contain two or three universities and one or two polytechnics, together with about ten colleges. The number of LEAs would vary, particularly because some regions would contain a relatively large number of small LEAs, as would be the case in the metropolitan counties. It is conceivable, however, that groups of small LEAs might choose to form joint education committees for some higher education purposes and, if so, the LEA membership of the regional bodies concerned might be appropriately adjusted. On the Governing Council of an RCCDE each professional institution (college of education, UDE or polytechnic department of education) would have one member, normally the principal, professor or head of department. In addition to this professional representation, each university or polytechnic would have one representative and it is hoped that some university vice-chancellors and some directors of polytechnics would wish to serve. Each LEA within the RCCDE would have one representative and here again we would hope for professional representation at a senior level, preferably by the CEO himself. There should be five teacher representatives from schools and FE, chosen for their professional standing, whose value would be all the greater if they did not regard themselves simply as mandated representatives of their associations. The membership should also include

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one representative nominated by the CNAA and one from the Open University. In addition to two assessors appointed by the Secretary of State, there should be two full members nominated by the Secretary of State for their knowledge of higher education or to correct any imbalance in the total membership arising out of local circumstances.

5.26 Above this structure of RCCDEs it would be necessary to have a national agency, perhaps called the National Council for Teacher Education and Training (NCTET). The need for such a body arises naturally from the functions which the structure as a whole would have to discharge. It would in some sense take the place of the former National Advisory Council on the Training and Supply of Teachers. There is no need to go in detail into the reasons for the failure of the National Advisory Council. Some of the reasons seem to be that it was too big; that it found itself advising on matters which fell solely within the discretion and responsibilities of the government and was thus taking decisions that were essentially political; and that it was hampered by working too much, in practice if not in theory, on the principle of mandation. The body now proposed would be comparatively small and compact, although not as small as the national body recommended by the McNair Committee. It should consist of about 20 members, all chosen by the Secretary of State for their knowledge of the fields with which the body would be concerned and perhaps with a part-time chairman. Given the composition and functions of the RCCDEs, it would be appropriate to ask each of them to nominate several prospective members from whom the national council could be constituted by a selection designed to preserve a proper balance of the various partners in the enterprise.

5.27 The functions of an RCCDE would be discharged mainly through two strong committees, the academic committee and the professional committee, upon which a number of sub-committees would depend. The composition of these committees and sub-committees would vary widely according to the kinds of expertise required and the kinds of interests involved, and they would need to include many members who were not members of the RCCDE Governing Council. The appropriate composition of these bodies set up for particular needs and duties will be apparent from the more detailed discussion of the various responsibilities which follows.

5.28 The interlocking of the duties of the RCCDEs and the NCTET makes it convenient to consider, in turn, each group of functions for the system as a whole. In its very important professional role the system of RCCDEs and the NCTET would be directly responsible for establishing and safeguarding the standards of nationally recognised professional qualifications in the second and third cycles. The RCCDEs would establish, on the basis of guide lines provided by the NCTET, the academic awards acceptable for entry to the second cycle, including recognition for this purpose of existing awards, such as university and CNAA degrees, the Diploma in Art and Design and Higher National Diplomas, and of course the Diploma in Higher Education. They would also have to make decisions on those special cases where the normal entry requirements to the second cycle might be modified. Arrangements for the assessment of students and licensed teachers in the second cycle (described in Chapter 3) would

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also fall to the professional committees. The RCCDEs would transmit to the NCTET recommendations for the award of 'licensed teacher' status to students who were to be admitted to the second year of the cycle, for the acceptance of successful licensed teachers as 'registered teachers' and for the award of the BA(Ed) at the end of the cycle. They would also make recommendations to the NCTET about the recognition for professional purposes of all specialist diplomas and other third cycle qualifications, including the BEd. Applications for such recognition of courses and qualifications, and of the institutions in which they were offered, would be channelled through the RCCDEs to the NCTET. The National Council would have the responsibility for the recognition of all these qualifications. It would award the BA(Ed) and decide, in the light of appropriate advice, whether or not to recognise initial teaching qualifications awarded by other bodies. It would make recommendations to the Secretary of State for the licensing and registration of teachers and it would award the MA(Ed). On the advice of the RCCDEs, it would approve other third cycle qualifications and would determine which courses could be counted against teachers' entitlement to release for third cycle activities. The professional committees of the RCCDEs should obviously contain a substantial proportion of teacher representatives. There would also be substantial membership drawn from professional institutions and centres, together with professional representatives of the LEAs, because of their concern for the requirements of the schools in terms of the quality and kinds, as well as the numbers, of teachers needed. Professional committees would need sub-committees, with suitable membership, for such matters as exceptional admissions to the second cycle, arrangements for the third cycle (which would include stimulating the provision of suitable courses), the second and third cycle training of teachers for FE and the organisation of school experience. The NCTET, too, would need to be advised on its range of professional responsibilities by a suitably constituted professional committee.

5.29 The planning responsibilities of the new agencies would be an important part of their professional role. Within the framework of national policy and the limits of the resources available, it would be for the NCTET to advise the RCCDEs on the provision of second and third cycle facilities in the training system as a whole and to satisfy itself that national needs were being met. It would publish indicators, derived from central government decisions, on the total number of teachers required and the distribution of that total among the different categories of teachers, as defined by skills, specialisms and the ages of the children to he taught; and on the proper balance between second and third cycle courses. The total number of first cycle places in the colleges of education would be determined by central government decisions, as part of the planning of higher education, and these decisions, too, would need to he incorporated in the strategies elaborated through the NCTET and the RCCDEs. Acting within the guidelines provided by the NCTET, the RCCDEs would be responsible for planning the total provision within their regions. They would have to ensure that the size and composition of their student population accorded with the national indicators and would have to make recommendations, in consultation with LEAs and other providing bodies, on the development of individual colleges

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and on the distribution of first, second and third cycle places, together with the number and location of any places leading to the award of degrees other than the BA(Ed). As an essential part of this planning process, the RCCDEs would seek a proper degree of rationalisation in the courses offered by their institutions. Rationalisation would not necessarily stop at the boundaries of RCCDEs for the NCTET would also have a coordinating role, which might include the designation of some institutions as national, or multi-regional, centres for particular purposes. The whole planning process would require a continuing dialogue between the central body and the regions. The Director of each RCCDE would be a key figure: he would be employed by the RCCDE, above all, for his administrative skill as an educational planner, and he would need a staff which would have to be of good quality. The administrative costs of running the RCCDEs and the NCTET should be met by direct grant from the DES: this would be no more than a sensible and necessary modification of the present arrangements under which the ATOs are financed by grant through the universities and the UGC.

5.30 The academic functions of the NCTET and the RCCDEs relate to first cycle qualifications. The NCTET, although it would naturally be concerned with and, where appropriate, would give guidance on, the academic standards set by the RCCDEs would not itself be directly involved in academic matters. It must, of course, be empowered to make the award of the DipHE, although the responsibility for ensuring that the arrangements were satisfactory would be delegated to the RCCDEs. The colleges themselves, subject to approval by the RCCDEs, would conduct the examinations and appoint examiners. The main academic responsibilities would fall to the academic committee of the RCCDEs. Where it was concerned in the content and conduct of DipHE courses, the academic committee of an RCCDE would need to be supported by an appropriate range of panels, whose function would be to discuss and comment on the first cycle programmes of individual colleges. An academic committee or panel would be composed mainly of college lecturers, together with some university and polytechnic teachers, teacher representatives from the schools and FE establishments and suitable co-opted members.

5.31 The National Council would thus combine two different functions, which would be discharged through two very differently composed committees. The function of the academic committee might quite rapidly be assumed by the CNAA or, in some cases, by universities. If not, it might well he that the membership and duties of the two committees would be so different that it would become administratively sensible for them to develop as separate national bodies, especially if a wider range of institutions came to include the DipHE in their programmes of work. The same differentiation would then occur at regional level. Our concern has been to propose an administrative machinery which would be capable of initiating the necessary developments as speedily as possible. It would also, however, be a machinery that was susceptible to rapid modification in the light of experience.

5.32 Although the observations of the National Council might be sought on the total supply of teachers and on the amount of money to be committed

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to their education and training, it would not be within the Council's powers to make decisions on either question. Such decisions would clearly be political and therefore the prerogative of central and local government. Nevertheless, it would be essential that, within numerical and financial guidelines determined by central government, the new agencies should be able to put forward plans based on their knowledge of the strengths and legitimate aspirations of individual institutions.

The financing of the colleges of education

5.33 It is clear that colleges of education must be subject to some form of centralised allocation of resources and equally clear that the system should seek to avoid gross inequalities of financial provision between one college and another. The total level of resources involved must be a concern of central government and, for as long as many of the colleges continue to receive their money from that sector of the public purse for which local authorities are responsible, the local authorities have an effective say in how that money is disbursed. It does not follow that a proper measure of financial control by local authorities is best exercised by the unplanned intervention of individual authorities and the need for better coordinated arrangements is already recognised in the studies undertaken by the Pooling Committee. It would not be appropriate to suggest detailed amendments of the pooling arrangements. What can be done is to suggest principles which should underlie any changes in the existing procedures that are made.

5.34 One principle deserving special emphasis is that plans should be drawn up which would allow the colleges of education to move towards the maximum possible freedom in the management of their own financial affairs. In view of the proposed expansion of the colleges' activities and the increasing variety of learning resources available to them, it would be reasonable to give individual colleges greater powers of decision in financial matters. They should have the power to make alternative use of resources for teaching staff, non-teaching staff and monies for equipment and materials, within a specified margin of their total resources, subject to proper safeguards about total cost and due regard being paid to implications for future financial commitments. Equally important is the principle that logistic and educational decisions must be integrated if second and third cycle activities are to be properly planned and rationalised. The expansion of third cycle work proposed in this report would require a substantial deployment of resources. The new regional and national agencies would be unable to play the part assigned to them unless they had an effective means of influencing how those resources were distributed. The elaboration of any financial system applying to teacher education and training is beset with complex problems: it is necessary to acknowledge the collective interests of the LEAs, to allow for the complications arising from the financing of voluntary colleges and to deal with the difficulties that flow from an overlapping of the financial arrangements in the independent and public sectors. It seems to us to be essential that once decisions had been taken centrally, after consultation with the NCTET, on the total level of resources to be committed, and had been interpreted by that body, the RCCDEs should be responsible for making recommendations to all their constituent members on the allocation of resources within their regions. Their power to make these recommendations would have to be fully recognised.

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5.35 The financial arrangements applying at present to the colleges, and in particular the pooling arrangements, have come about partly because they are establishments for producing the teachers needed for the maintained schools as a whole. Students in the colleges who might not otherwise qualify for mandatory awards receive them at present by virtue of being intending teachers. One effect of adopting the proposals of this report would be that the colleges would cease to be exclusively teacher-producing and, although they would continue to contain 'intending teachers', it would not necessarily be possible to identify these students on entry. Provided all students following DipHE courses could be regarded for this purpose as the equivalent of 'advanced further education' students, however, we have been assured that it would be perfectly feasible to adapt the pooling arrangements, so that the expenditure of the colleges could continue to be pooled. We have also been given to understand that provided normal entry requirements to the DipHE were the same as those for what are called 'designated courses', i.e. two A Levels or the equivalent - with suitable provision also, we would hope, for the exceptions already referred to in Chapter 4 - then it should be possible for all students in the colleges to qualify for mandatory awards.

Possible development of the system

5.36 The new system would allow great possibilities of specialisation within a framework of diversity. There would be ample scope for individual institutions to develop along their own particular lines. Nowhere would this diversity be more likely than in the development of the colleges of education. The colleges already vary a great deal in the status of their providing bodies, their size, specialisms, patterns of activity and geographical situations. (Appendix 8 gives some indication of this diversity of the present pattern). In future, virtually all colleges would carry out the functions of professional centres and would therefore be intimately involved in the third cycle and in the second year of the second cycle. Apart from that common role, their paths might diverge even more widely than at present. Colleges already specialising in the preparation of teachers of physical education or home economics might be encouraged to continue to do so. The colleges which have built a high reputation on their training for work with young children might be similarly encouraged to recruit their students from among those with a strong and early motivation to work of this kind, and to concentrate on suitable education-oriented courses. It is hoped that the two colleges in Wales that have specialised in bilingualism would wish to continue this specialism. Some large colleges would be equipped, and should be encouraged, to offer a comprehensive programme of activities covering all three cycles, including the development of degree courses for students other than intending teachers. A few large colleges might tend to concentrate on second and third cycle work of all kinds and become centres of professional excellence, while other colleges became centres for courses in the first cycle only. Still others might see their future as specialised residential centres for high quality work in the third cycle. The voluntary bodies which maintain training establishments would continue to do so and the colleges to fulfil their distinctive role. It is to be hoped that the voluntary bodies would agree to a widening of functions for their colleges so that all could share in the same advance and play their full part in the new system. Financial arrangements for these colleges would continue as at present.

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5.37 Larger questions would arise if it were decided that a few colleges should change their status and function altogether by amalgamation with universities or polytechnics. There would be problems in assimilating such developments into financial and building programmes and there might be grave difficulties over the transfer of staff. Nevertheless there may be a few cases where such mergers are geographically possible and educationally appropriate. Other varieties of mergers offer perhaps more promising opportunities. For example, groups of two or three colleges might choose to amalgamate, where their locations favoured such a merger. Different forms and styles of amalgamation should be encouraged and could lead to a rationalisation of effort, not necessarily related to the age range covered by the training. Nor should planners overlook the possibility that some colleges might close or be made over to other educational uses.

5.38 Special consideration would need to be given to the training of teachers for FE, which at present is largely conducted by the four colleges of education (technical) and by 'outposts' of those colleges in certain FE establishments. Students in these colleges and outposts are trained to work with young people of school leaving age and beyond, and their training may be either quite broad, dealing with general subjects or the more common technologies, or highly specialised to equip them to teach young men and women employed in particular industrial occupations. There will be a continuing need for the latter kind of specialised training, although the number of students will remain quite small. In some cases at present one or two of the four colleges provide for the total need and even in the system proposed in this report there will be, for some time to come, few, if any, regions able to provide all the specialist facilities required and some which cannot provide any of them. The system must therefore continue to be 'national' rather than 'regional' for these purposes and the NCTET will need a special committee to plan and coordinate the arrangements. Until such time as the measures proposed in this report led to a large expansion of second and third cycle work for FE teachers, the need would mostly be satisfied within the present pattern of four specialist colleges and associated outposts, the latter probably developing into, or being assimilated with, professional centres. As the general training load increased, it would be carried by the four colleges, by polytechnic departments of education which undertook this type of work and by a range of professional centres set up in selected FE colleges. Although the pattern over the country would thus become more comprehensive, the need for national coordination of specialised facilities would remain.

5.39 The system proposed in this report would encourage close interrelationships between institutions and the sharing of facilities and resources, wherever such sharing was practicable and beneficial. Indeed, sharing of this kind could extend to other institutions - for example, FE establishments or colleges of art and design or of music - where the circumstances were mutually favourable. For this and other reasons, it would be essential to establish effective lines of communication between the Regional Advisory Councils for FE and the new agencies proposed in this report. The proposals for rationalisation do not go as far as some witnesses to this Inquiry have urged, but they would not inhibit more radical developments

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if these were decided upon. It has been argued, for example, that a Central Grants Committee should be established, to review the whole field of expenditure on higher education or that, at least, there should be a parallel agency to the UGC to consider all higher education expenditure in the public sector. There is clearly some force in the argument that decisions about the allocation of total resources for higher education could be made more effectively in some agency covering the whole field but it is also clear that in accepting invitations to explore this wider area we should be exceeding the limits of our terms of reference. Nevertheless, the proposals of this report, so far from inhibiting a partial or total merging of different sectors of higher education, would simplify any such developments as might eventually be defined as national policy.

Action to be taken in the immediate future

5.40 It now remains to consider the immediate steps which might follow a decision in principle to implement this report. A consultative document on the constitution, powers and geographical boundaries of the proposed Regional Councils would presumably be issued at an early date. As LEAs would be essential members of such Councils it would seem to follow that decisions based on these consultations, and embodying the formal constitution of the RCCDEs, could not be made effective until after the reorganised local authorities had assumed office in April 1974. Moreover, if the National Council were constituted in the way suggested in this report, it would seem to be the case that it could not be set up until after the regional bodies were in being. The paramount need for making a speedy start on building the new system would, however, point to the value of interim solutions. The establishment at the earliest possible date of an interim national body for a limited term of office would be necessary. Such an interim body could be quite small, containing perhaps only 10 members, but with provision for later expansion of membership to the full size of the NCTET. Meanwhile, its composition could reflect a balance of interests similar to that within the National Council and its membership might, indeed, in practice, anticipate some of the membership of the future body. This interim body would need to take office before any of the other changes foreshadowed in this report could be set in train and its appointment should not await the 1974 reorganisation of local government. It would need to be empowered to award the DipHE and the BA(Ed) and to take decisions on behalf of its successor.

5.41 The structure of regional agencies should also be established quickly and on a similar interim basis. Once decisions had been made about the boundaries and composition of the future RCCDEs it would be possible to establish for the regions Consultative Councils which would undertake a great deal of preliminary work on behalf of, and subject to later ratification by, the RCCDEs. These consultative bodies, most of whose membership might anticipate the membership of the RCCDEs, could initiate the work of defining the standards required for the award of the DipHE and the BA(Ed), begin to offer advice on the content and organisation of first cycle courses, seek help and advice from existing degree-granting bodies and set up provisional machinery for articulating national

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decisions on supply and resources and for discussing priorities and promoting rationalisation. Their decisions in these matters could not be finalised until the RCCDEs and the NCTET themselves were appointed, but much preliminary work could be completed. The study of the complex and delicate problems involved in defining the financial arrangements for the new system should begin at the earliest possible date.

5.42 Since the national body, interim or permanent, could not be equipped to award the DipHE before 1975 at the earliest, the first students for the diploma could not be enrolled before September 1973. It follows either that the Consultative Councils must be created soon enough to approve arrangements for DipHE courses starting in that year or that provision must be made for retrospective approval of courses after they had been launched. If all intending teachers are to embark on the new kind of second cycle courses in 1975, then sufficient professional centres must be in existence by 1976 to meet the needs of licensed teachers in that year. In 1977 the first awards of the degree of BA(Ed) would be made, both to teachers who had started DipHE courses in 1973 and to those whose three-year degree courses had started in 1972. Provided that suitable arrangements could be made for them, it might well be possible for at least some of the teachers who will be trained under the present system and will enter the schools in 1973, 1974 and 1975 to have the benefit of the improved style of induction proposed for the second year of the second cycle.

5.43 It is not on the organisational changes alone that an early start could be made. A decision in principle to proceed along the lines suggested here could release considerable energies and immediately initiate a great deal of essential preliminary work. If the establishment of a system of the kind described here were a publicly accepted objective there is no doubt that many of the agencies concerned would take immediate action. LEAs, for example, would begin to nominate the teachers who would be professional tutors in their schools. They would begin to plan an expansion of third cycle activity, placing particular emphasis on the need to organise courses to prepare professional tutors for their new responsibilities. They would study possible locations for professional centres and would take steps to build up some existing teachers' centres to the level of staffing and facilities they would need in order to become professional centres. They would take advantage of the continuing improvement in teacher supply to appoint sufficient teachers to ensure that the schools might start to plan the arrangements they would have to make to play the part assigned to them. These arrangements would be especially difficult in schools which suffer from a high turnover of staff. Although these schools present problems incapable of easy solution, employing authorities must be encouraged to be particularly generous in staffing and supporting them. The colleges of education and other professional institutions would begin to re-examine their courses and introduce experiments which looked ahead to the changes that were impending. The Consultative Councils, as forerunners of the RCCDEs, would draw the professional institutions into a preliminary consideration of development plans for their regions.

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The situation in Wales: a note by one of our members

5.44 There are special characteristics and circumstances relating to Wales which require it to be treated separately. The McNair Committee also appreciated this fact and it therefore made separate recommendations for Wales, which were unanimous, and which were wholeheartedly adopted by the Welsh institutions which were concerned with them. It is instructive to note the way in which the integration of colleges of education with the University of Wales has been achieved as a result of the recommendations of the McNair Committee. The University of Wales is unique in Britain in that in both its origin and its development it is a national institution. It has therefore adapted itself to the cultural and geographical conditions of its environment and has evolved into a flexible federation which gives considerable autonomy in academic and other matters to its constituent institutions. No more evidence of this is required than the way in which, over the past few years, the former Welsh College of Advanced Technology and St David's College Lampeter, have become members of the Federation. This flexible attitude has also been applied to the University School of Education which acts as the Area Training Organisation for Wales. This ATO is unique in that its officers, who have their headquarters at the University of Wales Registry, have an exclusively administrative and coordinating function. Initial training is carried out by the departments of education of the University's constituent colleges at Aberystwyth, Bangor, Cardiff and Swansea and by nine colleges of education situated in different parts of Wales. In-service education is carried out by the Collegiate Faculties of Education centred on the constituent colleges of the University and including colleges of education, the local authorities and teachers in those particular areas. Although the University maintains an overall academic supervision of the colleges of education, as it does over all its constituent institutions, it has encouraged considerable experimentation by individual colleges. With the creation of Academic Boards in the colleges of education the University has abolished Boards of Study which used to consider syllabus changes, and has replaced them by colloquia which involve members of the University, the colleges of education and teachers. These colloquia ensure that there is a continuous interchange of ideas concerning syllabuses and curriculum development. The formal academic approval of any changes or experimentation is given by a newly created Faculty Board which is broadly representative and which is required, in addition, to take expert advice on specific matters from teachers in schools, colleges of education and universities.

5.45 In the light of the above situation, the possibility outlined in paragraph 5.20 of universities discharging the academic/awarding functions described in this report, should in Wales become a fact. Moreover, the University of Wales has already shown a liberal attitude in awarding its professional degrees and diplomas to students of higher and further education institutions other than the constituent colleges. The revised BEd for serving teachers is one example as are the Bachelor of Nursing and the Bachelor of Librarianship, this last being taken by students of the College of Librarianship, Wales, under a scheme of academic association between that College and the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. Similar academic associations could be developed between constituent colleges of the University and the colleges of education in their respective regions.

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5.46 The administrative pattern which has been suggested for England could be adapted to the special conditions in Wales. It is important that the education and training of teachers in Wales should be under the aegis of one national body, as is university education in that country. The appropriate method of achieving this would be the creation of a Wales College Council composed of the University, the colleges of education, the one existing polytechnic and the local authorities with the University providing the secretariat and the administration. The Council would have a membership similar to that of RCCDEs in England except that the local education authorities would be represented by members nominated by the Welsh Joint Education Committee, a statutory body composed of all the local education authorities in Wales. The functions of the Council would be generally similar to those of RCCDEs in England but there would obviously be some differences deriving from the particular circumstances of the Principality.

5.47 If the University undertakes these new and important tasks, and past experience suggests that it will, this will enable teacher training in Wales to take its proper place in that country's system of education, which from primary through secondary to university level, has been adapted over the years to the particular circumstances and requirements of the Principality.


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6.1 This final chapter draws together our main conclusions into a continuous summary of the report as a whole. In doing so, it briefly recapitulates the principal arguments and the recommendations to which they point and then raises questions related to them.

Education and training

6.2 All teachers need to be well educated professionals but the specific kind of preparation a teacher needs obviously depends upon the kind of school in which he plans to work, his specialism (if any) and the age range of the children or young people he intends to teach. Differences in the preparation for teaching do not necessarily, however, denote any difference in the rigour of the preparation or in the intellectual demands on those who undertake it. It is a clear recommendation of this report that, given an appropriate educational base, the professional training of all teachers should be the same in length and structure, however different in its emphases and the details of its content, and that pre-service higher education and professional training for all school teachers should extend over at least four years. The fact that all initial teacher training will lead to the same professional qualification must reduce that divisiveness (between primary and secondary, graduate and non-graduate) which has bedevilled the teaching profession for so many years.

6.3 For many teachers at present, education and training are combined in the concurrent courses offered in the colleges of education and in the education departments of the polytechnics. It would be wise to identify and preserve the virtues which flow from such courses, and how this might be achieved is discussed below. Meanwhile, it must be said that the present pattern of training, despite its merits, has been the cause of widespread misgivings. Criticisms of the present system, which we hold to be justified, point to the need for a radical solution.

6.4 A number of the criticisms apply to consecutive as well as to concurrent training. Much of the theoretical study of education is irrelevant to students who have had, as yet, too little practical experience of children or teaching, and the inclusion of this theoretical study is often at the expense of adequate practical preparation for their first teaching assignments. In the attempt to produce fully competent teachers by the end of the initial course, timetables become overloaded and the essential is sometimes sacrificed to the desirable. In the attempt to cover a very wide range of subject areas, the number of small teaching groups has been multiplied, with a consequent uneconomic use of resources. The concurrent course, moreover, suffers from a confusion of objectives and a tension between the personal education of students and their professional preparation.

6.5 Taken together, these criticisms represent a problem to which there is no obvious solution, unless the initial higher education, pre-service training and induction, and subsequent in-service training of teachers can be regarded

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as consecutive parts of a continuing process, in which all the parts are indispensable and, although separate, interrelated. The essential prerequisite is that there must be adequate opportunities for the continued education and training of all teachers, at intervals throughout their careers. Only then can the objectives of pre-service training be sensibly determined. Only then can the professional preparation of intending teachers be as specialised and functional as their initial needs dictate. There is a still more important reason for emphasising the need for better in-service opportunities: it is only from a basis in teaching experience that teachers can derive the best from professional education and training. Moreover, they need to update and extend their knowledge and skill, and to adapt themselves to the changes they are bound to face in their teaching careers. This report has been written on the assumption that it is possible and desirable to divide the education and training of teachers into three consecutive stages: the first, personal education; the second, pre-service training and induction; and the third, in-service education and training. The term 'cycles' has been chosen for these stages.

6.6 The first cycle should consist of a course of study leading to a higher education award recognised as a qualification for entry to the second cycle. A university or CNAA degree would be a suitable first cycle award for some teachers, including, it is hoped, a growing number completing joint honours courses in which educational studies were combined with another discipline. Certain other specialist qualifications would also be acceptable. For some teachers, on the other hand, a different kind of educational base would be more helpful. It it recommended that there should be a two-year course leading to a new award, to be called the Diploma in Higher Education. The course would be broad in scope and would include, for all students, a substantial element of general studies, occupying about a third of the time, combined with rigorous study of normally two special subjects, one of which might or might not be related to educational studies, chosen by the students from a range of options. The course would interrelate the special and general studies and would be constructed on a unit basis. The award would depend on the successful completion of not less than a specified number of units. It cannot be overemphasised that the proposed DipHE could not be equated with the preparation of primary teachers nor exclusively with the education of teachers.

6.7 The DipHE course, although designed with the needs of teachers in mind, should be widely acceptable to prospective students and employers alike. It would be well suited to the needs of the many sixth formers who, because there is no attractive alternative, enter existing higher education courses without proper motivation. The introduction of such a course would meet many of the criticisms of present arrangements. The students in the colleges, those who intended to teach and those who did not, would be there because they had chosen the course that was offered and not because they had had to commit themselves to a course of professional training for which they were not fully motivated simply in order to obtain higher education. For students who had not yet made up their minds about their future occupation, there would be no obligation to commit themselves to a career choice at the age of 18. There would be an end to the complaint that some students feel 'trapped into teaching' because the qualification with which they leave their college is not valid in any other occupation. On the other

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hand, some students following the diploma course with no predisposition towards teaching might become attracted to it. For some students, the DipHE would be the basis for subsequent professional teacher training, but for others it would be a perfectly acceptable terminal qualification. Some might go on to train for certain other professions, and some might move on to degree courses in universities, polytechnics or within the college system.

6.8 The colleges would contain a large range of students who, on completing the diploma course, would proceed on a number of different paths. The colleges would therefore no longer be training teachers in isolation. This solution to the problem of isolation would be better than the 'diversification' often urged, which seems to imply an unrealistic proliferation of specialist training courses for different professions, within the same institutions.

6.9 Unquestionably, however, any new system must continue to meet the needs of the many students who feel from the outset a strong commitment to teaching. For many teachers in primary and nursery schools, for a number of 'generalist' teachers in middle and secondary schools and for some secondary specialists in such areas as home economics and physical education, the established pattern of concurrent training, for all its weaknesses, has had great value and relevance. Two of the chief benefits are these: first, the course gives students an early introduction to educational studies, related to practical experience of the classroom against which to test the generalisations arising from their theoretical work; secondly, it enables them consciously to integrate their personal education with the prospective requirements of their work as teachers. The kind of consecutive pattern now proposed, involving a cycle of personal education followed by a cycle of training, would have to give such students similar opportunities to make early progress towards their occupational goal. They would be able to choose educational studies as their special studies in the diploma course and they would also have, as part of the course, the opportunity for practical observation of learning and teaching situations in schools, nurseries and other institutions. They would be helped to make appropriate connections between what they learned in college and what they would eventually teach in schools. Students with these aspirations would be able to follow a diploma course similar in important respects to the first part of a concurrent course, although there would be one notable difference in that those who changed their minds about wanting to teach would be able to leave after two years, with a qualification to show for their work. Some colleges - for example specialist colleges of home economics or physical education, and colleges specialising in training for primary and nursery education - might choose to concentrate very largely on education-oriented courses of this type, and to attract students predominantly from among those who were already determined to teach.

6.10 Many of the students proceeding to the second cycle would no doubt prefer to remain in the institution in which they took their first cycle course, but they would not be obliged to do so. Transfers at the end of the first cycle would be readily possible and would be necessary, to take two examples, for students wishing to pursue a specialist interest developed after entry into higher education or for many whose first cycle institution did not offer teacher training courses. For all intending teachers, the second cycle would

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consist of two years of professional preparation. The first year would normally be in a professional institution, whether a college of education or the education department of a university or polytechnic, and would cover both the theoretical exploration of disciplines contributing to the study of education, and practical work. The training would be specifically related to the teacher's prospective needs in his first appointment. For students whose first cycle course had included no educational studies there would be additional courses or studies. At the end of the first year, successful students would be recommended to the Secretary of State for recognition as 'licensed teachers' and would proceed to the second year of the cycle, which would consist of largely school-based training.

6.11 At the beginning of this second year, a licensed teacher would take up his first teaching assignment, but with a deliberately reduced timetable. He would be released for the equivalent of not less than one day a week, for attendance at a professional institution or 'professional centre' (of the kind described in Chapter 2) where he would take part in discussions and seminars and have the opportunity for further study. He would be able to look for help and advice to a teacher on the staff of his school who would be designated a 'professional tutor', with particular responsibilities for helping new teachers on the staff and students-in-training receiving practical experience. as well as for coordinating the in-service training arrangements for all teachers in his school. The second year of the second cycle would thus combine the first year of service and the last year of initial training. Teachers successfully completing this year would become 'registered teacher'* i.e. full members of the profession. The special conditions applying to teachers for FE are discussed in paragraphs 6.14 - 6.15 below. 6.12 The whole of the second cycle would be designed on the assumption that all teachers would have substantial opportunities for continued education and training during their professional careers, and its objectives would accordingly be realistically limited. Arrangements for the second year of the cycle would mean that, for new teachers, a period of systematic induction, with proper supervision and support, and with time for reflection and study, would replace the existing probationary arrangements which have been widely condemned. The fact that the second year would be an integral part of initial training would make it possible to reduce the role of formal teaching practice in the first year of the cycle. The current arrangements for teaching practice are in any case under considerable strain, because of pressure on the schools, the difficulties of giving students appropriate supervision and the great distances college tutors often have to travel in order to spend relatively little time with their students. The new arrangements would place more emphasis on that valuable practical experience which can often be given through college-based activities, including the use of video-tape recordings, micro-teaching techniques and other small group work with children brought into college for the purpose.

6.13 Since entry to the second cycle would depend upon the successful completion of an approved course of higher education extending over two years or more, it is recommended that all students who then successfully

*The use of the term 'registered teacher' in this report is not intended to prejudge the outcome of current discussions of the possible establishment of a Teaching Council.

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completed a further two years of professional training in the second cycle should receive the award of a professional degree of BA(Education) on the basis of the assessments described in this report. This would be a more effective and satisfactory way of achieving an all-graduate profession than would be an arbitrary (and, for some considerable time, impracticable) insistence that all teachers should possess academic degrees of existing types, which in any case would be an unsuitable educational base for many teachers. The award of this new degree would depend on the satisfactory fulfilment of a professional role in the schools as well as on academic attainment. With its introduction, the BEd degree should cease to exist in its present form as an initial qualification, although it would have an important future as an in-service award, especially if, as has been suggested in this report, it could subsume a number of the existing advanced diplomas in education. Students of good ability, who wished not only to make an early entry into teaching but also to pursue their studies to a higher level, would be able to return to selected professional institutions for a one year course leading to the degree of MA(Ed), either at the end of the second cycle or after an interval of further teaching experience. Within the college system there would also be opportunities, in selected colleges, for students to take three year degree courses developed from the DipHE. The validation of these awards and of the DipHE is discussed below.

6.14 The training of teachers for further education has not been given separate treatment in this report, because the main recommendations apply to them as to other teachers. The particular problems relating to FE have been discussed at appropriate points in the body of the text. A large number of FE teachers enter the profession after some years of further education, training and experience in industry and commerce. The requirement for new first cycle courses in the FE field is therefore limited, although the DipHE would be suitable for teachers interested in the general education of FE students. There is no formal requirement that FE teachers should be trained or possess qualified teacher status, and the introduction of compulsory training for graduate entrants to the schools will not apply to them, although some form of training requirement for FE teachers has been recommended in the past. The proposals in this report on the licensing and registration of teachers would not apply to teachers in FE, but would do so in full to teachers trained in the colleges of education (technical) who then proceeded to teach in schools, and should be applied to FE teachers if it were decided to align the FE system with the school system in this respect.

6.15 The pre-service training of teachers for FE would fit easily into the suggested pattern for the second cycle. For some students admitted to colleges of education (technical) the second cycle would consist of the normal sequence of a year in the institution and a year of practical experience with regular release for further study; for others there could be a modification of the present sandwich courses, in which students would spend the first and fourth terms of the two year course in a college of education and the other four terms in post, once again with regular release. The colleges offering these kinds of pre-service training would be closely comparable with other kinds of specialist institutions for second and third cycle work and,

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indeed, they already provide a model of what such an institution might be. Special arrangements would be necessary for the many FE teachers who are recruited directly from other employment. It is recommended that the first step be taken towards the application of a training requirement to such new entrants, after their entry into service. Initially, the requirement might be imposed only on new entrants who intended to teach mainly the 16 - 19 year old age groups and might in the first instance be quite limited in scope, but it should then be extended in scope and coverage as training resources were built up to meet the need. The timing of the 'initial' training given to these new entrants would, of course, place it in the third cycle, where all existing full-time teaching staff in FE should enjoy the same opportunities as other teachers.

6.16 The third cycle covers the very wide range of activities which serving teachers should undertake at intervals throughout their working lives, to continue their personal education and extend their professional competence. In no area covered by this Inquiry has criticism of present arrangements been more outspoken or more general. In no area do the proposals of this report deserve greater emphasis. The proposals for the third cycle are clear: all teachers should be entitled to release with pay for in-service education and training on a scale not less than the equivalent of one term in every seven years and, as soon as possible, on a scale of one term in five years. This entitlement would be satisfied only by release for designated full-time courses lasting at least four weeks, or their approved part-time equivalents, and would be in addition to any shorter term third cycle activities in which teachers took part, whether or not these involved release from school. There should also be a considerable expansion of these shorter term opportunities. To commit energies and resources to a development of the third cycle along the lines envisaged here would be the quickest, most effective and most economical way of improving the quality of education in the schools and colleges and of raising the standards, morale and status of the teaching profession. For third cycle activities on the scale proposed it would be essential to set up appropriate machinery to identify needs and to coordinate arrangements to meet them.

Administration, finance and the validation of awards

6.17 The implementation of the proposals outlined here for the education and training of teachers, involving systematic arrangements for the induction of new teachers in the profession, a large expansion of third cycle work and the organisation of a network of professional centres (in addition to professional institutions) for both second and third cycle activities, would require strong regional agencies. This pattern of regional bodies would need to be a modification of the existing ATO system, but with considerably enlarged responsibilities and important structural changes. First, any reorganisation of the system (particularly in view of the imminent reorganisation of local government) should take the opportunity to end the present wide variations in size of the ATOs and achieve a more sensible grouping. It has been argued in this report that a division of England and Wales into 15 regions would produce regional bodies of a suitable size. These bodies might be called Regional Councils for Colleges and Departments of Education (RCCDEs). Secondly, although the new bodies, like the present ones,

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should involve all the partners in teacher education and training, the opportunity should be taken to end the present anomaly that only some universities, and some polytechnics, are concerned. All these institutions of higher education, and not just a largely fortuitous selection of them, should be involved in the important work of preparing teachers for the nation's schools and colleges. Some universities and polytechnics would continue to train teachers but all should have the opportunity, through those of their members who had appropriate interests, to contribute expertise, advice and help of various kinds, and all should be represented in the new regional structure. Thirdly, those universities on which ATOs are based at present should be relieved of the somewhat anomalous responsibility for financing the administration of a system whose composition represents a very wide partnership, whose functions will increasingly extend far beyond the ambit of the universities and whose finance is drawn very largely from non-university sources. The administration of the RCCDEs should be financed by direct grant from the DES and should be independent of any one partner. The RCCDEs should appoint their own directors and administrative staff and conduct their own negotiations with outside bodies. On this footing, they would be well able to resist undue pressures whether from inside or outside. Fourthly, it is necessary to distinguish between the planning and administration of a regional organisation for teacher education and training and the validation of awards.

6.18 Above the regional agencies, and representing them, there should be a national body, perhaps called the National Council for Teacher Education and training (NCTET). The constitution and powers of such a body, and of the RCCDEs, would reflect the distinction referred to above between the professional/planning aspect of the system and the academic/awarding aspect. The NCTET and each RCCDE would have two strongly constituted and appropriately composed committees, the professional committee and the academic committee. All professional teaching qualifications, including the BA(Education) and all in-service professional awards, must be dependent upon recognition and approval by the NCTET. It should make recommendations to the Secretary of State on the recognition of 'licensed' and 'registered' teachers. It would also be empowered, itself, to award the BA(Education). An essential feature of the scheme would be that the NCTET, whose professional committee would be strongly representative of the teaching profession, would be the final arbiter on questions of which first cycle qualifications were acceptable for admission to teacher training and which professional qualifications the Secretary of State could be recommended to approve. The teaching profession would thus be given a greater measure of control over its own professional destinies than it has ever had before.

6.19 The planning aspects of the professional functions exercised by the NCTET and the RCCDEs have been described in some detail in this report and are only briefly recapitulated here. Decisions about the numbers of teachers needed by the schools (and thus of the second cycle places to be provided in the system), as well as decisions about the total level of resources to be committed to first, second and third cycle activities would be properly taken by central government and by local authorities acting in concert. These national decisions would be incorporated in guidelines issued by the

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NCTET to the Regional Councils who would elaborate them as detailed strategies. The RCCDEs would provide the framework for the cooperation in these tasks of all the interests involved: LEAs, maintained and voluntary colleges, universities, polytechnics, teaching staff in schools and FE colleges and the DES. All would contribute to a discussion of priorities and would influence the distribution of resources, by having a recognised responsibility for making recommendations on these questions to the constituent members of the RCCDEs. In this way, the colleges of education would be given an effective say, at present denied them, in how the available resources should be used, without encroaching upon the proper financial responsibilities of the providing bodies.

6.20 The academic committee of the RCCDEs would be concerned, in the ways described in this report, with the first cycle work in the colleges, namely courses for the DipHE and degree courses based upon it. The problem of how the new awards of the DipHE and the BA(Ed) could best be validated has had our prolonged and careful consideration. Three major factors influenced the recommendations on this question. First, it was most important for both awards to be launched without delay, with strong and unequivocal support, so that they could quickly gain national recognition. It has been argued in the report that the necessary machinery should be set up with all possible speed so that the first awards of the DipHE might be made in 1975 and of the BA(Ed) in 1977. Secondly, it was impossible to foresee whether existing degree-granting bodies would wish to be responsible for the DipHE or would regard it as an appropriate qualification for them to award. Thirdly, it was of the utmost importance that the NCTET, whose professional committee would be strongly representative of the teaching profession, should finally decide which first cycle awards should be acceptable for intending teachers. These considerations have pointed to the conclusion that the NCTET should be empowered to award the DipHE as well as the BA(Ed). There are, however, some important qualifications to the second of the three factors mentioned above. The report has discussed the advantages of validation by the CNAA of the DipHE and the development in some colleges of new-style degrees based upon it. The possibility is also acknowledged in the report that some universities might wish to do the same, for the DipHE or this degree work, or both.* In that event, the academic/awarding function of the new structure might be remitted quite soon to the CNAA or in some cases to universities. The combination of academic and professional functions within the same structure, which would otherwise be necessary, would cause problems but these could and should be overcome. In time the differences in the duties of the academic and professional committees of the NCTET and the RCCDEs might lead, especially if the DipHE were adopted by a wider range of institutions, to the establishment of two separate national bodies, with a corresponding differentiation at regional level. Of the third factor mentioned above, however, there would be absolutely no qualification: that is, the NCTET should be firmly given the responsibility for deciding which first, second and third cycle awards were professionally acceptable. This would be an essential principle for the NCTET jealously to guard.

*Special circumstances applying to Wales have been discussed in Chapter 5.

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Some wider questions

6.21 Any new proposals for the education and training of teachers must be formulated to some extent against the background of the higher education system as a whole. A detailed examination of this wider context would be beyond the terms of reference of this Inquiry, but there are some aspects of it which must be our concern. It is significant, for example, that the prospective expansion of the higher education 'base' will substantially increase the numbers of educated men and women from among whom new teachers may be recruited. Moreover, the terms of reference of the Inquiry, by inviting a consideration of whether it is possible to end the 'isolation' in which many teachers are educated and trained at present, themselves require attention to the implications which proposals may have for other kinds of higher education. Perhaps most important of all, the very successes of the teacher training establishment in responding to the demands placed upon it, together with some stabilisation in the total size of the school population, have created problems and presented opportunities. To put it bluntly, the supply of new teachers is now increasing so rapidly that it must soon catch up with any likely assessment of future demand, and choices will have to be made very soon between various ways of using or diverting some of the resources at present invested in the education and training of teachers.

6.22 A number of possible choices have been elaborated in the body of this report. First, the problems of teacher training cannot adequately be solved unless teachers in the schools and FE colleges have the opportunity to play a more effective part in the professional formation of new and aspiring entrants. This is especially the case if, as we firmly believe, the so-called probationary year must be transformed from its present character of an ordeal to be endured into an extensive and meaningful period of professional training. Secondly, it is essential that all teachers should have a series of opportunities for continued education and training throughout their careers, more systematically and on a more substantial scale than is possible under the haphazard and inadequate arrangements at present in force. Both these suggestions would have important implications for the staffing of the schools: neither would be feasible without significant and continuing improvements in present staffing ratios. Both suggestions would also imply a substantial demand for training places, additional to those needed for pre-service training. This report makes a third, and very important, suggestion for using the existing resources of the teacher training system to great advantage. The introduction of the DipHE would attract into the colleges many students other than intending teachers and would give them educational opportunities well suited to their needs, besides broadening the educational and social environment in which many teachers received their education and training. The educational and social arguments for the DipHE, both as a terminal qualification and as a base for academic and professional degrees, are, to our mind, conclusive.

6.23 To make satisfactory provision for the three needs outlined in the last paragraph would more than take up the existing capacity of the teacher training establishment. Indeed, a growth in the popularity of the diploma might require an expansion of the college system which, to judge by recent

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experience, the colleges would be well able to achieve. Such an expansion would be highly desirable in any case since the colleges would be asked to make important innovations and would be better able to do so in a context of expansion than in one of stagnation or contraction.

6.24 The pattern of teacher training recommended in this report would make possible a highly sophisticated and sensitive control of teacher supply, in terms both of numbers and composition. The control would operate at the point of entry to the second cycle. Decisions taken then would have a significant effect on the supply of teachers twelve months later, when the students admitted would become licensed teachers, and would be fully effective twelve months after that, when the students were registered as full members of the profession. There can be no reasonable doubt that, with the general expansion of higher education and the development of the DipHE, the number of holders of formally acceptable first cycle awards wishing to proceed to teacher training would exceed the number of second cycle places required. The problem would not be one of under-supply, but of the necessity for careful selection to match the supply to the needs of the schools. Within the framework of national decisions on supply and of consequent guidelines issued by the NCTET, it would be an important part of the functions of the RCCDEs to establish criteria for the selection of entrants to the second cycle.

Questions of cost

6.25. The implementation of this report's proposals would be effected in large measure by a redeployment of existing resources, but there would certainly be additional expenditure, offset to some extent by savings. It would not be practicable for us to attempt to quantify the net additional costs of the proposals. The results, based, as they would have to be at present, on a series of arbitrary assumptions (which, in any case, it would not be for us to make) would be too speculative to be worth presenting. The costs would fall under four main heads. First, there would be the costs of administering the NCTET and the RCCDEs. These would be of a similar order to those of administering the present ATOs, although expenditure would be greater because of the establishment of a national body and the wider responsibilities of the new regional agencies. Secondly, there would be the costs of mounting induction and in-service courses, including the expenses paid to teachers attending them. Any estimate of the of the additional costs under these heads would depend on assumptions about how third cycle activities might be distributed among courses of different types and the different agencies running them, about the pattern of activities in the second year of the second cycle and about the proportion of residential courses that it might be necessary to provide. Thirdly, there would be the costs of providing, maintaining and staffing professional centres. Any estimate of these would have to be based on a series of assumptions: about the number, distribution and size of professional centres, the range of accommodation required and the extent to which it was already available, all of which would depend to some extent on purely local factors; about the number of teacher-students likely to be in attendance at any one time, the probable pattern of activities (including hours of attendance) and the intensity with which accommodation was likely to be used; and about

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the number and grades of staff. Fourthly, there would be the salaries of the additional teachers employed because a proportion of the teaching staff would be away at any one time on induction or third cycle courses. The costs here could be calculated relatively simply on the basis of assumptions about the numbers of licensed teachers, the size of the school population, the pupil-teacher ratio and hence the size of the teaching force, and then about the proportion who would take up their third cycle opportunities. Although this item would appear to be the most expensive it could be argued that, given the expected improvement in staffing ratios, the diversion at anyone time of some of the staff to training activities would be a very worthwhile redeployment of resources. It has certainly been impressive that those witnesses to the Inquiry who would be regarded as the most knowledgeable and concerned in financial questions have been among the strongest advocates of a large expansion of in-service education and training.

6.26 To set against these expenditures there would be some savings, as a result of rationalising courses within institutions, avoiding the worst wastefulness of the present teaching practice arrangements and achieving some rationalisation within the new regions in the redistribution and use of facilities. The largest unknown factor in the calculation would be the extent to which the two year DipHE course might attract students who would otherwise have taken other higher education courses. Given the wide range of uncertainties, it would clearly be impossible to draw up a reliable balance of costs and savings, but there can be no doubt that the net additional expenditure would be money well spent to the advantage of the education service as a whole.

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1. We are signatories of the report which therefore represents common ground between us and all of our colleagues. Our purpose m writing this note of extension is to indicate five respects in which we would wish to go beyond this common ground.

2. First, on the validation of academic awards, we hope that from the outset the Regional Councils would facilitate consultation between all the interested parties, with a view to committing the whole of the academic awarding functions to constituent universities or to the CNAA, thus ensuring the integration of the colleges of education fully into the existing higher education system. We hope that many universities, whether or not the base of present ATOs, would wish to form an association for this purpose with a college or group of colleges in their area. We are more sanguine than our colleagues that a number of universities, given adequate financial support, will wish to undertake the new tasks described here. Universities have shown their concern for teacher education both by their response to the McNair Report in the 1940s and to the Robbins Report in the 1960s. We cannot believe that, at a time when all institutions of higher education are becoming increasingly sensitive to social needs, they would wish to reverse this history. This is not to suggest that the colleges could not flourish if they were to offer awards under the auspices of the Council for National Academic Awards. We have been impressed, as our colleagues have been, by the liberal attitude of the CNAA towards the award of degrees. We think it necessary, however, to emphasise the very real institutional and educational advantages that could result from an association between the universities and the colleges, an association perhaps ranging from the validation of the DipHE for some colleges to full amalgamation with others. The colleges of education are certainly in no doubt of the value of their connection with universities. We have also formed the view that this association is most likely to meet the wishes of the majority of the teaching profession.

3. Secondly, we wish to emphasise the implications of the proposal contained in the report that some colleges of education should develop both general and honours degree courses, built on the unit structure of the DipHE. Such courses, although not necessarily aimed at producing teachers, would be more appropriate to the profession than many of the highly specialised degree courses at present available. The college of education system should be fully involved in the expansion of higher education and enabled to admit not only DipHE students, intending teachers and others, but also undergraduates reading for first degrees of many kinds.

4. Thirdly, we would think it important that within this range of new-style degree courses in the colleges there should be courses leading to honours degrees which included the study of education. It should be possible for the colleges to create a four-year honours course which incorporated the first year of teacher training either as the first year of the second cycle in the normal way or in some form of sandwich course of the type developed in polytechnics. The present system in the colleges allows some students to take a four-year degree course in education: last year over 9 per cent

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of entrants to the colleges successfully completed BEd courses and this percentage has been growing annually. It is right that the new system should offer similar opportunities, in the form of degree courses which included the study of education and were well suited to the needs of intending teachers.

5. Fourthly, although we endorse the report's proposals for ending the divisiveness of teacher training, we are disturbed that divisiveness will persist in that area where it causes most concern: differences in the length of initial higher education received by teachers of different kinds which are in turn reflected in differences of salary and career expectations. During the next few years of expansion in higher education, possibly accompanied by some contraction in the demand for teachers, it is both inevitable and desirable that the profession should recruit an increasing proportion of teachers who have received three years' higher education before their professional training. Indeed, there is some danger that it might recruit more holders of specialised degrees than were needed, in preference to teachers whose higher education was better suited to the work they were going to do. Our suggestions in paragraphs 3 and 4 of this note would avoid this danger. We think it entirely feasible that within a decade all intending teachers should have the opportunity to pursue higher education courses of the same length, sufficient to attain that breadth of knowledge, creative skill and awareness which is needed for the teaching of children at all stages. We go beyond our colleagues in stressing the likelihood and desirability of such a development.

6. Fifthly, as indicated in a footnote in Chapter 3, we consider that the involvement of the professional institution or centre in the second year of the second cycle should be made more precise by requiring it actually to assign each licensed teacher to a tutor to carry forward the work of the first year and thus ensure greater continuity between the two years of the cycle. The assigned tutor would be expected to give close personal as well as professional support to the licensed teacher.

7. The system described in this report would be flexible enough to allow for a diversity of possible developments. Individual judgements of how the system could and should evolve may legitimately differ, but there is no doubt in our minds that the system would be capable of accommodating changes of the kind proposed in this note. It is a development along these lines that we would wish to see.


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Bath University of Technology School of Education
University of Birmingham School of Education
University of Bristol School of Education
BruneI University Department of Education
Cambridge Institute of Education
Cambridge University Department of Education
University of Durham Institute of Education
University of Exeter Institute of Education
University of Hull Institute of Education
University of Keele Institute of Education
University of Lancaster School of Education
University of Leeds Institute of Education
University of Leicester School of Education
University of Liverpool Institute of Education
University of London Institute of Education
University of Manchester School of Education
University of NewcastIe-upon-Tyne Institute of Education
University of Nottingham School of Education
University of Oxford Delegacy for Educational Studies
University of Reading School of Education
University of Sheffield Institute of Education
University of Southampton School of Education
University of Sussex School of Education
University College Swansea, Faculty of Education
University of Wales School of Education
University of Warwick

[page 81]



Alsager College of Education - Academic Board
Alsager College of Education - ATCDE members
Anstey College of Physical Education - Academic Board
Art of Movement Studio
Association for Adult Education
Association of Agricultural Education Staffs of Local Authorities
Association of Christian Teachers
Association of Colleges for Further and Higher Education jointly with the Association of Principals of Technical Institutions
Association of Education Committees
Association of Educational Psychologists
Association of Governing Bodies of Girls' Public Schools
Association of Head Mistresses
Association of Headmistresses of Preparatory Schools
Association of Hispanists jointly with the Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese
Association of Institute and School of Education In - Service Tutors
Association of Integrated and Degree Courses in Nursing
Association for Liberal Education
Association of Municipal Corporations
Association for Outdoor Education
Association of Principals of Colleges of Education concerned with Home Economics
Association of Principals of Women's Colleges of Physical Education
Association for Religious Education
Association of Senior Administrative Officers in Local Education Authorities' Colleges of Education
Association of Teachers in Colleges and Departments of Education

ATCDE Sections:

Audio - Visual Communication
Health Education
Modern Languages
Rural and Environmental Studies
Technical and Further Education

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ATCDE - Physical Education and Modern Educational Dance Sections jointly with the British Association of Organisers and Lecturers in Physical Education, the Heads of Department of Men's Wing Colleges of Education, the Heads of Department of Women's Wing Colleges of Education, the Physical Education Association of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Universities' Physical Education Association
ATCDE - London Branch
ATCDE - South Wales Branch
Association of Teachers of Domestic Science
Association of Teachers in Technical Institutions
Association of University Chemical Education Tutors jointly with the Association of Department of Education Physics Tutors and the University Biological Education Tutors
Association of University Teachers

Balls Park College - Governors
Bath College of Education (Home Economics) - Academic Board
Bath University of Technology School of Education
Birmingham University Department of Physical Education
Birmingham University School of Education - Committee on Teaching Practice
Birmingham University School of Education - Principals of Constituent Colleges
Birmingham University School of Mathematical Sciences
Bishop Grosseteste College - Academic Board
Bishop Grosseteste College - Students
Bishop Lonsdale College of Education - Academic Board
Bishop Lonsdale College of Education - Governors and Trustees
Bishop Lonsdale College of Education - Students' Union
Bishop Otter College - Academic Board
Boarding Schools Association
Bognor Regis College of Education - Academic Board
Bolton College of Education (Technical) - Academic Council
Borough Road College - Academic Board and Governing Body
Borough Road College - Group of Staff and Students
Bradford University
Brent Community Relations Council
Brentwood Teachers' Association
Bristol University School of Education - Mathematics Panel
British Association for Applied Linguistics
British Association for Commercial and Industrial Education
British Association of National Coaches
British Association of Organisers and Lecturers in Physical Education
British Computer Society - Schools Committee
British Council of Churches Working Party on Recruitment, Training and Employment of Teachers concerned with Religious Education in Schools
British Film Institute
British University Music Teachers - Conference

[page 83]

Caerleon College of Education - Students' Union
Cambridge Institute of Education - Board of Studies in Physical Sciences
Campaign for Moral Education
Careers Research and Advisory Centre
Catholic Education Council for England and Wales
Central Register and Clearing House Ltd
Central Training Council in Child Care
CF Mott College of Education - Academic Board and Governors
Cheshire County Council Education Committee
Chorley College of Education - Staff
Christ's College, Liverpool - Postgraduate Students
Christ's College, Liverpool - Staff
Christ's College, Liverpool - Students' Union
Church of England Board of Education
Church of England Board of Education - Church Colleges of Education Support Group jointly with the Council of Principals of the Colleges
Church of England Board of Education - Working Group on Youth Work in Church Colleges of Education
City of Birmingham College of Education - a Group of Staff and Students
City of Cardiff College of Education - Academic Board
City of Leeds and Carnegie College - Academic Board
City of Leicester College of Education - Academic Council
City of Sheffield Education Committee
College of St Matthias - Academic Board
College of St Matthias - Governing Bod
College of Preceptors
Committee of Directors of Polytechnics
Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals of the Universities of the United Kingdom
Commonwealth Institute - Education Department
Community Relations Commission
Community Service Volunteers
Confederation for the Advancement of State Education
Confederation of British Industry - Education and Training Committee
Conference of Handicraft Advisers
Conference of History Lecturers in University Departments and Schools of Education
Conservation Society
Council of the Centres of Art Teacher Education
Council for Children's Welfare
Council for Environmental Education
Council for Independent Education
Council for National Academic Awards

[page 84]

Council for the Training of Health Visitors
County Councils Association
Coventry College of Education - Academic Board
Crewe College of Education - Academic Board

Darlington College of Education - Academic Board
Dartington College of Arts - Staff
Department of Education and Science
Didsbury College of Education - Academic Board
Doncaster College of Education - Students' Union
Drama Board

East Anglian Regional Advisory Council for Further Education
East Suffolk County Council Education Committee
Eastbourne College of Education - ATCDE members
Eaton Hall College of Education - ATCDE members
Economics Association
Enfield College of Technology
English New Education Fellowship
Ethel Wormald College of Education - Academic Board
Ethel Wormald College of Education - Principal jointly with Deputy Principal
Ethel Wormald College of Education - Students' Union

FORUM - Editorial Board
Further Education Staff College

Garnett College - Academic Board
Garnett College - ATTI (Students' Branch)
Garnett College - Students' Union
Gipsy Hill College - Academic Council and Board
Goldsmiths' College - Students' Union
Great Yarmouth Head Teachers' Association
Guild of Teachers of Backward Children
Guinness Awards for Science and Mathematics Teachers
Heads of National Colleges of Music
Headmasters' Association jointly with the Headmasters' Conference
Health Education Panel of HM Inspectorate
Home and School Council
Homerton College - Academic Board
Huddersfield Polytechnic

IM Marsh College of Physical Education - Staff
Incorporated Association of Preparatory Schools
Independent Schools Association Incorporated
Independent Television Authority
Inner London Education Authority

[page 85]

Institute of Careers Officers
Institute of Mathematics and Its Applications jointly with the Joint Mathematical Council and the Joint Committee for Mathematical Education
Inter-Professional Working Party

James Graham College - Academic Board
Joint Council for the Education of Handicapped Children
Joint Four
Joint Matriculation Board

Kent County Association of Teachers
Kesteven College of Education - Staff
Kingston upon Hull College of Education - ATCDE members

Lanchester Polytechnic - Academic Board
La Sainte Union College of Education
Leeds University
Leicester and Leicestershire Schoolmasters' Association Leicester University School of Education
Liberal Education Association
Librarians of Institutes and Schools of Education
Library Advisory Council for England
Library Association
Lincoln Theological College
London University Institute of Education - Committee of Principals
London University Institute of Education - Students' Association
Loughborough University of Technology - Students' Union

Madeley College of Education - Academic Board and Staff Council
Maria Grey College
Mather College of Education - Academic Staff
Matlock College of Education - Academic Board
Methodist Education Committee

National Association of Boys' Clubs
National Association of Careers Teachers
National Association of Divisional Executives for Education
National Association of Drama Advisers
National Association of Head Teachers
National Association of Inspectors of Schools and Educational Organisers
National Association of Schoolmasters
National Association of the Teachers of Wales (Undeb Cenedlaethol Athrawon Cymru)
National Association for the Teaching of English
National College of Teachers of the Deaf
National Committee for Audio - Visual Aids in Education
National Computing Centre Ltd

[page 86]

National Council for Diplomas in Art and Design
National Council for Educational Technology
National Education Association
National Educational Closed-Circuit Television Association
National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
National Marriage Guidance Council
National Rural and Environmental Studies Association
National School Sailing Association
National Secular Society
National Union of Conservative and Unionist Associations - National Advisory Committee of Education
National Union of Conservative and Unionist Associations - Women's National Advisory Committee
National Union of Students
National Union of Teachers
Neville's Cross College - Academic Board
Newton Park College - Academic Board and Governors
Normal College, Bangor - Academic Board
North London Dyslexia Association
North Riding College of Education - Governors
North Surrey Dyslexic Society
North Western Regional Advisory Council for Further Education
Northern Counties College of Education - Academic Board
Northern Men's Discussion Group
Notre Dame College of Education - Staff
Nottingham College of Education - Academic Board
Nuffield Foundation
Nursery School Association of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Open University

Padgate College of Education - Academic Council
Parliamentary Group for World Government - Education Advisory Committee
Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain
Physical Education Association of Great Britain and Northern Ireland - Teachers' Advisory Council
Polytechnic of North London - Conference organised by Child Care Students based at Blackfriars Settlement
Pre-school Playgroups Association
Professional Association of Teachers

Redland College - Academic Board
Regional Advisory Council for the Organisation of Further Education in the East Midlands
Regional Advisory Training Agency for the Youth Service (University of Bristol Area)

[page 87]

Rose Bruford College of Speech and Drama - Governors
Royal Air Force
Royal College of General Practitioners
Royal Society
Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents - National Safety Education Committee
Rural Music Schools Association

Saffron Walden College - Academic Board
St Gabriel's College
St Luke's College - Camborne outpost
St Martin's College
St Mary's College, Cheltenham - Academic Board
St Mary's College of the Sacred Heart
St Osyth's College - Academic Board
St Peter's College - Academic Council
Scawsby College of Education - Academic Board
School Broadcasting Council for the United Kingdom
School Library Association
Schools Council
Science Teacher Education Project
Seaford College of Education - Governors
Sedgley Park College - Academic Board
Shap Working Party on World Religions in Education
Sheffield City College of Education - Academic Board and Council
Sheffield City College of Education - Students' Union
Sidney Webb College - ATCDE members
Socialist Educational Association
Society of Education Officers
Society for Education through Art
Society for Environmental Education
Society of Industrial Tutors
Society for the Promotion of Educational Reform through Teacher Training
Southern Regional Council for Further Education
Standing Conference for Amateur Music
Standing Conference of Heads of Departments of Education in Polytechnics
Standing Conference of National Voluntary Youth Organisations
Standing Conference of Representatives of Health Visitor Training Centres
Stockwell College of Education - History Department
Stockwell College of Education - Joint Education Committee and College Governors
Sunderland College of Education - History Department

Totley Hall College of Education - Academic Staff
Trades Union Congress
Training Council for Teachers of the Mentally Handicapped

[page 88]

Trinity College, Carmarthen - Council and Academic Board
Trinity College, Carmarthen - ATCDE Group

Undeb Cenedlaethol Athrawon Cymru (National Association of the Teachers of Wales)
University Departments of Education Mathematics Study Group
Universities Council for the Education of Teachers

Voluntary Committee on Overseas Aid and Development - Education Unit

Wardens in the South East
Warwick University jointly with Coventry College of Education
Welsh Joint Education Committee
WeIsh Secondary Schools Association
Weymouth College of Education
Wolverhampton Teachers' College for Day Students - Academic Council
Worcester College of Education - Academic Board
Working Group for the Eradication of Colour Prejudice

Yorkshire Council for Further Education
Youth Hostels Association (England and Wales)


Dr JBL Allen
Mr DWJ Anthony
Dr P Aston
Mr JE Aubertin

Mrs L Barraclough
Mrs MC Barrow
Dr M Bassey
Mrs A Batley
Miss FD Batstone
Mrs J Bell
Miss V Bell jointly with Miss S Champion, Miss V Chapman, Mrs N Earwood, Miss J Henderson, Mrs M Lahiff, Miss J Nash, Mrs J Pang, Miss B Rowbottom and Miss M White
Mr J Bertie
Dr C Bibby
Mr BJH Blancharde
Mr HW Bradley
Mr J Brennan
Professor Asa Briggs
Mr GW Brook
Dr FW Brooks
Professor GN Brown
Mrs ME Brown
Mr NV Brown
Mr J Bunnell
Miss E Burkett
Mr D Burrell

Professor LM Cantor jointly with Mr IF Roberts
Mrs RG Carey
Mr WG Carey

[page 89]

Dr CF Carter jointly with Professor AM Ross
Miss DE Cartwright jointly with Dr NJ Georgiades and Mr DS May
Mr CK Chambers
Mr P Chambers jointly with Mr R Meighan
Mr JJ Chapman
Mr CI Chatfield
Sir Ross Chesterman
Mr RCB Clark
Miss MG Clarke
Mr DV Clish jointly with Miss MA Crennell, Mr MG Ebison, Mr RW King, Mrs EM Lucia, Mr SW Smith and Mr EJ Wenham
Mr MJ Cock
Miss A Coghill
Miss MA Colledge and other Postgraduate Certificate in Education Students, University of York
Mr H Collins
Mr PM Collins
Mr RW Colton jointly with Mr RF Morgan Mrs EBK Cook
Mrs E Coote
Miss E Cope jointly with Mr A Brimer Mr FW Cowper
Mr M Craft
Miss ME Cross
Mr DJ Curry jointly with Mr MR Lindsay, Mr R McKenzie, Mr GB White, Mr N Whitehead and Mr G Whiteley

Professor R D'Aeth
Mrs S Dale Tunnicliffe
Mrs DM Dallas jointly with Mr D Warren Piper
Mr T Dalyell MP
Professor H Davies jointly with Mr R Hauser
Miss L Dawson
Mr J Devonshire
Mrs JS Dowsett
Mr M Duane
Miss A Dutton jointly with Mr H Webster
Dr EP Duggan

Mrs JD Edwards
Professor SJ Eggleston jointly with Professor LRB Elton and Professor H Ree
Professor SJ Eggleston jointly with Mr AKD Wright
Mr DS Ekless
Mr HL Elvin
Mr HL Elvin jointly with Miss MP Callard, Miss RF Carr, Professor D Lee, Dr F Mason, Professor WR Niblett, Professor RS Peters and Dr WD Wall
Professor NJ Entwhistle jointly with Mr KA Percy
Mr G Ette
Major-General HH Evans
Mr HI Evans
Mr JC Evans
Mr RC Evans

Dr K Farnell jointly with Mr LPS Piper
Dr FE Foden jointly with Mr ME Robottom
Mr D Fontana
Mrs KHP Fowler

[page 90]

Mr JL Gayler HMI
Mr T Gibson
Mr T Gourdie
Mr GR Grace
Mr DI Grant
Mr JAP Grant
Mr E Gray
Mr JE Gray
Mr SR Griffiths
Mrs DE Gulliver jointly with Dr AG Insch, Mr DA Jones, Mrs J Thorpe, Dr M Waugh, Miss A Whitaker and Mr KM Wolfe

Mr DF Hamilton
Mr DC Harris
Miss PJ Harrison jointly with Miss A Mercer and Miss J Calvert
Miss V Hartley
Mrs J Harvey
Mr G Hawkes
Professor EW Hawkins
Miss J Hawley Irving
Dr J Haynes jointly with Mr WH Petty
Mr AJ Heamon
Mr A Henderson
Mr E Hill
Mr RW Hill
Miss E Hindness and 19 Philosophy of Education lecturers in the Manchester Area Training Organisation
Mr D Holbrook
Mr GC Holland
Miss M Hurry

Mr MS Imhoff
Mr AA Ingham
Mr FS Iredale
Mrs EE Irvine

Major DFL James
Mr EW Jenkins
Mr RG Jenkins
Mr KW Jervis
Mr JI Jones
Miss M Jones
Mr S Jones

Dr B Kaye
Mr AM Kean
Mr GU Kelly
Mr P Kenyon
Professor CW Kilmister jointly with Professor WB Bonnor, Miss NJ Hardiman, Professor G Matthews, Dr AW Matz, Professor CA Rogers, Professor EH Sondheimer and Professor SJ Taylor
Mr D King
Dr EJ King
Mr J Kirkham

Mr MJ Langton
Dr J Lawrence
Professor RB LePage
Sir Desmond Lee
Mr P Lefroy Owen
Mrs BA Lewis
Miss JM Little

[page 91]

Miss E Lodman
Mrs M Loftus-Paton
Mrs N Lougher
Mr BJ Love jointly with Mr MD Hewett
Mr PB Lowe jointly with Mr DE Hancock and Mr B Young
Mr JH Lund

Mr GP Mabon
Mr I Marks
Mrs DM Marston
Mr D McAndrew and 12 members of staff of Ripon College of Education
Mr D McDowall
Mr BH Mee
Mrs EC Mee
Mrs J Mercer
Professor A Milton
Mr A Morley
Mr G Morris
Dr RW Morris
Miss C Morrish
Mrs B Morrison
Mr R Moss
Professor K Muir

Mrs M Newton
Professor WR Niblett
Mrs P Noble

Mr JW Owen
Dr G Owens

Mr JN Parker
Mr AJ Peck
Miss J Perry
Mr JR Pickin
Mrs DM Pinn
Sir James Pitman
Mrs M Playfoot
Mr C Portal
Mr PE Postgate
Mr KE Priestley
Mrs R Pritchard

Mr V Quinn

Miss K Rackham
Mr JM Rawcliffe
Mr N Rea
Mr P Renshaw
Mr S Richards
Miss EM Robb
Miss ME Robertson
Mr EE Robinson
Mr JAD Rofé
Mr PG Rossington
Mr BP Rowntree
Mr H Roy

Dr LM Sanderson
Mr SS Segal
Mr D Sharples
Mr and Mrs JG Sharps
Mr SA Shell
Mr AF Shirley

[page 92]

Mr K Simpson
Mr MP Smith jointly with Mr M Foss, Mr A Holloway, Mr RC Lovett, Mr K New and Mr RH Williamson
Dr RF Smith
Mrs K Smythe
Mrs M Snell
Miss E Snowden
Mr RL Snowdon
Mrs V Southgate Booth
Miss EB Sowerbutts
Mr VJ Sparrow
Professor A Spicer jointly with Professor DC Riddy
Dr KB Start
Dr MD Stephens jointly with Dr GW Roderick
Rev CDR Stevens
Dr W Stone
Mr MJ Storm jointly with Mr M Weller
Mr JI Sturt

Mr A Tattersall
Mr PW Thacker
Mr DM Thomas
Mr JG Thorman
Dr B Thwaites
Professor JW TibbIe
Mr KR Tomlinson jointly with Mr B Cooper, Mr R Slack and Mr G Whitley
Professor JP Tuck
Miss PE. Tuppeny

Dr WD Wall
Dr JW Warren
Mr BN Wates
Mr JF Watkins
Mr I Watkins Field
Mr RP Welch
Mr EJ Wenham
Mr AS Whitney
Mr ECE Willis
Mr W Wilson
Mrs VME Wilton
Mr ANT Winckler
Miss MM Wingate
Dr S Wiseman
Mrs MR Wolledge
Mr TL Woolmer
Mr R Wort
Mr RA Wright

[page 93]



Association of Colleges for Further and Higher Education jointly with the Association of Principals of Technical Institutions
Association of Education Committees
Association of Headmistresses
Association of Municipal Corporations
Association of Teachers in Colleges and Departments of Education
Association of Teachers in Technical Institutions
Association of University Teachers

British and Foreign Schools Society

Catholic Education Council
Church Colleges of Education
Committee of Directors of Polytechnics
Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals of the Universities of the United Kingdom
Community Relations Commission
Council for National Academic Awards
County Councils Association

Directors of Area Training Organisations - conference

Headmasters' Association jointly wHh the Headmasters' Conference

Inner London Education Authority

Joint Four

Methodist Education Committee

National Association of Head Teachers
National Association of Inspectors of Schools and Educational Organisers
National Association of Schoolmasters
National Council for Educational Technology
National Union of Students
National Union of Teachers
Nursery Schools Association

Open University

Parliamentary Group for World Government

Schools Council
Society of Education Officers
Society for the Promotion of Educational Reform through Teacher Training
Standing Conference of Regional Advisory Councils for Further Education

Universities Council for the Education of Teachers
University Grants Committee

Welsh Joint Education Committee


Dr EWH Briault
Miss KMP Burton HMI, Mr P Phillips HMI and Mr E Whiteley HMI

Mr HA Harding

Mr Leslie Jones and Mr W LI Lloyd HMI
Mr DE Lloyd Jones and Mr HW French HMI

Professor WR Niblett

Sir William Pile
Sir James Pitman, Mr K Bennett and Mr RS Bushell
Lady Plowden

Lord Robbins

[page 94]

Mr PT Sloman and Mr D O'Donovan
Mrs B Stenholm, Chairman of the Swedish Royal Commission on Teacher Training

Professor WJ Taylor
Dr B Thwaites

Mr TR Weaver
The Rt Hon FT Willey MP

[page 95]



Avery Hill College of Education

Battersea College of Education
Berkshire College of Education
Bishop Grosseteste College
Borough Road College
University of Bristol School of Education

CaerIeon College of Education
University of Cambridge Department of Education
Cambridge Institute of Education
Cardiff College of Art
Cartrefle College of Education
Charlotte Mason College
City of Cardiff College of Education
Christ's College, Liverpool
Cornwall Technical College - St Luke's College Outpost

University of Durham Institute of Education

Edge Hill College of Education

Froebel Institute College of Education

Garnett College
Gloucestershire - schools and teachers' centre
Goldsmiths' College

Hatfield Polytechnic

Inner London Education Authority - schools

Kingston-upon-Hull College of Education

Lancashire - schools in Kirby and curriculum development centre
University of Lancaster
University of Leicester School of Education
University of Liverpool Institute and School of Education
University of London Institute of Education
Loughborough College of Education
Loughborough University of Technology

University of NewcastIe-upon-Tyne Institute of Education
Newton Park College
Nottingham College of Education
University of Nottingham School of Education

Padgate College of Education

Rachel McMillan College of Education

St Martin's College of Education
St Mary's College, Twickenham
Sidney Webb College
University of Stirling Department of Education
Stockwell College of Education
University of Sussex

Trent Polytechnic
Trinity College, Carmarthen

University of Wales School of Education
Westminster College
Whitelands College
Worcester College of Education

University of York

[page 96]



Students Admitted to Courses of Initial Training in 1962, 1969 (1) and 1970 (2)


NOTE: These figures do not include one-year courses of initial training for holders of specialist qualifications. Many such students take up posts in further education.

Total numbers admitted in 1962 were 1,496 and in 1969 there were 3,395.

Full-time Teachers in Maintained Schools in 1962 (3) and 1970 (1)


(1) Statistics of Education 1969, Vol. 4 'Teachers' (HMSO 1971).

(2) Annual Report Central Register and Clearing House and Graduate Teacher Training Registry - Autumn 1970 Entry.

(3) Statistics of Education 1964, Part 1 (H.M.S.O. 1965).

[page 97]



1. Any example offered of a DipHE course can do no more than illustrate the principles outlined in Chapter 4. It is unlikely that any college will choose to apply those principles in precisely the manner here illustratively described for a hypothetical college with a student body of 1,200, of whom 800 are engaged in studying for the DipHE. No formal distinctions between general and special studies are recognised, but instead the student, advised by his tutors, composes a programme of work from a wide range of courses offered to him. These courses are planned and taught by the five schools in which the college is organised: the Schools of Mathematics and Science, Humanities, Social Studies, Educational Studies and what, for want of a better term, might be called 'Creative Arts', a wide area including not only the visual arts, music, drama and dance but also a range of crafts, some appreciation of the properties of materials, some aspects of three dimensional design and an introduction to technology. Within each school, courses are either double (counting two units for one year of work) or single (counting one unit for one year of work). A student would normally study the same double subject or subjects for two consecutive years, but need not always be required to do so. Some of the single subjects may be studied for two years; some are designed to last only for one. The regulations of the college are drafted, and interpreted by the tutors, in such a way that each student's programme embraces several different areas of study, and provides opportunities for a rigorous study in depth as well as for that broadening of mind and attitudes which has been identified as a necessary objective of the diploma course. A minimum number of units is prescribed for the award of the diploma.

2. Two examples of a student's programme drawn from this illustration may be given. One student, who is in the second year of the course, is studying double physical science (two units) in the School of Mathematics and Science and double technology (two units) in the School of Creative Arts. The choice of technology as an example is not made perversely but in order to emphasise what is said in the last paragraph about the breadth of scope which the School of Creative Arts could have. These two subjects - physical science and technology - are the same double subjects as he studied in the previous year. He is also studying, in the School of Humanities, 'The English Novel in the 19th Century' as a single subject (one unit); this is a one year course and in the previous year he had followed in the same School a course on 'The Russian Revolution'. His second year programme is completed by a one year single subject 'An Introduction to the Psychology of the Adolescent', bearing one unit in the School of Education Studies. In the previous year he had taken a course on 'Social Class' in the School of Social Studies. In each of his two years of study he has, therefore, acquired six units, yielding a total of 12, a minimum of 10 being required for the award of a diploma. The second student, who is in his first year of the course, is following a double course on child development in the School of Educational Studies and in the School of Creative Arts a double course in music, together with single courses on statistics in the School of Mathematics and Science, and on Plato in the School of Social Studies. It is a requirement of this, but not necessarily of other colleges organised in a similar manner, that each student must be following two double courses in each year. Many of the definitions and descriptions in this example are, of course, arbitrary but it may nevertheless serve as an illustration. It is worth mentioning here that if the DipHE courses offered in the colleges included options of the kind suggested for the School of Creative Arts - for example, special studies in a range

[page 98]

of crafts or an introduction to technology - the products of such courses, together with some of those from the colleges of education (technical), would be very acceptable teachers in many secondary schools. Indeed, teachers recruited through either of these channels could be of great value in developing new patterns of education for adolescents, both in secondary schools and FE colleges.

3. In both examples, specialised studies would occupy two thirds of the student's time and general studies the remaining one third. Educational studies would be part of the student's special studies programme in one example and of the general studies course in the other, but it would be equally possible to construct programmes for those students who did not wish to include educational studies in either category.

[page 99]



1. The criteria mentioned in paragraph 5.23 of this report could be satisfied if England and Wales were divided into 15 regions. Within such a pattern, an average region would contain a total population of about 3m, a student population of teachers-in-training amounting on present figures to 7,900, 6 or 7 LEAs and about 10 colleges, together with other training institutions and institutions of higher education. If the Governing Council of each RCCDE were constituted as suggested in paragraph 5.25, the average Governing Council would contain 35 members.

2. It would be desirable that the whole of Wales should be covered by one RCCDE and the size of such a Regional Council would be very close to the average size defined above. The situation in London, however, is highly complex and atypical. The University of London Institute of Education is not only concerned with the post-graduate training of more teachers than any other UDE in Britain, but is also the centre of the largest ATO, comprising no less than 36 training institutions, and responsible for as much as 20 per cent of the teachers-in-training in the whole of England. It has two other important functions: it is the largest centre for educational research in a variety of fields in England and it attracts a very large number of overseas students. The Inner London Education Authority is surrounded by many relatively small LEAs which may tend to look for some purposes outwards to the neighbouring counties as well as inwards to the centre. It might therefore be appropriate to base one RCCDE on the area covered by the ILEA, to include the University of London and the City University, as well as those polytechnics and colleges of education which fall within the ILEA boundaries. The outer London boroughs could be associated with adjoining counties in the appropriate RCCDEs. It is assumed that the ILEA would be represented, as an additional LEA member, on those RCCDEs which included the colleges they maintain outside their own boundaries. The same principle would, of course, apply elsewhere in the country where an LEA has an interest as a providing body in an institution situated within the area of another RCCDE.

3. The pattern presented below is not intended to be prescriptive or to be interpreted as a recommendation of this report. It is the result of 'paper' exercises, designed to establish that a division into 15 regions would not result in unacceptably wide variations in size and composition.

4. Sheet A below links the LEA areas, proposed in the forthcoming reorganisation of local government, with the suggested RCCDEs.

5. Sheet B is a statistical analysis showing the approximate total population in each of the 15 regions, the present number of students on teacher training courses, the number of colleges of education, universities and other institutions and the size of RCCDE Governing Councils derived from the model constitution described in paragraph 5.25 of the report.

6. Sheet C shows for each of the suggested RCCDEs the number of colleges of education, analysed by function and by type of providing body.

7. Sheet D gives the distribution of the present number of places in teacher training institutions.

[page 100]

8. The following is a key to the abbreviations used in Sheets B-D:

ATTCArt Teacher Training Centre
CEChurch of England
CNAACouncil for National Academic Awards
DESDepartment of Education and Science
HEHome Economics
LEALocal Education Authority
OLBOuter London Borough
OUOpen University
PEPhysical Education
Poly DEPolytechnic Department of Education
RCRoman Catholic
RCCDERegional Council for Colleges and Departments of Education
S of SSecretary of State
UDEUniversity Departments of Education

[page 101]


Possible RCCDE Areas

I Durham, Northumberland, Teesside, Tyneside

II Cumbria, Lancashire, Merseyside

III North Yorkshire, West Yorkshire

IV Derbyshire, Humberside, South Yorkshire V Cheshire, Greater Manchester

VI Salop, Staffordshire, West Midlands (except Districts (I) and (g))

VII Gloucestershire, Malvernshire, Northamptonshire, Warwickshire, West Midlands (Districts (I) and (g))

VIII Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire

IX Avon, Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Somerset

X Bedfordshire, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Hampshire, Oxfordshire and Wiltshire together with the outer London boroughs of Ealing and Hillingdon

XI Cambridgeshire, Essex, Hertfordshire, Norfolk and Suffolk together with the outer London boroughs of Barking, Barnet, Brent, Enfield, Haringey, Harrow, Havering, Newham, Redbridge and Waltham Forest

XII East Sussex and Kent together with the outer London boroughs of Bexley and Bromley

XllI Surrey and West Sussex together with the outer London boroughs of Croydon, Hounslow, Kingston, Merton, Richmond and Sutton


XV Wales

[page 102]

[click on the image for a larger version]

[page 103]

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[page 104]

[click on the image for a larger version]

[page 105]



[click on the image for a larger version]

[page 106]



Index to Recommendations:

Number of
General recommendations1-9
The third cycle11-41
    - Entitlement to in-service education and training10-12
    - Professional tutors13-14
    - Professional centres15-22
    - Special needs in the third cycle23-25
    - Research and development26-29
    - Degrees, higher degrees and advanced qualifications30-36
The second cycle37-81
    - First year of the second cycle37-44
    - Second year of the second cycle45-50
    - Qualifications for entry to the second cycle51-59
    - Special courses in the second cycle60-63
    - Second cycle awards64-68
    - Implications for existing institutions (other than colleges of education)69-81
The first cycle82-96
Teachers for further education97-102
National and regional organisation103-117
Award of academic and professional qualifications118-122
The next steps123-133

[page 107]


General recommendations

1. The education and training of teachers should be seen as falling into three consecutive stages or 'cycles': the first, personal education, the second pre-service training and induction, the third, in-service education and training. (1.9, 6.5)

2. The highest priority should be given to the expansion of the third cycle, i.e. of opportunities for the continued education and training of teachers. (1.9, 2.38, 6.5)

3. The pre-service higher education and training of all teachers for the schools should extend over at least four years. (6.2)

4. The initial training of teachers in the second cycle should last at least two years (one in a professional institution and one in a school), should be the same for all intending teachers in its organisation and length, however much it might vary in content and style, and should lead to the same terminal award: a new professional degree of BA(Education). (3.12, 3.24, 3.34, 6.2, 6.10, 6.13)

5. Successful completion of the first year of the second cycle should lead to recognition as 'licensed teacher' and successful completion of the second year to recognition as 'registered teacher' and the award of the BA(Ed). (3.33-3.35, 6.10-6.11, 6.13)

6. Serving teachers in the schools and FE colleges should be directly involved in professional training and a high priority should be given to the improvement in staffing ratios which such an involvement, together with the substantial release of teachers for third cycle work, would inevitably require. (2.22, 3.47, 6.22)

7. A new two-year qualification, the Diploma in Higher Education (DipHE), together with new three-year degrees based on and developed from it, should be introduced into the first cycle, initially in the colleges of education and the polytechnic departments of education. (4.4, 4.21, 6.6, 6.13)

8. The administration and planning of the system of teacher education and training should be entrusted to Regional Councils for Colleges and Departments of Education (RCCDEs) which, besides representing professional teacher training institutions and local education authorities, should also involve all universities and polytechnics within their boundaries, together with some other membership. (5.22, 5.24, 6.17)

9. There should be a National Council for Teacher Education and Training (NCTET), linked with the RCCDEs and strongly representative of all branches of the teaching profession. (5.26, 6.18)

The third cycle

Entitlement to in-service education and training

10. All teachers in schools and full-time staff in FE colleges should be entitled to release with pay for in-service education and training on a scale equivalent to not less than one school term (say, 12 weeks) in every seven years of service

*The references given after the listed recommendations are to appropriate paragraphs of the report.

[page 108]

and, as soon as possible, the entitlement should be increased to one term in five years, and the entitlement should be written into teachers' contracts of service. (2.22, 2.26, 6.16)

11. The entitlement should be satisfied only by release for substantial courses lasting at least 4 weeks full-time (or their approved part-time equivalents) and such courses should be those designated. for the purpose by the RCCDEs. (2.24, 6.16)

12. The entitlement should be in addition to shorter-term third cycle activities, whether or not involving release from teaching, and these short-term opportunities should themselves be substantially expanded. (2.24, 6.16)

Professional tutors

13. A member of staff of every maintained school and FE college should be designated a 'professional tutor' to coordinate second and third cycle work affecting the institution and to be the link with the other agencies concerned. (2.25, 2.26, 3.50, 3.52, 6.11)

14. Teachers designated as professional tutors should be among the first to be released for third cycle courses, so that they could be trained for their new responsibilities. (2.25, 3.50)

Professional Centres

15. To accommodate third cycle work, there should be a national network of 'professional centres' which would include not only the colleges and departments of education but also a number of other centres, based on existing facilities and in some cases developed from teachers' centres. (2.29)

16. Professional centres should be so located as to ensure that schools and FE colleges normally had easy access to at least one of them. (2.30)

17. All professional centres should require designation by the RCCDEs and approval for specific purposes, and some might be designated as regional, multi-regional or national centres for particular needs. (2.32)

18. All should have some full-time staff as well as making appropriate use of the part-time services of LEA advisers and teachers from schools, FE colleges and professional institutions. (2.33)

19. Professional centres based on professional institutions should normally be approved for a wide range of third cycle facilities, including most of the longer, full-time courses, and should also be involved in the training of 'licensed teachers' in the second year of the second cycle. (2.29)

20. Professional centres based elsewhere (i.e. 'locally-based' centres) should make the third cycle provision for which they were approved, and some should also be involved in the second year of the second cycle, provided they attained the standards required by the RCCDEs for this purpose. (2.32, 3.23)

21. Each locally-based professional centre should have a full-time warden, together with supporting staff of the kind indicated in 18 above, and should be able to draw on the resources available within its region. (2.33)

22. Local professional centres should be maintained by LEAs and should have management committees representing the teaching staff in local schools and FE colleges, the providing LEAs and the professional institutions with which the centres were associated. (2.33)

Special needs in the third cycle

23. Suitably placed professional institutions and centres should give a high priority to courses of training for teaching in multiracial schools. (2.10)

[page 109]

24. There should be opportunities in the third cycle for immigrant teachers to equip themselves to teach in British schools. (2.10)

25. The third cycle should not only provide courses leading to the special qualifications required of teachers of some kinds of handicapped children, but should also cover the needs of teachers who wish to turn to those kinds of such teaching for which formal qualifications are not required. (2.10)

Research and development

26. Teachers in schools and colleges should have full opportunities to take part in curriculum development projects and other projects and investigations. (2.16)

27. Teaching staff in colleges and departments of education should be enabled to undertake suitable projects of fundamental research. (2.16)

28. Research workers coming into the schools to pursue their studies should cooperate fully with the teachers. (2.16)

29. Teachers wishing to take part in this kind of activity should have in-service opportunities to familiarise themselves with research techniques. (2.16)

Degrees, higher degrees and advanced qualifications

30. The BEd degree should be extensively developed as an in-service award, based on a one-year full-time course or its part-time equivalent. (2.17)

31. Degree-granting bodies should consider the possibility of subsuming into the BEd degree a number of existing advanced diplomas in education, where these are based on substantial work of high quality, lasting one year full-time or its part-time equivalent. (2.17)

32. It should not be necessary to insist upon the inclusion of an academic subject in such courses, since they would lead to a professional award. (2.17)

33. Entry to such courses should not be restricted, either by awarding bodies or by employers, to teachers with specified qualifications or length of service, but should be determined solely by the suitability of candidates and the availability of places. (2.17)

34. Degree-granting bodies should give sympathetic consideration to existing holders of any advanced diplomas which were subsumed, in the manner suggested, into the BEd degree. (2.17)

35. Selected colleges and departments of education should offer one-year courses leading to a new in-service award of MA(Education), open to holders of the BA(Ed) immediately after completion of the second cycle or after an interval of further teaching experience. (2.18, 3.37, 6.13)

36. There should be adequate opportunities in the third cycle to take higher degrees in education, including research degrees. (2.17)

The second cycle

First year of the second cycle

37. The first year of the second cycle should be specialised and functional by being directly related to the work likely to be undertaken by the prospective teacher at the beginning of his career. (3.14, 6.10)

38. Initial training should not attempt to cover aspects of professional training which, although desirable, are better left until they can be built on school experience and personal maturity, i.e. in the third cycle. (3.15)

[page 110]

39. Theoretical studies of education, although a desirable feature of many first cycle courses, should be included in the second cycle only in so far as they contribute to effective teaching, and their main development should be in the third cycle where they can be illuminated by experience. (3.16)

40. For some students embarking on the second cycle without any previous introduction to educational studies special arrangements should be made to provide appropriate additional courses or studies. (3.17, 6.10)

41. Students should be encouraged to spend two or three weeks in a school immediately before embarking on the first year of the second cycle. (3.19)

42. Practical experience in the first year of the second cycle should provide a basis for the illustration and reinforcement of theoretical studies, and should include college-based activities. (3.19, 6.12)

43. There should be a continuous period of at least four weeks of practical experience. (3.19)

44. The RCCDEs, on the recommendation of the professional institutions concerned, should determine whether students were suitable for the next stage of training; teaching competence should not be the subject of a graded assessment but should be assessed on a simple pass/fail basis. (3.19)

Second year of the second cycle

45. After the first year of the second cycle, a student should take up his first salaried teaching assignment, as a licensed teacher, but with a deliberately reduced timetable. (3.20, 6.11)

46. The new teacher should be assigned to a specific professional centre (see 15-22 above) and released for attendance there for the equivalent of not less than one day a week, which in some cases (e.g. for teachers in widely dispersed schools in rural areas) might involve block release periods of attendance and, possibly, residence at appropriate centres. (3.21, 3.22, 6.11)

47. The professional tutor of his school (see 13-14 above), in consultation with his assigned professional centre, should work out with the new teacher the programme of continued studies which he would pursue during the year, and such a programme should be subject to scrutiny by the RCCDE. (3.22)

48. The new teacher should receive help and advice within his school from the professional tutor and other members of staff designated for this purpose. (3.20, 6.11)

49. The professional centre to which a new teacher was assigned should have the responsibility for assisting his professional development by drawing on appropriate expertise available within the region. (3.23)

50. Professional centres should give new teachers both a means of sharing experience with others and a point of reference independent of their schools and their employers. (3.23)

Qualifications for entry to the second cycle

51. The RCCDEs, acting within guide lines laid down by the NCTET, should be responsible for determining the conditions of entry to the second cycle. (3.26)

52. All students holding acceptable first cycle awards (see 54 below) should be eligible to apply for any of the second cycle places available. (3.25)

[page 111]

53. There should be the opportunity for interchange of students among institutions at the end of the first cycle and although many students might choose to take the second cycle course in their first cycle institutions there should be no formal requirement that they should do so. (3.24, 6.10)

54. Holders of university and CNAA degrees, certain specialist qualifications (e.g. in music or art), the DipHE and certain other diplomas should be formally eligible for admission to the second cycle. (3.26, 4.3, 4.4, 6.6)

55. Holders of degrees and specialist qualifications should not be given automatic preference over other applicants whose more broadly based education made them more suitable for certain kinds of teaching. (3.26, 4.3)

56. In selecting candidates for the second cycle, great weight should be given to their personal qualities, motivation and experience as well as to their formal qualifications. (3.26)

57. The RCCDEs should advise professional institutions to give preference (other claims being equal) to students who had not proceeded straight from school to higher education, but the intermission of a year or more between school and college, although desirable, should not be formally prescribed, or at least not for intending teachers alone. (3.27)

58. The RCCDEs should have discretion to accept awards other than normal first cycle qualifications, where they had good grounds for confidence that, with second cycle training, the applicants would make satisfactory teachers. (3.28)

59. The second cycle course itself should not be shortened for any candidate. (3.28)

Special courses in the second cycle

60. For applicants with postgraduate qualifications and for mature graduates, there should be special arrangements for their immediate recognition and employment as licensed teachers, on condition that they were not registered for at least two years, during which they would be required to undertake prescribed courses of study and to be assigned to appropriate professional centres. (3.29)

61. All students in the second cycle should receive a general introduction to the problems of children with learning difficulties and selected professional institutions should offer special courses in remedial education. (3.31)

62. Selected professional institutions should offer courses of preparation for those kinds of teaching of handicapped children for which formal in-service qualifications are not a requirement. (3.31)

63. Suitably placed professional institutions and centres should provide special training in the second year of the second cycle for licensed teachers working in multiracial schools. (2.10)

Second cycle awards

64. The NCTET, acting on the advice of the RCCDEs, should make appropriate recommendations to the Secretary of State for the recognition of licensed and registered teachers. (3.35, 5.28, 6.18)

65. In formulating such advice, RCCDEs should have regard to assessments by professional institutions of students' performance in the first year of the second cycle, to assessments of licensed teachers' professional competence in the second year of the cycle, made by the teachers' schools and employers, and to certificates from professional institutions and centres that the teachers had completed approved further studies during that year. (3.34)

[page 112]

66. Where there were doubts about licensed teachers' professional competence, the RCCDEs should have the power, in consultation with the employers and professional institutions or centres concerned, to prescribe a further year of work and study within the second cycle, or to refuse registration. (3.33)

67. Students who, in addition to possessing an approved qualification in higher education, successfully completed the second cycle should receive the professional degree of BA(Education), on the basis of the assessments referred to in 65 above. (3.34, 6.13)

68. With the introduction of the BA(Ed) and the MA(Ed) (see 35 above) and the further development of the BEd as an in-service award (see 30-34 above), it should not be necessary to retain the existing BEd degree as an initial qualification. (3.36, 6.13)

Implications for existing institutions (other than colleges of education)

69. The UDEs should continue to pursue fundamental research and advanced study in education, to offer second cycle courses of training and to be involved increasingly in the provision of third cycle courses, and should also be further encouraged to provide, in the first cycle, joint degree courses which included the study of education. (3.42)

70. Although the major expansion of post-graduate training should be in the colleges of education, existing UDEs should be built up, perhaps to a minimum of 200 students. (3.43)

71. UDEs should be encouraged to specialise in certain subjects or groups of subjects in which they could become centres of excellence. (3.43)

72. UDEs should have staffing ratios at least as generous as those in other university departments, and should have adequate administrative staffs. (3.43)

73. Expansion of teacher training in the polytechnics should concentrate on the development of training for FE teachers, including the provision of third cycle courses. (3.44)

74. Existing polytechnic departments of education should move away from their present emphasis on training for primary school work and towards the preparation of teachers for the older age groups in schools and FE colleges. (3.44)

75. In the development of such work, the polytechnic education departments should use the resources and facilities of their parent polytechnics. (3.44)

76. Teachers in schools and FE colleges should be closely involved in the planning and supervision of students' practical work in the first year of the second cycle, and in the induction of licensed teachers in the second year of the cycle. (3.47, 3.52)

77. Schools should be staffed generously enough to ensure that the timetabling was not dependent on a full contribution by licensed teachers. (3.47)

78. In the placing of new teachers, particular care should be taken to match them to the schools in which they will, start teaching, and practising teachers (especially the heads of the schools in question) should be involved in the process. (3.46)

79. Each maintained school and FE college should have a member of staff nominated as a professional tutor (see 13-14 and 47-48 above), with responsibilities in the second, as well as in the third, cycle. (3.50, 3.52)

[page 113]

80. Every professional institution should be empowered and should have funds to recruit experienced serving teachers as associate tutors for work within the institution. (3.51)

81. Direct grant and independent schools and FE colleges in which students received practical experience in the first year of the second cycle or new teachers were employed in the second year of the cycle, should be approved for these purposes by the RCCDEs. (3.52)

The first cycle

82. Courses leading to the DipHE should combine the advantages of study in depth with those of a more broadly based education, and should thus interrelate 'special' and 'general' studies. (4.8, 6.6)

83. Institutions offering these courses should avoid any rigid curricular or organisational separation between special and general studies. (4.9)

84. Although it would be undesirable for colleges to establish separate departments of general studies, each college should have a member of staff responsible for coordinating his colleagues' efforts in this area of work. (4.9)

85. The general studies courses should aim to give students an incentive to self-education and an introduction to the main areas of human thought and activity, and should be so organised that each student could select a suitably composed course from a range of options. (4.10.-4.11)

86. Teaching methods in DipHE courses should place emphasis on discussion in seminars and tutorials, rather than on lectures. (4.16)

87. Institutions should be free to devise their own DipHE courses, on the basis of full discussion by the staffs concerned. (4.11)

88. Students' choice of options in their general studies course should be related to their choice of special studies. (4.12)

89. There should be a rationalisation of the special subjects offered by individual institutions. (4.12)

90. The range of special studies offered should include some with direct relevance to teaching as a career and such courses should include opportunities for field work in schools and other social agencies. (4.13, 6.9)

91. The DipHE course should last for two years, of which one third should be devoted to general studies. (4.17)

92. Students following DipHE courses should not be overtaught, but should have adequate time for independent study. (4.16)

93. Holders of the DipHE should, in suitable cases, be eligible for transfer, with credit for their two years' higher education, to existing degree courses in universities and polytechnics. (4.21, 6.7)

94. There should be opportunities within the college system to pursue three-year general and honours degree courses developed from the DipHE and it should be for the NCTET to designate selected colleges (at least one in each RCCDE) at which these degree courses might be offered. (4.21)

95. The staffs of colleges of education should be treated as generously as those of other institutions of higher education, and college staff should have improved opportunities for personal and professional education. (5.13)

[page 114]

96. The normal requirement for entry to DipHE courses should be the possession of 2 A Levels in the GCE but there should be generous provision for exceptions in the case of mature entrants and those applicants who, although possessing different formal qualifications, are strongly motivated to teaching and give promise of becoming effective teachers. (4.23)

Teachers for further education

97. Students recruited to the colleges of education (technical) should follow second cycle courses of the normal pattern (see 4 above) or two year sandwich courses of which the first and fourth terms should be spent in college and the other four terms in post, with regular release for further training. (3.32, 6.15)

98. Entry to such courses should depend upon the possession of acceptable first cycle qualifications and successful completion of the courses should lead to the award of the BA(Ed); credit should be given for specialist FE qualifications obtained by long part-time courses after the age of 18. (3.28, 3.32)

99. The categories of 'licensed' and 'registered' teachers should apply to teachers from these courses who worked in schools, but not for the present to those employed in further education. (3.31, 6.14)

100. For teachers recruited directly to further education there should be the opportunity, and eventually the requirement, to undertake professional training after entry into service, although the requirement might have to be limited at the outset in both its scope and application. (2.27, 6.15)

101. All FE teachers in full-time service should be entitled to release for in-service education and training on a scale not less than that recommended for teachers in the schools (see 10 above). (2.26, 6.15)

102. The present pattern of part-time training courses for part-time teachers should continue and grow where necessary to meet the demand. (2.26)

National and regional organisation

103. There should be Regional Councils for Colleges and Departments of Education (RCCDEs) and a National Council for Teacher Education and Training (NCTET). (5.22, 5.26, 6.17, 6.18)

104. RCCDEs should be large enough to contain a sufficient number and variety of institutions, schools and LEAs but not so large as to be unwieldy. (5.23)

105. RCCDEs should appoint their own administrative staff and directors. (5.19, 5.29, 6.17)

106. Each RCCDE should bring into partnership all the colleges, universities, polytechnics and LEAs in its region, together with representatives of teachers, the Open University and the CNAA nominees of the Secretary of State and DES assessors. (5.24, 5.25, 6.17)

107. LEAs maintaining colleges outside their boundaries should be represented on the RCCDEs for the regions in which their out-county colleges were located. (5.24)

108. The NCTET should consist of about 20 members, selected by the Secretary of State from among those nominated by the RCCDEs for the purpose. (5.26)

109. The NCTET and each RCCDE should have two strongly constituted and appropriately composed committees, the academic committee and the professional committee, together with suitable sub-committees. (5.27, 6.18)

[page 115]

110. The NCTET and the RCCDEs should be responsible for the recognition of all professional teaching qualifications. and for making recommendations on the planning and rationalisation of all second and third cycle provision and of first cycle work in the colleges of education and the polytechnic departments of education. (5.28, 5.29, 6.18, 6.19)

111. The main academic responsibilities for first cycle work in the colleges should fall to the RCCDEs and the colleges themselves, subject to approval by the RCCDEs should conduct examinations and appoint examiners. (5.30)

112. The administrative costs of running the NCTET and the RCCDEs should be met by direct grant from the DES. (5.29)

113. The financial arrangements for the system should allow the colleges of education to move towards the maximum possible freedom in the management of their own financial affairs. (5.34)

114. Logistic and educational decisions affecting the system should be so related that the second and third cycle activities may be properly planned and rationalised. (5.34)

115. Lines of communication should be established between the new structure and the long established Regional Advisory Councils for FE. (5.39)

116. There should be national coordination of the arrangements for certain kinds of specialised FE training. (5.38)

117. Decisions about the total level of resources to be committed to the system should be taken by central government and by local authorities acting jointly; thereafter, the RCCDEs, acting within guidelines issued by the NCTET, should have a recognised responsibility for making recommendations to all their constituent members on the allocation of resources within their regions. (5.34, 6.19)

Award of academic and professional qualifications

118. The NCTET should be empowered to award the DipHE, the BA(Ed) and the MA(Ed). (5.20, 5.28, 5.30, 6.20)

119. The RCCDEs should be enabled to remit the academic/awarding function in respect of some or all of their colleges to the CNAA or to constituent universities. (5.20, 6.20)

120. Colleges designated by the NCTET to provide degree courses based on and developed from the DipHE should seek validation of these awards by the CNAA or by constituent universities of their RCCDEs. (5.20, 6.20)

121. The NCTET, acting on the advice of the RCCDEs and other appropriate professional advice, should have the responsibility for deciding which first, second and third cycle qualifications, however awarded, were professionally acceptable. (5.28, 6.20)

122. The DipHE should be awarded as a unified qualification, dependent upon the successful completion of a minimum number of units but, when awarded, should also be endorsed with any special subject successes achieved. (4.22)

The next steps

123. If it were decided in principle to implement this report, an early step should be the issue of a consultative document on the constitution, powers and geographical boundaries of the proposed RCCDEs. (5.40)

[page 116]

124. Because the formal constitution of the new agencies would have to await the reorganisation of local government from April 1974, an interim National Council should be established, for a limited term of office, at the earliest possible date. (5.40)

125. Interim Consultative Councils for the regions should also be established quickly, to take action on behalf of the future RCCDEs. (5.41)

126. The interim National Council should be empowered to award the DipHE and the BA(Ed). (5.40)

127. The first students for the DipHE should be enrolled in September 1973, all intending teachers should embark on the new kind of second cycle courses in 1975 and the first awards of the BA(Ed) should be made in 1977. (5.42)

128. As far as possible, teachers to be trained under the present system and entering the schools in 1973, 1974 and 1975 should have the benefit of the improved style of induction proposed for the second year of the second cycle. (5.42)

129. LEAs should begin to nominate professional tutors for their schools and FE colleges, to plan an expansion of third cycle activity, to study locations for possible professional centres and to take steps to develop suitable existing teachers' centres into professional centres. (5.43)

130. LEAs should also appoint additional teachers so that the schools would not have to rely upon a full contribution from licensed teachers to cover the basic requirements of their timetables. (5.43)

131. LEAs should be particularly generous in staffing and supporting schools with a high turnover of staff. (5.43)

132. The professional institutions should begin to redesign their courses and procedures in anticipation of the impending changes. (5.43)

133. The Consultative Councils, on behalf of the future RCCDEs, should draw the professional institutions into a preliminary study of development plans for their regions. (5.43)

[page 117]


Unless otherwise stated the references are to paragraph numbers.

Advanced Diplomas 2.17, 6.13.

Advanced Qualifications (see also Higher degrees, MA(Ed)) 2.17.

Area Training Organisations

boundaries, 5.4, 6.17.
history, 5.1.
in-service training, contribution to, 5.6.
membership, 5.3, 6.17.
reviews, 1.3, 1.5, 4.11, Appendix 1.
universities role in, 5.1, 5.14-5.20.
Wales, 5.44.
holders of qualifications in, admission to second cycle, 3.26.
teachers of, third cycle, 2.19.
BA(Ed), 3.33-3.35.
DipHE, 4.22.
of teaching competence, 3.19.
award, conditions of, 3.34-3.35, 6.13.
awarding body, 5.20, 5.28, 5.40, 6.18, 6.20.
FE teachers, 3.28.
reciprocity for admission to third cycle, 5.9.
timing of first awards, 5.42, 6.20.
initial qualification, 3.36, 3.37, Note of extension.
small teaching groups, 3.3, 4.12.
students, choice of college, 5.16.
third cycle qualification, 2.17, 3.36, 5.28,6.13.
universities, effect on, 5.18.
University of Wales, 5.45.
Bilingualism 2.8, 5.36.

Binary System 1.7, 5.3, 5.34.

Burnham Committee 2.22.

Careers Work 2.10, 2.19, 3.15.

Central Grants Committee 5.39.

Colleges of Education (see also Voluntary Colleges, Professional Centres)

amalgamation, 5.37, Note of extension.
degrees, other than BA(Ed), 4.21, 5.36, Note of extension.
entry requirements, 4.23.

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Colleges of Education - cont.

facilities, sharing of, 5.39.
finance, 5.33-5.35.
growth, 1.6, 3.43, 6.21, 6.23, Appendix 5.
professional centres, representation on management committees, 2.33.
probation, role in, 3.8-3.9.
RCCDEs, membership of, 5.13, 5.14, 5.24-5.25, 5.28, 5.30, 6.19, Appendix 7.
resources, influence on allocation of, 6.19.
schools, relations with, 3.7-3.9, 3.45, 3.51.
specialisation, 3.38, 4.6, 4.12, 4.21, 5.10, 5.29, 5.36, 6.9.
staff, 2.16, 2.33, 3.2, 3.7, 3.36, 3.51, 4.11, 4.12, 5.13, 5.15-5.16, 6.12.
teachers, employment of, 2.19, 2.29, 3.50, 3.51.
third cycle, contribution to, 2.4, 2.29, 5.36.
universities, relations with, 3.36, 3.42, 5.1, 5.3, 5.12, 5.14-5.20, Note of extension.
Colleges of Education (Technical)
courses, 6.15.
future, 5.38.
professional centres in, 2.30.
Compulsory Training
FE teachers, 2.27-2.28, 6.14-6.15.
graduates, 2.13, 3.29.
Concurrent Course
DipHE and, 4.6, 4.13-4.15, 6.9.
virtues and weaknesses, 3.2, 6.3-6.4, 6.9.
of the committee's proposals, 1.2, 6.25-6.26.

CNAA (see also Degrees)
DipHE, admission of holders to degree courses, 4.21.
DipHE and degrees based on it, validation, 5.20, 5.31, 6.20, Note of extension.
establishment, 1.7.
RCCDEs, membership of, 5.25, Appendix 7.
Counselling 2.10, 3.15.


changes, third cycle needs, 2.8.
study of, 1.8.
teachers, participation in development, 2.2, 2.16.
Cycles (see also First, Second and Third)
balance, 3.17, 3.38, 3.40, 5.29.
continuity, 3.17, Note of extension.
definition, 1.9, 6.5.
Degrees (see also BA(Ed), BEd, Higher degrees, MA(Ed))

academic, for all teachers, 6.13.
as first cycle qualifications, 3.26, 4.3, 5.28, 6.6, Note of extension.
DipHE, based on, 4.21, 5.20, 5.29, 6.7, 6.13, 6.20, Note of extension.
joint, in education and other subjects, 3.42, 4.3, 6.6.
third cycle, 2.17, 2.36.

[page 119]


alleged threat to colleges' academic freedom, 5.15, 5.19.
balance of training requirement, 3.3.
planning functions, 5.5.
RCCDEs, assessors on, 5.25, 6.19, Appendix 7.
third cycle, contribution to, 2.4, 2.5.
Designated Third Cycle Courses, 2.24, 5.28, 6.18.

DipAD 1.7, 5.28.


aims, 4.8.
award, conditions of, 4.22.
awarding bodies, 4.24, 5.20, 5.30, 5.31, 5.45, 6.20, Note of extension.
colleges, effect on, 6.22-6.23.
course structure, examples of, 4.17, Appendix 6.
courses, colleges' freedom to devise and examine, 4.8, 4.24, 5.30.
courses, rationalisation of, 4.12.
currency, 4.18-4.22, 4.24, 5.9, 6.7, 6.22.
educational studies, 4.9, 4.10, 4.13, 4.17, 6.6, 6.9, Appendix 6.
entry requirements, 4.23, 5.35.
individual work, 4.16.
institutions other than colleges of education, in, 4.1, 5.9, 5.31.
length, 4.17.
practical observation, 4.13-4.14, 6.9.
principles, 4.4-4.6, 6.6.
teachers, for FE, 6.14.
teachers, for intending, 4.6, 4.13, 4.15, 4.17, 6.9.
teaching methods, 4.16.
timing of first awards, 5.42, 6.20.
Direct Grant Schools 3.52.

'Diversification' 6.8.

Education Departments

in colleges, 3.3, 4.12.
in polytechnics, see Polytechnics.
in universities, see Universities.

Educational Studies
in existing initial courses, 3.2, 9.4, 6.9.
in first cycle, 3.12, 3.43, 4.2, 4.3, 4.6, 4.9-4.10, 4.13-4.15, 4.17, Note of extension.
in first year of second cycle, 3.16, 3.17, 3.19, 6.10.
in third cycle, 2.2, 2.7, 3.16.
Educational Technology 1.8, 2.7, 3.19.

Entry Qualifications (see also Selection).

BEd 3.36.
DipHE, 4.23, 5.35.
of existing college students, 5.2.
second cycle, 3.26-3.28, 4.3, 4.4, 5.9, 5.20, 5.28, 6.18.
third cycle, 2.17, 5.9.

[page 120]


Committee's sources, 1.3, 1.4, appendices 1-3.
on concurrent course, 3.2.
on in-service training, 2.3, 6.25.
Finance (see also Cost)
ATOs, 5.29.
central grants committee, 5.39.
colleges, 5.33-5.35.
NCTET and RCCDEs, 5.19, 5.29.
NCTET, responsibilities of, 5.32.
RCCDEs, responsibilities of, 5.10, 5.32.
voluntary colleges, 5.36.
First Cycle (see also Degrees, DipHE)
colleges of education, planning, 5.29.
courses, types of, 4.3-4.4, 6.6, Note of extension.
FE Colleges (see also FE Teachers)
professional centres, access to, 2.30.
professional centres in, 2.30, 5.7, 5.38.
professional tutors in, 2.26, 3.52.
second cycle, employment of teachers in second year, 3.52.
third cycle, contribution to, 2.20, 2.36, 2.38, 5.38.
FE Staff College 2.15.

FE teachers (see also Teachers)

compulsory training, 2.27-2.28, 6.14--6.15.
first cycle courses, 6.14.
polytechnics, contribution to training, 3.44, 5.38.
professional centres, access to, 2.30--2.31.
professional centres, part-time work for, 2.33.
professional centres, representation on management committees, 2.33.
RCCDEs, representation on, 5.8, 5.25.
second cycle, admission to, 3.28.
second cycle courses, 3.32, 3.52, 6.15.
specialists, training, 5.38.
third cycle, entitlement to, 2.26.
third cycle, initial training, 2.14, 2.27-2.28.
third cycle, joint courses with school teachers, 2.30.
transfer to schools, 6.14.
General Certificate of Education 4.23.

Graduates (see also Degrees)

existing training arrangements, 1.8, 3.6-3.10.
in infant and primary schools, 3.17, 4.3.
second cycle, admission to, 3.26, 4.3, Note of extension.
second cycle, special courses, 3.29, 3.46.
third cycle, needs, 2.8, 2.13.
DipHE students, 5.35.
intending FE teachers, 2.27.
mature graduates, 3.29.

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Handicapped Children 2.10, 3.31.

HMI 2.4, 2.15.

Higher Degrees

holders of, second cycle courses, 3.29, 3.46.
third cycle, opportunities to obtain, 2.2, 2.17.
Higher Education (see also First cycle)
prospective expansion, 4.3, 6.21, 6.24, Note of extension.
HND 5.28.

History of Education see Educational studies

Home Economics 4.6, 5.36, 6.9.

Immigrants (see also Multiracial schools)

immigrant teachers, third cycle provision, 2.10.
In-Service Training see Third cycle

Independent Schools 3.52.

Industrial Training Boards 1.7.

ILEA 5.24, Appendix 7.

Institutes of Education (see also ATOs.)

third cycle, contribution to, 2.4. universities, relations with, 5.18.
of student teachers, 4.5, 6.8, 6.21.
Language Arts, 2.7, 2.36, 3.5.

Languages (see also Bilingualism)

teachers of, 2.19, 3.14.
Librarianship 2.10, 3.15.

Licensed Teachers (see also BA(Ed)

continued studies, 3.22, 6.11.
direct grant and independent schools, employment in, 3.52.
FE teachers, position of, 3.32, 6.14.
professional centres, assignment to, 3.21-3.22, 6.11, Note of extension.
Secretary of State, recognition by, 3.35, 5.28, 6.10, 6.18.
selection for first posts, 3.46.
status, 3.20, 3.33, 6.11.
Local Education Authorities (see also Reorganisation, Welsh Joint Education Committee)
advisers, employment of, 2.35.
alleged threat to colleges' academic freedom, 5.15, 5.19.
ATOs, membership of, 5.4, 5.5.
colleges, financing of, 5.33-5.35, 6.19.
in-service training, evidence on, 2.3.
licensed teachers, assessment of, 3.34.
licensed teachers, selection of, 3.46.

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Local Education Authorities (cont.)

professional centres, provision of, 2.30-2.31, 5.43.
professional tutors, nomination of, 5.43.
RCCDEs, membership of, 5.14, 5.23-5.25, 5.28, 6.19, Appendix 7.
third cycle, role in, 2.4, 2.5, 5.43.
MA(Ed) 2.18, 3.37, 5.28, 6.13.

Mature Students (see also FE Teachers, Graduates, Grants)

DipHE courses, exceptional admission to, 4.23.
training, relevance of, 3.14.
Mathematics 2.9.

McNair Report 1.5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.26, 5.44, Note of extension.


of the committee, 1.4.
Micro Teaching 3.19.


students', 3.26, 4.3, 4.19, 6.7.
Multi-Racial Schools 2.10.


holders of qualifications in, admission to second cycle, 3.26. teachers of, third cycle, 2.19.
NACTST 5.26.


BA(Ed), award of, 5.28, 5.40, 6.18, 6.20.
colleges, designation for degree work, 4.21.
committees, 5.27-5.31, 6.18, 6.20.
cost, 6.25.
DipHE, award of, 5.20, 5.30, 5.40, 6.20.
finance, 5.29.
FE training, co-ordination of, 5.38.
MA(Ed), award of, 5.28.
membership, 5.26, 5.40.
need for, 5.5, 5.26.
professional centres, designation of, 2.32.
professional qualifications, approval of, 5.28, 6. i 8, 6.20.
resources, influence on allocation of, 3.38, 5.10, 5.32, 5.34.
second cycle, control of entry qualifications, 3.26, 3.29, 5.20, 6.18, 6.20.
second cycle, planning of, 3.38-3.40.
student places, distribution of, 3.38, 3.40, 5.29.
timetable for establishment, 5.40.
Nuffield Foundation 1.8.

Open University

establishment, 1.7, 5.3.
RCCDEs, membership of, 5.25, Appendix 7.
second cycle, contribution to, 3.29.
third cycle, influence in, 2.36.
Outposts, 5.38.

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Parliamentary Select Committee 1.3, 1.5.

Philosophy of Education see Educational Studies

Physical Education 2.8, 2.9, 4.6, 5.36, 6.9.


ATOs, membership of, 5.3, 5.4.
colleges of education, amalgamation with, 5.37.
establishment, 1.7, 5.3.
professional centres in, 2.30.
RCCDEs, membership of, 5.14, 5.24, 5.25, 5.30, 6.17, 6.19, appendix 7.
third cycle, contribution to, 2.4, 2.36, 2.38, 3.44.
Polytechnic Departments of Education (see also Colleges of Education, FE Teachers, Professional Centres)
ATOs, membership of, 5.3.
RCCDEs, membership of, 5.14, 5.25, 5.28, Appendix 7.
second cycle, role in, 3.44, 5.38.
Pooling 5.33, 5.35.

Postgraduate Training (see also Graduates, Second Cycle)

existing courses, 1.8, 6.4.
Probation 3.8-3.10, 3.52, 6.12, 6.22.

Professional Centres

cost, 6.25.
licensed teachers, assessment of, 3.34.
management, 2.33.
multi-racial schools, training for, 2.10.
NCTET, recognition by, 2.32, 5.7.
number and distribution, 2.31.
purposes, 2.29-2.34.
RCCDEs, membership of professional committees, 5.28.
RCCDEs, recognition by, 2.32, 2.33, 3.23, 5.7.
resources, 2.31.
second cycle, role in, 3.21-3.23, 6.11.
staffing, 2.33.
timetable for establishment, 5.42, 5.43.
Professional Tutors
direct grant and independent schools, in, 3.52.
FE colleges, in, 2.26, 3.52.
nomination, 5.43.
second cycle, role in second year, 3.22, 3.50, 6.11.
third cycle, role in, 2.25, 3.50, 6.11.
training, 2.25, 3.50, 3.52, 5.43.
Psychology of Education see Educational Studies

Raising the School Leaving Age 1.8, 2.11.

Reading see Language Arts

Re-Entrants to Teaching 2.12.

Regional Advisory Councils for FE 5.39.

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BA(Ed), recommendation of award, 3.34-3.35, 5.28.
committees, 5.27-5.31, 6.18, 6.20.
cost, 6.25.
DipHE, administration of, 5.20, 5.30.
distribution, criteria for, 5.23-5.24.
finance, 5.19, 5.29, 6.17.
licensed teacher status, recommendation of, 3.35, 5.28.
licensed teachers, approval of study programme, 3.22.
membership, 5.25, 5.27, 6.17, Appendix 7.
NCTET, nomination of members, 5.26.
premises, 5.19.
professional centres, recognition of, 2.32-2.33, 3.23.
reciprocity in acceptance of qualifications, 5.9.
resources, influence on allocation of, 5.10, 5.32, 5.34, 6.19.
second cycle, approval of institutions for, 3.52.
second cycle, determination of entry qualifications, 3.26-3.28, 3.29, 5.20, 5.28, 6.24.
second cycle, planning, 3.38-3.40.
staff, 5.19, 5.29, 5.46, 6.17.
third cycle, designation of courses, 2.24, 5.28.
third cycle, planning, 2.37, 3.40.
timetable for establishment, 5.4d-5.42.
Wales, 5.24, 5.46.
Registered Teachers
FE teachers, position of, 3.32, 6.14.
Secretary of State, recognition by, 5.28, 6.18.
status, 3.33, 6.11.
Religious Education 2.9.

Reorganisation of Local Government

ATO boundaries, effect on, 5.4, 6.17.
RCCDE boundaries, effect on, 5.23, 5.24.
timing, 5.40.
Reorganisation of Secondary Education 1.8, 2.11.


college staff, involvement in, 2.16, 2.29, 5.13.
degrees, 2.17.
teachers, involvement in, 2.16.
teachers, need to be informed about, 2.7.
UDEs, in, 3.42-3.43.
Robbins Report 1.7, 5.1, 5.2, Note of extension.

Sandwich Courses

FE teachers, 3.32, 6.15.
incorporating first year of professional training, Note of extension.
MA(Ed), 3.37.
School of Education (see also ATO, Institutes of Education, UDEs)
university, relations with, 5.18.

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School Experience (see also Licensed Teachers)

existing arrangements, 3.7, 6.12.
first cycle, during, 3.19, 4.13-4.14.
second cycle, before entry, 3.19.
second cycle, in the first year, 3.19, 3.21, 6.10, 6.12.
organisation, 5.28.

Schools (see also Teachers)
DipHE, view of, 4.19.
direct grant and independent, 3.52.
licensed teachers, assessment of, 3.34.
licensed teachers, transfer of, 3.33.
multiracial, 2.10.
nursery and primary, 1.8, 2.9, 2.23, 3.47, 4.3.
organisation, changes in, 1.8,2.11.
probation, role in, 3.8-3.9.
professional centres, access to, 2.30.
professional centres in, 2.30, 5.7.
professional centres, sharing facilities with, 2.31.
school-based tutors, 3.48.
second cycle, implications for, 3.46-3.50, 5.43, 6.22.
second cycle, role in second year, 3.20-3.22.
third cycle, implications for, 2.21-2.25, 3.49, 5.43, 6.22.
universities, relations with, 3.42.
Schools Council 1.8, 2.4, 2.16, 3.42.

Science 2.9, 2.19.

Second Cycle (see also BA(Ed), Licensed Teachers, Registered Teachers)

assessment, 3.19, 3.34-3.35, 5.28.
colleges, implications for, 3.45, 5.36.
cost, 6.25.
educational studies, 3.16-3.17, 6.10.
entry requirements, 3.26-3.28, 4.3, 4.4, 5.9, 5.20, 5.28, 6.18.
extension of, 3.33.
first year, 3.13-3.19, 6.10.
FE teachers, special courses for, 3.32.
handicapped, special courses for teachers of, 3.31.
higher degrees, special courses for holders of, 3.29.
length, 3.12.
mature graduates, special courses for, 3.29.
planning, 3.38-3.40, 5.43.
polytechnic departments of education, implications for, 3.44.
principles, 3.11-3.13, 6.10-6.12.
professional centres, role of, 3.21-3.23, Note of extension.
professional tutor, role of, 3.22.
remedial education, special courses in, 3.31.
school experience, 3.17, 3.19, 6.12.
schools, implications for, 3.20, 3.46-3.50, 3.52.
second year, 3.20-3.23, 6.11-6.12.
specialisation among institutions, 3.31, 5.10, 5.36.
students, guidance to, 3.17.
students, selection of, 3.26-3.28, 4.3, 6.24, Note of extension.
timing of introduction of new courses, 5.42.
university departments of education, implications for, 3.41-3.43.

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of teachers to fields outside teaching, 2.2, 2.19.
Select Committee on Education and Science, 1.3, 1.5.


first posts, teachers for, 3.46.
second cycle, students for, 3.26-3.28, 4.3, 6.24, Note of extension.
Short, Rt. Hon. Edward 1.3, 4.11.

Social Science Research Council 3.42.

Social Workers 4.13-4.14.

Sociology of Education see Educational Studies

Supplementary Courses 2.17.

Supply of Teachers

A Level entry requirement, effect of, 4.23.
control of, 3.25, 5.32, 6.24.
DipHE, implications of, 4.7.
improvement in, implications of, 6.21-6.22.
LEAs, action to be taken by, 5.43.
NCTET and RCCDEs, interpretation by, 3.38, 5.29, 5.32, 6.19.
second cycle, implications of, 3.47, 3.49
shortages, 1.6, 1.8, 2.9.
third cycle, implications of, 2.22-2.23, 3.49.
Teachers (see also FE Teachers, Licensed Teachers, Professional Tutors, Registered Teachers, Schools)
ATOs, representation on, 5.5.
colleges and departments of education, work in, 2.19, 3.51.
direct grant and independent schools, 3.52.
NCTET, representation on, 6.18.
professional centres, part-time work in, 2.29, 2.33.
professional centres, representation on management committees, 2.33.
RCCDEs, representation on, 5.8, 5.14, 5.25, 5.28, 5.30, 6.19, Appendix 7.
research, involvement in, 2.16.
second cycle, involvement in selection of students, 3.26, 3.47.
second cycle, role in, 3.20, 3.22, 3.47, 6.11, 6.22.
secondment to fields outside teaching, 2.2, 2.19.
selection of new teachers, involvement in, 3.46, 3.49.
teaching practice, place in, 3.7.
third cycle, entitlement to release for, 2.22, 2.24, 6.16, 6.22.
third cycle, need for, 2.1, 2.6-2.17.
Teachers Centres 2.30, 2.38, 5.7, 5.43.

Teaching Council 3.33 footnote, 6.11 footnote.

Teaching Practice see School Experience

Third Cycle (see also BEd, FE teachers, MA(Ed))

activities, range of, 2.2.
administration, 2.37, 5.6, 5.29, 6.16.
advanced qualifications, 2.17-2.18.
cost, 2.38, 6.25.

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Third Cycle (cont.)

courses, designation of, 2.24, 5.28, 6.18.
courses, length, 2.24, 6.16.
degrees, 2.17-2.18.
evidence about, 2.3.
existing arrangements, weaknesses of, 2.5.
FE colleges, contribution to, 2.36.
FE colleges, implications for, 2.26-2.28.
importance of, 1.9, 2.1, 2.38, 3.1, 3.4, 6.5, 6.16.
needs of, 2.6-2.18.
planning, 3,40, 5.6, 5.23, 5,43.
polytechnics, contribution to, 2.36.
professional centres, role of, 2.29-2.30, 2.32, 2.34.
professional tutors, role of, 2.25-2.26.
professional tutors, training for, 2.25, 3.50, 5.43.
providing bodies, 2.4.
research, 2.16.
residential requirements, 2.34.
resource centres, 2.35.
schools, implications for, 2.21-2.25, 6.22.
short-term activities, expansion of, 2.24, 6.16.
teachers, entitlement, 2.22, 5.28, 6.16.
universities, contribution to, 2.36.
of DipHE holders to polytechnics and universities, 4.21, 6.7.
of licensed teachers, 3.33.
of students for second cycle, 3.24-3.25, 5.9, 5.10, 6.10.
of students on licensing, 3.23, 3.35.
Universities (see also BEd, Degrees, Open University)
ATOs, role in, 5.1, 5.3, 5.4, 6.17.
colleges, amalgamation with, 5.37.
colleges, relations with, 3.36, 5.1, 5.3, 5.12, 5.14-5.20.
DipHE, admission of holders, 4.21, 6.7.
DipHE and degrees based on it, award of, 5.20, 5.31, 5.45, 6.20, Note of extension.
expansion, 1.7, 5.4.
institutes and schools of education, relations with, 5.18.
polytechnics, relations with, 5.3.
professional centres, work of staff in, 2.33.
RCCDEs, membership of, 5.12, 5.14, 5.24-5.25, 5.30, 6.17, 6.19, Appendix 7.
schools, relations with, 3.42. .
students, motivation of, 4.19.
University Departments of Education (see also Colleges of education, Professional centres)
growth, 1.6, 3.43, Appendix 5.
joint degrees, 3.42.
RCCDEs, membership of, 5.12, 5.14, 5.25, 5.28, Appendix 7.
research, 2.16, 3.42-3.43.
second cycle, recruitment to, 3.24-3.25.
second cycle, role in, 3.41-3.43.
specialisation, 3.38, 3.43, 5.29.
staffing ratios, 3.43.
teachers, employment of, 2.19, 3.51.
third cycle, role in, 2.29, 3.42, 3.43.

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Visits 1.4, Appendix 4.

Voluntary Colleges (see also Colleges of Education)

finance, 5.34, 5.36.
growth, 1.1, 1.6.
place in new system, 5.36.
Voluntary Service 3.27, 4.14.

Wales (see also Bilingualism)

college council, 5.24, 5.46. University of, 5.20, 5.44-5.47.
Weaver Report 5.19.

Welsh Joint Education Committee, 5.46.

Willey, Rt. Hon. FT 1.3.

Youth Work 4.14.