Fyfe (1946)

Background notes

The complete report is shown in this single web page. You can scroll through it or use the following links to go to the various sections.

Contents, Introduction (page 3)
Part I (12)
Teachers of general subjects for primary schools
Part II (32)
Teachers for the younger classes in secondary schools
Part III (37)
Specialist teachers
Part IV (41)
Teachers of handicapped children
Part V (42)
Teachers for junior colleges, local technical colleges, central institutions and other forms of further education
Part VI (44)
Responsible posts in the education service outside the schools
Part VII (46)
Teachers of religion
Part VIII (48)
Recruitment and admission to training
Part IX (51)
Award and withdrawal of teachers' certificates
Part X (54)
Teachers in service
Part XI (56)
Administration and finance
Summary of recommendations (66)
Note of reservation (72)
by Miss Allison and Miss Muir
Appendix I Witnesses (73)
Appendix II Specialist teachers (75)
Appendix III Teachers of handicapped children (83)
Appendix IV Administration and finance (86)
Appendix V Summary of recommended courses (89)

The text of the 1946 Fyfe Report was prepared by Derek Gillard and uploaded on 28 December 2018.


The Fyfe Report (1946)
Training of Teachers
A Report of the Advisory Council on Education in Scotland

Edinburgh: His Majesty's Stationery Office 1946
Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.


[title page]

SCOTTISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT


TRAINING OF TEACHERS

A REPORT OF THE
ADVISORY COUNCIL ON EDUCATION
IN SCOTLAND



Presented by the Secretary of State for Scotland to Parliament
by Command of His Majesty



EDINBURGH
HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE: 1946
PRICE 1s. 6d. NET

Cmd. 6723


[page 2]

PREFATORY NOTE

The following Report on the Training of Teachers, submitted to the Secretary of State by the Advisory Council on Education in Scotland, is published in order that it may be available to all who are interested. The recommendations in the Report have still to be considered by the Secretary of State, and in the meantime he should not be regarded as iIi any way committed to accepting them.

5TH JANUARY, 1946.


PREVIOUS REPORTS

The following Reports of the Advisory Council on Education in Scotland, as reconstituted on 5th November, 1942, have also been published:

COMPULSORY DAY CONTINUATION CLASSES
Price 9d. net. By post, 10d.

TRAINING FOR CITIZENSHIP (Cmd. 6495)
Price 6d. net. By post, 7d.

TEACHERS: Supply, Recruitment and Training in the Period immediately following the War (Cmd. 6501).
Price 1s. 0d. net. By post, 1s. 2d.

ADULT EDUCATION GRANTS (Cmd. 6574)
Price 4d. net. By post, 5d.

EDUCATION AUTHORITY BURSARIES (Cmd. 6573)
Price 4d. net. By post, 5d.

TECHNICAL EDUCATION. (An Interim Report of a Special Committee of the Council.) (Cmd. 6593).
Price 3d. net. By post, 4d.


[page 3]

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

Para.Page
Remit111
Previous reports211
Scope of present report311
Interpretation of remit411
Evidence511

PART I. TEACHERS OF GENERAL SUBJECTS FOR PRIMARY SCHOOLS

Chapter I. The New Setting of the Problem of Teacher Training

1. TENDENCIES IN THE PRESENT SYSTEM
Importance of general education in preparation of a teacher612
2. THE CHANGING EDUCATIONAL SITUATION
Conflicting fundamental theories712
Modern experiments813
Outlook of the new teacher913
Educational research1013
3. ITS BEARlNG UPON TEACHER TRAINING
Rescaling of training values1114
Increased importance of professional knowledge, etc.1214
Re-examination of foundations of training system1314

Chapter II. The Essentials in the Preparation of Teachers of General Subjects for Primary Schools

Essential elements in preparation of a teacher1415
1. PERSONAL QUALITIES
Importance of personality1515
Qualities not affected by training1615
Qualities to be cultivated during training1715
Formative community life of a training institution1816
Importance of environment in times of change1916
Effect upon recommendations as to training institutions and courses2016
2. GENERAL CULTURE
Subjects of study2116
Guiding principles in planning courses2217
3. SPECIAL PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION
(1) Subjects of study
Greater importance of special professional preparation2317
(a) Educational Theory and History
Methods and purposes of study2417
Importance of method and treatment2517
Change in method of treatment necessary2618
Suggestions as to new methods2718
Need for experiment2818
(b) Psychology
Change in method of treatment necessary2918
Suggestions as to new methods3018
Knowledge of methods of testing3119
(c) Correlation of Education and Psychology
Disadvantages of separation3219
Combination suggested3319
(d) Distribution of the Courses in Education and Psychology
Should be studied throughout training3419
(e) Social Studies
Aims of courses in social studies3519
High value of practical work3620
Should be a central interest throughout training3720
Industrial or commercial experience3820
(f) Educational Administration and School Organisation
Knowledge of the educational system3920


[page 4]

Para.Page
(g) Methods
Changes in content of course on methods4021
Re-organisation necessary4121
(h) Practice Teaching
Suggestions regarding practice teaching4221
Necessity of continuity in practice teaching4321
Recommendations4422
(i) Hygiene and Speech Training
Importance of subjects4522
(j) Religious Education
Provision should be adequate4622
(k) Practical Subjects
Place of practical subjects in training institutions4722
(2) Length of Time required for the Special Professional Preparation
Equivalent of two years full-time study required4822

Chapter III. The Present Courses of Training for Teachers of General Subjects in Primary Schools

1. THE NON-GRADUATING COURSES
Description of course4923
Attendance at university5023
Satisfactory possibilities of non-graduating course5123
Present weaknesses of non-graduating course5223
2. THE GRADUATING COURSES
Types of courses5323
Non-concurrent course5424
Concurrent course5524
Courses with rural bias5624

Chapter IV. Three Important Issues in Teacher Training

Central questions affecting form of training system5724
1. SHOULD THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING BE TAKEN AFTER THE COMPLETION OF THE COURSE OF GENERAL EDUCATION OR CONCURRENTLY WITH IT?
Importance of integration of studies5825
Advantage of early experience of practical problems5925
Cultivation of personal qualities in concurrent course6025
Other advantages of concurrent course6125
Risk of divided loyalties in concurrent and non-concurrent courses6225
Concurrent course preferred6326
2. SHOULD ALL STUDENTS DESIRING TO BECOME TEACHERS OF GENERAL SUBJECTS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS BE REQUIRED TO TAKE A UNIVERSITY DEGREE IN ARTS OR SCIENCE?
Unsuitability of degree courses as preparation for teaching of young children6426
Possibilities of courses at central institutions 6527
Reasons against policy of graduation for all6627
Effect of policy on status of teaching profession6727
Views of witnesses6827
Possibility of request for change in university regulations6928
Graduation for all should not be required7028
3. SHOULD A SPECIAL UNIVERSITY DEGREE FOR TEACHERS BE INSTITUTED?
Proposal for a degree for teachers7128
Administrative difficulties7228
Risk of inferior status in public esteem7328

Chapter V. The New Courses proposed for the Training of Women Teachers of General Subjects in Primary Schools

1. THE NON-GRADUATING COURSE
Nature and length of non-graduating course7428
Abolition of preliminary training7529


[page 5]

Para.Page
(1) General Education
Subjects to be included in courses and institutions at which they should be taken7629
(2) Professional Training
Educational theory and psychology7729
Practical work in social studies7830
Practical subjects7930
Physical education8030
(3) Specialisation
Need for measure of specialisation8130
Specialisation should not be extreme8230
Specialisation only in later part of course8330
Types of specialisation8430
Specialisation for teachers of handicapped children8530
(4) The Training of Nursery School Teachers
Special course qualifying for nursery school work only not recommended8630
(5) The Specialised Course for Rural Schools
Aim and content of course8731
Teaching of composite classes8831
Rural residential annexes to training institutions8931
2. THE GRADUATING COURSE
Nature and length of course9031
3. THE POST-GRADUATE COURSE
Nature and length of course9132
4. GENERAL
Regulations should allow latitude in planning courses9232
Methods of instruction9332

PART II. TEACHERS FOR THE YOUNGER CLASSES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Chapter VI. The Present Arrangement for the Training of Teachers for the Younger Classes in Secondary Schools

Article 39 qualification9432
Academic subjects9533
Practical subjects9633

Chapter VII. The Staffing of Secondary Schools

1. ACADEMIC SUBJECTS
Teachers of groups of subjects9733
Should be prepared for general primary work9834
Possible institution of two types of secondary certificate at later date9934
2. PRACTICAL SUBJECTS
Inclusion of practical subjects in academic group10034

Chapter VIII. The Courses of Training Proposed for Teachers of Younger Classes in Secondary Schools

1. COURSES FOR WOMEN
(1) Academic Subjects
(a) The Non-Graduating Course
Level of academic attainment to be required10134
Subjects to be included in course10235
General science course at training college10335
(b) The Graduating Course
Nature and length of course10435
(c) The Post-Graduate Course
Nature and length of course10536


[page 6]

Para.Page
(2) Practical Subjects
General plan of course10636
Inclusion of physical education recommended10736
2. COURSES FOR MEN
Men should normally take a five-year course10836
3. GENERAL
Preparation for teaching in junior colleges10936

PART III. SPECIALIST TEACHERS

Chapter IX. The Present Course of Training for Specialist Teachers

Chapter V and Chapter VI qualifications11037
1. THE TEACHER'S SPECIAL CERTIFICATE
Conditions of admission to course11137
Length and nature of course11237
2. THE TEACHER'S TECHNICAL CERTIFICATE
Length and nature of course11337
3. THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN SPEClAL AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS
Higher level of Chapter V qualification11437
Distinction difficult to justify11538
One type of specialist qualification recommended11638

Chapter X. The Courses Proposed for the Training of Specialist Teachers

1. GENERAL
Evidence of academic or technical attainments11738
Integration of university course with training11838
Widening of diploma course11938
Length of professional training12039
Practice teaching and preparation for work in primary schools12139
Preparation for work in junior colleges12239
2. SPECIALISATION IN ENGLlSH, HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY, FOREIGN LANGUAGES, MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, ECONOMICS
(1) Academic Course
Academic attainments required12339
Importance of breadth in courses12439
Period of study in foreign country for qualification in its language12540
(2) Professional Training
Planning of courses12640
High academic qualification should not entitle to shortened professional training12740
3. SPECIALISATION IN ART, MUSIC, AGRICULTURE AND RELATED SUBJECTS, DOMESTIC SUBJECTS, COMMERCIAL SUBJECTS, PHYSICAL EDUCATION, ENGINEERING OR OTHER BRANCHES OF TECHNICAL INDUSTRY, TECHNICAL SUBJECTS
Recommendations in Appendix II 12841
4. NEW TYPES OF SPECIALIST TEACHER
Need for new types of specialists should be kept in view12941

PART IV. TEACHERS OF HANDICAPPED CHILDREN

Chapter XI. The Training of Teachers of Handicapped Children

1. GENERAL
Need for improvement in conditions of service13041
Period of service in ordinary schools recommended13141
Additional courses after short period with handicapped children13241
Arrangement of courses13342


[page 7]

Para.Page
2. TEACHERS OF THE BLIND, OF THE DEAF, FOR SPECIAL SCHOOLS AND CLASSES, FOR DULL, RETARDED AND PROBLEM CHILDREN, FOR APPROVED SCHOOLS, FOR CHILDREN WITH DEFECTS OF SPEECH AND FOR THE CHILD GUIDANCE SERVICE
Recommendations in Appendix III13442

PART V. TEACHERS FOR JUNIOR COLLEGES, LOCAL TECHNICAL COLLEGES, CENTRAL INSTITUTIONS AND OTHER FORMS OF FURTHER EDUCATION

Chapter XII. Training of Teachers for Junior Colleges, Local Technical Colleges, Central Institutions and other Forms of Further Education

1. TEACHERS FOR JUNIOR COLLEGES
Guide to early experiments in training13542
Qualities and knowledge necessary for teachers13642
Combination of preparation for junior colleges with that for younger secondary classes13743
Release to obtain practical experience of industry13843
Temporary provision of classes recommended13943
Teachers of General Subjects and of Mathematics and Science14043
Teachers of Art, Music, Physical Education, Agriculture; Commercial Subjects, Domestic Subjects and Technical Subjects14143
Craft and vocational teachers14244
2. TEACHERS FOR LOCAL TECHNICAL COLLEGES AND CENTRAL INSTITUTIONS
Courses in methods of teaching recommended14344
3. TEACHERS FOR OTHER FORMS OF FURTHER EDUCATION
Courses in educational methods recommended14444

PART VI. RESPONSIBLE POSTS IN THE EDUCATION SERVICE OUTSIDE THE SCHOOLS

Chapter XIII. Training for Responsible Posts in the Education Service Outside the Schools

1. GENERAL
Influence of responsible posts outside the schools14544
Preparation for external posts14644
2. THE PRESENT ARRANGEMENTS
Present arrangements for training for external posts14745
Need for first-hand experience of foreign systems14845
3. RECOMMENDATIONS
Extension of present arrangements recommended14945

PART VII. TEACHERS OF RELIGION

Chapter XIV. The Training of Teachers of Religion

1. THE PRESENT ARRANGEMENTS
Optional classes provided15046
2. RECOMMENDATIONS
Provision of classes should be extended15146
Broader courses needed for teachers of older pupils15246
Standard of knowledge required15347
Should teach secular subject in addition to religion15447
Classes in study of religion for teachers of younger pupils15547
Award of Specialist Teacher's Certificate15647
Method of providing classes in study of religion15747
Advantages to the schools of trained specialists in religion15847


[page 8]

Para.Page
3. THE STAFFING OF THE RELIGIOUS EDUCATION DEPARTMENTS OF THE TRAINING INSTITUTIONS
Increase of staffs required15947
Status and salaries of lecturers16048

PART VIII. RECRUITMENT AND ADMISSION TO TRAINING

Chapter XV. Recruitment

New types of recruit required16148
Conditions of entry to teaching profession should be widened16248
Courses of training16349
Safeguards for late entrants16449

Chapter XVI. Admission and Selection of Entrants

1. THE PRESENT PRACTICE
Admission to training for Teacher's General Certificate16549
Admission to training for Teacher's Special Certificate16649
Admission to training for Teacher's Technical Certificate16749
All qualified candidates accepted without interview16850
2. RECOMMENDATIONS
Minimum requirements and selection16950
(1) General Education
Admission to combined courses17050
Candidates direct from school17150
Other candidates17250
(2) Intellectual Ability
Use of intelligence tests17350
(3) Personal Qualities, Appearance, Speech, etc.
Reports and interviews recommended17451
(4) Procedure when Limitation of Entrants is Necessary
Weighted assessment of factors17551
(5) Minimum Age for Entrance to Training
Pre-war understanding17651
Discretion should be left to principal of college17751

PART IX. AWARD AND WITHDRAWAL OF TEACHERS' CERTIFICATES

Chapter XVII. Examinations, Certificates and Diplomas

1. THE PRESENT ARRANGEMENTS
Probation Certificates and Final Certificates17851
Training Records17952
2. RECOMMENDATIONS
(1) Diplomas
Award of diplomas18052
Endorsement of diplomas18152
(2) Training Records
Advantages and disadvantages of training records18252
Limitation of contents of training record18352
Additional information to be supplied on request18453
(3) Examinations and Standards
Examinations and standards for diplomas18553
(4) Probationary Period
Probationary period should be abandoned18653

Chapter XVIII. Withdrawal of Certificates and Diplomas

Withdrawal for protection of pupils18753
Procedure recommended18853
Withdrawal not a punishment18954


[page 9]

PART X. TEACHERS IN SERVICE

Chapter XIX. Assistance to Teachers in the Early Years of their Teaching Careers

Para.Page
Dual function of training institutions19054
Difficulties of young teachers19154
Critical first year19254
Regulations regarding appointment of young teachers19354
Appointment of advisers of young teachers19454
Week-end conferences of young teachers19555

Chapter XX. Courses for the Further Instruction of Teachers in Service

1. THE PRESENT ARRANGEMENTS
Courses provided19655
University vacation courses19755
2. RECOMMENDATIONS
Provision should be extended19855
Conditions of attendance19955
Content of courses20056
Residential conferences20156

PART XI. ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCE

Chapter XXI. The Present Administrative System

Position before 191820256
Position under Act of 191820356
Relation between National Committee and Provincial Committees20457
Additional duties of Provincial Committees20557
Training of teachers a national concern20657

Chapter XXII. Should the Training of Teachers be taken over by the Universities?

Transfer of control to universities20757
Advantages claimed20857
Disadvantages from university point of view20958
Disadvantages from training side21058
Other suggestions21158
Majority view of witnesses21258

Chapter XXIII. Institutes of Education

1. THE CHARACTER AND FUNCTIONS OF A MODERN TRAINING INSTITUTION
Common purpose and community of life21359
Associated nursery school and demonstration school21459
Centre of educational research21559
Provision for students other than student-teachers21659
Focal point of educational activities of province21759
Means of providing favourable environment21860
2. INSTITUTES OF EDUCATION WITH CONSTITUENT COLLEGES
Reconciliation of divergent principles21960
Organisation and functions of Institute of Education22060
Question of Roman Catholic College for Men22161
Women's College of Physical Education22261
3. THE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENTS OF EDUCATION
Award of degrees in Education22361

Chapter XXIV. The Staffing of Institutes of Education

1. QUALIFICATIONS AND STATUS OF STAFFS
Unity of purpose in the staff22461
Co-operation among staff22561
Staff of highest attainments necessary22661
Increase in salaries of staff22762
Expression of staff views22862


[page 10]

Para.Page
2. CONDITIONS OF SERVICE
Duties should allow time for writing and research22962
Joint conferences23062
3. MAINTENANCE OF CONTACT WITH THE SCHOOLS
Staffs should maintain contact with the schools23162
Interchange of senior staff23262
Secondment for service on junior staff23362
Interchanges and secondments should be arranged with caution23463

Chapter XXV. Recommendations in regard to Administrative Bodies and Finance

1. ADMINISTRATIVE BODIES
(1) Outline of the Proposed System
Councils and Committees23563
Principles of constitution23663
(2) Councils of the Institutes of Education
Composition of Councils of Institutes of Education23763
Functions of Councils23864
(3) Scottish Council of Institutes of Education
Functions of Scottish Council23964
Central co-ordinating body24064
Composition of Scottish Council24164
(4) Relationships between the Administrative Bodies
Delegation of functions24265
Conferences of chief officials24365
2. FINANCE
The present position24465
Charging of fees24566
Direct contributions from the Education (Scotland) Fund24666
Contributions by education authorities24766
Reconsideration of procedure recommended24866

SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS

Recommendations in certain chapters not summarised24966
Courses tabulated in Appendix V25066
Principal recommendations summarised25167

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
71

NOTE OF RESERVATION BY MISS ALLISON AND MISS MUIR
72

APPENDICES

I. LIST OF BODIES AND INDIVIDUALS WHO GAVE ORAL EVIDENCE, SUBMITTED MEMORANDA OR OTHERWISE ASSISTED THE COUNCIL73
II. SPECIALIST TEACHERS
1. Specialists in Art75
2. Specialists in Music75
3. Specialists in Agriculture and Related Subjects76
4. Specialists in Commercial Subjects77
5. Specialists in Domestic Subjects78
6. Specialists in Physical Education78
7. Specialists in Engineering and other Branches of Technical Industry80
8. Specialists in Technical Subjects81
III. TEACHERS OF HANDICAPPED CHILDREN
1. Teachers of the Blind83
2. Teachers of the Deaf83
3. Teachers for Special Schools and Classes84
4. Teachers for Dull, Retarded and Problem Children85
5. Teachers for Approved Schools85
6. Provision for Children with Defects of Speech86
7. Child Guidance86
IV. ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCE
1. Present Administrative Committees86
2. Present Financial Arrangements88
V. TABULAR SUMMARY OF COURSES RECOMMENDED IN THE REPORT90


[page 11]


REPORT

To the RT. HON. JOSEPH WESTWOOD, M.P.
Secretary of State for Scotland

SIR,

INTRODUCTION

1. On 9th November, 1943, the Secretary of State remitted to the Advisory Council - "To enquire into the provision made for the training of teachers in Scotland, the selection of candidates for training and the conditions of admission, the courses of training, the types of certificate which may be awarded and the conditions of award, the withdrawal of such certificates, whether temporarily or permanently, and the administration and finance of the said services; and to make recommendations."

2. Recommendations in regard to certain aspects of tile subject were made in our earlier Reports on a remit dated 11th February, 1943 - "To consider whether the existing arrangements for the recruitment and supply of teachers in Scotland are adequate, and to make recommendations." The Reports are collected and published as a Command Paper entitled "Teachers: Supply, Recruitment and Training in the Period immediately following the War", (Cmd. 6501). In them we dealt with the improvement of the status and attractiveness of the teaching profession, and with certain general changes in the normal training arrangements. The latter included the provision of more liberal bursaries, an extension of the residential system, and control of the number of students admitted annually to the Training Colleges.

3. The present Report is concerned mainly with the long-range problems of training, and we realise that there are certain of our recommendations which could not be put into operation until the post-war pressure on staffing resources is past.

4. We have interpreted our remit as covering the training of teachers for nursery schools, primary and secondary schools, junior colleges, local technical colleges, central institutions and adult education classes; but we refer only incidentally to the provision of a preparation for those engaging in youth service, a subject which we regard as more relevant to the deliberations of the Scottish Youth Advisory Committee.

5. We desire to record our indebtedness to the large number of bodies and individuals; a list of whom is given in Appendix I, who have assisted us by giving oral evidence or submitting memoranda or letters. We have throughout our inquiry maintained close contact with the National Committee for the Training of Teachers.


[page 12]

PART I

TEACHERS OF GENERAL SUBJECTS FOR PRIMARY SCHOOLS

CHAPTER I

The New Setting of the Problem of Teacher Training

1. TENDENCIES IN THE PRESENT SYSTEM

6. In the early years of the present century the emphasis in the training of teachers was upon classroom techniques and practical skill. These were acquired through a pupil-teacher apprenticeship, during which a general education was picked up precariously by study before and after school hours, followed by a somewhat narrow course in a training college. Since then the changes in the system have reflected an increasing appreciation of the importance of general education in the preparation of the teacher. The Junior Student system and the Preliminary Training by which it was replaced were steps on the road to the present arrangement under which teachers take the same full course of secondary education as those preparing for other professions. A similar tendency is clearly discernible on the side of full training. The training college courses became broader and more liberal; more emphasis was placed on subjects of general education; increasing provision was made for the attendance of students at university classes; a large proportion took degrees in Arts or Science. Since 1926 graduation or the possession of the diploma of a Central Institution has been compulsory for all male teachers aiming at the Teacher's General Certificate.*

2. THE CHANGING EDUCATIONAL SITUATION

7. We are now in a time of changing educational values, of competing plans and methods, of far-reaching reforms; and it is to a study of this situation that we must look for pointers to the next steps in teacher training. In this new setting of our problem the most significant features are not such changes as the raising of the upper limit of the school age and the institution of junior colleges,

*The three principal Certificates which are granted by the Secretary of State under the Regulations for the Training of Teachers are the Teacher's General Certificate, a holder of which is recognised as qualified to teach primary school subjects; the Teacher's Special Certificate, which is granted to graduates with first or second-class honours and recognises them as qualified to teach any of the following subjects in which they have taken honours - English, History, Classics, a Modern Language other than English, Mathematics, Science Geography or Economics; the Teacher's Technical Certificate, a holder of which is recognised as qualified to teach a branch of Applied Science or Technical Industry, Agriculture, Horticulture, a branch of Rural Economy, a Commercial Subject, a branch of Domestic Economy, Physical Education, Educational Handwork, a recognised Craft. or Music. Chapters III and IV of the Regulations deal with the Teacher's General Certificate, and teachers who hold that certificate are often referred to as "Chapter III teachers" or "Chapter IV teachers". For similar reasons teachers who hold the Teacher's Special Certificate and the Teacher's Technical Certificate are often referred to as "Chapter V teachers" and "Chapter VI teachers" respectively. A teacher who is a graduate, or who holds a diploma of a Central Institution, or who has followed a four-year non-graduating course, or who, after qualifying, has taken a course of further instruction, may receive an entry upon his certificate recognising him as qualified to teach in the younger classes of a secondary division one or more of the subjects covered by his degree, diploma or course. As this entry is made under Article 39 of the Regulations it is often referred to as an "Article 39 qualification".


[page 13]

important as these may be. The essence of the situation is that we are in a stage of transition from an old education to a new, and that the shape of the new has not yet become clearly defined. Educational Theory and the sciences that are basic to it are in a state of ferment and uncertainty that is reflected in such book titles as "Conflicting Theories of Education", and "Conflicting Psychologies of Learning". The teacher can no longer appeal to the psychologist with any assurance that he will receive a single and authoritative ruling on a doubtful point of theory. We have now not one psychology but many, all making competing claims to serve as a foundation for educational theory and practice - the Hormic Psychology, Behaviourism, the New Psychology, the Gestalt Psychology, together with a number of their eclectic variants.

8. The conflict as to foundations is reflected in the variety of educational superstructures erected on these foundations. Experimental or venture schools of a pioneer type, embodying new ideals and employing new methods have been established in almost all countries. Schools like Abbotsholme, Bedales, Bryanston, Dartington Hall, Oundle, have left their mark on world educational thought and furnished suggestions that are being adopted in greater or less degree in the state schools. On the side of teaching practice there has been a healthy but perplexing profusion of new plans and methods - the Montessori Method, the Dalton Plan, the Decroly Method, the Winnetka Technique, Individual Work Methods - which provide an embarrassing choice for the reflective teacher.

9. Yet out of this welter and confusion there is emerging the broad outline of the new education; and a general forecast of the type of teacher that will be needed in the years to come is now possible. The teacher of the future must be one who realises that education should take cognizance of the whole child, of his physical, affective and aesthetic sides as well as his memory and intellect; that essentially a school should provide for a formative community life - it should not be a barracks; that education can no longer be regarded as the communication of pre-digested information, but that it should be active, purposeful, and have reality and meaning to the child; that the emphasis should be on the individual child, on his interests, needs and rate of progress, yet without neglect of the values that have taken objective form in his cultural inheritance and in organised society; that the barriers between the artificial compartments of knowledge and activity that we call school subjects must be broken down to some extent at least; that class teaching is not the only method of school education. In short, the new teacher requires an almost complete recasting of the educational ideas with which he enters upon training.

10. Another significant feature of the present situation is the scientific movement in education which, starting from modest beginnings at the end of last century, has now acquired considerable momentum. Its aim has been to place certain of the principles of education on a sure scientific basis, and it has invaded such territories as the study of child development, the fundamental principles relating to the training of the mind, the scientific testing of intelligence and school attainment, the methods of teaching the various school subjects, and problems of promotion, selection and guidance. Associated with this development there has grown up an elaborate and somewhat forbidding technique of experimental and statistical methods, of which it is essential that the new teacher should have an elementary knowledge. All teachers should be able to distinguish between the principles which have won acceptance and those which have not; and in the absence of a knowledge of research technique on the part of at least a proportion of teachers many valuable investigations could not be carried out.


[page 14]

3. ITS BEARING UPON TEACHER TRAINING

11. We cannot, without serious danger to the educational interests of the children in the schools - the ultimate criterion which we have always kept before our minds - ignore the purport of these changes. There is now so much knowledge of a professional character that the modern teacher must have, knowledge that will not evolve of itself in some mysterious way from the academic culture obtained in a degree course, that we need a complete rescaling of our training values. No longer can it be assumed that anyone who has taken a traditional degree course on which is superimposed a thin top-dressing of professional training is adequately prepared for service in the schools. We. have already recommended that, if teaching is to have its proper status, the class teacher should have a greater say in shaping the educational policy of the school; and if he is to be fit to undertake this responsibility he must be something of an educationist, with a broad knowledge of modern educational developments and of the currents of thought that lie behind them. We have therefore now to ask ourselves whether a fuller introduction to the philosophic and psychological theories basic to educational practice may not be of more significance to the teacher than some of the academic knowledge upon which the emphasis has been so heavily placed in the past few decades. Incidentally, it may be pointed out that these professional studies are cultural in themselves.

12. That is the first clear pointer that we find from our historical survey of the training system. In the early stages the emphasis was placed upon classroom technique: it then shifted to the acquisition of a wide general education, culminating in the demand for university graduation for all. Consideration of the present educational situation shows clearly that there must now be a re-assessment in which the acquisition of professional knowledge and the formation of certain educational ideals and attitudes must rise in importance. The teaching profession, in our view, will never attain the status that it deserves until there is a wide-spread realisation of the amount and importance of the specialised knowledge, largely the result of modern psychological and educational research, that is essential in the preparation of its members. There is need, too, for an examination of Hie general education with a view to ascertaining whether it has been of the right kind.

13. Our survey, indeed, led us to the conclusion that the time is now opportune, not merely for a few advances in the details of the training system, but for a complete re-examination of its foundations. The aim must be to retain what is good in our traditional practice, to discard what is out of date, and to adapt the system to the educational life and ideals of the present. For this reason, we decided that we should first consider the type of preparation which the modern teacher requires, and that we should not allow ourselves to be blinded to the real issues by considerations of present salary scales and administrative arrangements or of the vested interests of existing institutions. Keeping in the forefront of our minds the needs of the children of the schools of Scotland, we first faced the questions - "What should the modern teacher be?" "What qualities, attitudes and interests should he have?" "What should he know?" "What should he be able to do?" We felt that a clarification of our ideas on these fundamental questions would enlighten our approach to such special problems as the selection of candidates for admission, the kind of institution at which the training should be given, and the type of administrative system that would be most appropriate. We have followed the same general order in presenting our conclusions; and we deal first with the category of teachers of general subjects in primary schools, which comprises nearly three-fourths of the teachers in Scotland.


[page 15]

CHAPTER II

The Essentials in the Preparation of Teachers of General Subjects for Primary Schools

14. We are firmly convinced of the need for unity in the teachers' preparation, but we can, for purposes of discussion, make our inventory of the essential elements under the following three heads:

(1) Personal Qualities.
(2) General Culture.
(3) Special Professional Preparation.
1. PERSONAL QUALITIES

15. The educative process is a spiritual interaction between personalities, not merely a matter of communication of information by a teacher to a pupil; and we may safely accept the assurance of all the great educators that the personality of the teacher is all-important. This is a principle to which we must pay more than lip-service. We must make it a reality in our teacher training; and we must frame our schemes in the belief that the most important, albeit the most subtle, of the educative influences that flow from teacher to pupil have their source not so much in what the teacher knows as in what he is, what he values and what he enjoys.

16. When we analyse a list of personal qualities that have been suggested as essential in the good teacher we find that they fall into different categories with ill-defined borderlines. Some are unalterable parts of the original endowment. Others, while open to some extent to cultivation in the life of the individual, cannot be appreciably modified in a course of training coming in late adolescence. As far as these two groups are concerned all we can do is to take account of the qualities in our selection of entrants, and arrange that, if any are admitted who show themselves clearly deficient in them, they will be eliminated at as early a stage in training as possible.

17. There are, however, many qualities vital to the modern teacher than can and should be cultivated during training. In part, they consist of attributes of a general character like self-confidence, adaptability, initiative, sense of social responsibility; in part, of qualities that are more specifically educational - educational ideals and aims, which, in the end, manifest themselves in behaviour as mental sets or attitudes. Every modern teacher, for example, should have the attitude of striving to make educative activities purposeful, to relate them to the child's interests and problems. He should realise that education in best carried on in an atmosphere of love and happiness; he should have an abiding sense of the constant need for restraint in the impact of his personality on the sensitive nature of childhood; he should have and retain a spirit of educational adventure; he should go out into the schools with a burning desire to do his best for each individual pupil. Above all, he should have a glow of enthusiasm that will not be chilled to apathy by the experiences of his early teaching years. And it is not sufficient that the young teacher should have memorised statements about these matters. To try to produce educational pioneers or even good teachers for the existing schools by means of crammed lecture-notes is a futility we have tolerated too long. The child whose liberty of development is so carefully respected in the student's notebook and essays has often little relationship with the pupil whom he afterwards teaches in a class. This implies no disparagement of the intellectual or informational side of training: if we wish a teacher to use a new method, the first step is to give him a rational conviction of its soundness. But these sets and attitudes cannot be acquired in a purely intellectual way. They must become part of the student's being, warm human


[page 16]

qualities with conative power, and a faith that will move educational mountains. They are not taught. They grow best in the genial climate of an institution with a close-knit corporate life in which they are embodied; they come from the shared beliefs of such an environment, from living experience of the application of the principles, from daily association with men and women who shape their educational lives by them.

18. The cultivation of such qualities is, in our view, one of the most important functions of a course of training for the teaching profession. A training institution should not be regarded as a mere collection of separate classes conducted on a lecture note-taking system. It should be conceived rather as a formative community life, governed by high social ideals, and constituted by corporate activities whose character is not wholly imposed by those in authority but is partly the expression of forces in the nature of the students themselves. So far as possible it should be self-governing, and it should have the characteristic structure of all real educational institutions, one activity providing the motivation for the development of others. As an illustration we may cite the social-educational work in which we recommend later that all students should participate. The object of this is not primarily to prepare them to act as voluntary youth leaders: its aim is rather to give them opportunities of experiencing the joys of social service, and to increase the reality and significance of their studies in psychology and educational theory. By creating a demand for their productions, it furnishes a strong incentive for the work of other college activities such as the choir, the orchestra and the dramatic society. Through living in such an environment the student should, of course, acquire the scholarship, professional knowledge and skill that he needs; but it should, above all, be an environment in which he will acquire, as lasting qualities of personality, the ideals, standards, attitudes, enthusiasm and faith that will determine the vitality of his educational work.

19. This is particularly important at a time when the training institutions have as one of their functions the bridging of the gulf between an old education and a new, for the attitudes of the young teacher will often be in conflict with those of the schools in which the first few years of his teaching life are spent. They must therefore not be mere mushroom growths or cold rational convictions, but living enthusiasms and lasting personal qualities which will give a sense of inner security in face of the distrust of superiors or the cynicism of disillusioned colleagues.

20. Such considerations, to which full effect cannot be given in the present short post-graduate course, must have due weight in determining our conception of the nature of the training institution and of the courses of training. A training institution must have a spirit of its own, and the student should be under its formative influence for a reasonable period of time.

2. GENERAL CULTURE

21. The primary teacher should have a broad general culture including adequate knowledge of the subjects he will have to teach; that is to say, of his own language and literature, history, geography, general science and elementary mathematics. The standard to which these subjects should be studied should be that of an ordinary class for an Arts degree, except in mathematics where a considerably lower standard would suffice. As far as they are concerned the teacher student must envisage his knowledge from two points of view. As a scholar, he must regard it as having an orderly arrangement within a logical framework; as a prospective teacher, he must consider it also from the point of view of its presentation to a young and developing mind. We deal with courses and standards in greater detail in Chapters V and VIII.


[page 17]

22. The general education of the modern primary teacher should not, however be restricted to subjects which have a direct professional bearing, nor should it be cast in a single mould. Teachers should be highly educated men and women. All should be scholars in a real sense: and in planning their courses of general education we believe that two principles should be kept in mind. All teachers should have certain lasting interests which they pursue without direct professional motive, and the course of every student should contain certain subjects whose study he undertakes, not because he is forced to do so in order to conform to the requirements for a university degree, but because he finds in them a source of enjoyment and satisfaction. The second principle is that every student should have a balanced culture. By this we mean more than that he should have dipped into each of the main traditional spheres of human activity, or that his course should not be unduly weighted on, say, the linguistic side to the neglect of the scientific. His general education should have woven into the pattern of his thought the conceptions and principles that are needed in effective thinking on the vital issues that face the world of today. We believe, however, that most courses planned as we have suggested will be found to satisfy this second principle; and we must trust to a measure of growth in later life.

3. SPECIAL PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION

(1) SUBJECTS OF STUDY

23. We have already expressed our belief that this must bulk more largely in the preparation of the teacher than it has done in the past, and we now give a brief summary of the main topics that should be included. While we deal with them under the customary heads, we would urge that the barriers between subjects should be broken down and that there should be less compartmentation in the students' studies. We also make the general recommendation that all courses should be frequently reviewed to eliminate unnecessary detail.

(a) Educational Theory and History

24. Every teacher should have examined the theoretical principles that underlie varieties of educational practice. He should have considered educational ends in general, and the specific aims in teaching the school subjects at the various stages: for it is only with such knowledge that he will be able, in his teaching, to bring out the full value of the latter in the life and development of his pupils. He should have critically examined the presuppositions of the various teaching methods. He should know something of the lives and work of some of the great educators like Rousseau, Pestalozzi and Froebel. It is not, in our view, necessary that his studies of such educators should be in great detail, or that he should always be required to reproduce the results of his reading in examinations. If he catches something of their spirit and ideals we may safely allow him to forget much of the factual matter whose memorisation often prevents him from obtaining the real benefit from this branch of study. His work in educational history should also leave him with a broad view of the movements in educational thought in the modern period, thus giving him a sense of educational direction. In general, we would emphasise that the main aim of the study of educational theory and history is not to load the student's mind with examinable knowledge that is soon forgotten, but to give him a firm grip of a limited number of fundamental principles, and an opportunity of acquiring a set of educational values which are enduring but by no means fixed and unchangeable.

25. We are concerned less with the content than with the method of treatment of this subject, and that for two reasons. The first is that the effectiveness with


[page 18]

which its aims are attained depends very largely upon the method used: the second is that a redistribution of the time allotted to it may be involved, and this may have important bearings upon the planning of the whole course of training.

26. In the present post-graduate course, education comes into the fourth year of preparation, and normally takes the form of a systematic lecture course with a fixed time-table. Commendable attempts are being made to overcome the worst defects of this system by transforming the lectures into lecture-discussions, by using a problem or even a project approach, and by devoting a proportion of the time to tutorials or study-groups. Yet we believe that there should be a more radical departure from tradition. Despite the leaven of progressive methods the students feel that the theory is too isolated - that it it has little bearing upon their practice, and thus the ideas they acquire remain inert. It is essential that this attitude of distrust should be broken down, for it is only when students feel the necessity for certain studies that these studies have their full beneficial effect.

27. Partly for this reason and partly to give actual experience of the problem approach, we suggest for the consideration of the training authorities that the student's studies in educational theory should start from his own actual problems, problems which he has encountered in his teaching practice, or in his reading, thinking or discussions about curricula, time-tables, methods and their application. These problems should be discussed in small study groups, with selected members of the staff, not necessarily with the lecturer in education alone. In the discussions he will begin to make sporadic excursions into the domain of educational theory because he himself feels the need to do so. The early results will be somewhat patchy, but towards the end there should be a transition to a more systematic treatment, to a tidying-up and orderly arrangement of the principles that have been established.

28. It is not our aim to lay down definite plans for the conduct of the various courses. Much individual experiment will be necessary on the part of the college principals and their staffs; but we feel that the system of training should be such that they will have a fuller opportunity for such experiment than is possible in the present condensed post-graduate course.

(b) Psychology

29. Similar principles should be applied in the teaching of Psychology, a subject which is often regarded by students as too abstract and academic. A systematic lecture course, even when supplemented by experimental work with expensive apparatus in a laboratory, is not the kind which the teacher student requires. In such a course he makes careful scientific studies of sensation and perception, learns about psychologists' quarrels as to the nature of instinct, about conditioned reflexes in dogs, and so on; but all this seems to him to have little relevance to his work in the classroom.

30. This is one of the cases where we must face the realities of the situation. If the Psychology course does not, in fact, fertilise the teacher's professional work, it should either be modified in such a way that it will, or be omitted from the professional training and counted as one of the optional subjects. We believe that the subject can effect this fertilisation; but it will do so only if it starts from and very frequently returns to the actual child. For this reason the teacher student, at an early stage, should have abundant opportunities for studying children's behaviour nor merely in artificial conditions of the classroom but in play-centres, scout troops, boys' and girls' clubs and child guidance clinics. Through this experience he should learn what to observe and how to


[page 19]

observe; and group discussion of his observations will inevitably lead him to make excursions into psychology proper. He will thus obtain a thorough knowledge of child development, and of the ways in which psychology can help him in handling children and presenting educational activities to them at the various stages of development. He will also obtain that psychological insight which is of more importance to the teacher than knowledge about psychology, together with a sympathetic understanding of children and a respect for their liberty of development. Towards the end, there should, of course, be a process of systematisation of the knowledge gained, and the student should have a grasp of psychology as a science in its own right.

31. The practical use of mental and scholastic tests is a technique of which every primary teacher should have some command. A proportion of the students should be able to carry out an individual test of intelligence; all should, at least, have seen such a test performed; all should be able to use the main forms of group tests of intelligence and school attainment; and all should have an elementary knowledge of the statistical working up of test results.

(c) Correlation of Education and Psychology

32. To some extent, the organisation of the instruction in these two subjects tends to mask their value to the student. They are often taught in different classes and by different lecturers. Under such an arrangement the student is given a number of relatively unconnected applications of different subjects to an educational problem: he does not see the problem as a whole.

33. The remedy would appear to be to combine the separate courses into a single course in Educational Science, a science which has a field of its own but also draws freely upon the principles of many others. The lecturer for this combined course should have some contact with schools and teaching practice; and we shall later discuss its relationship to the student's work in methods and practice.

(d) Distribution of the Courses in Education and Psychology

34. The adoption of the suggestion we have ventured to make would involve important changes in the planning of courses of training. A course in educational science such as we have adumbrated could not be condensed, or relegated to the final year. Education and psychology should occupy a central place in the teacher student's thought all through his course. He should be brought into direct touch with children and with educational problems at the very start, and he should have sufficient time for reflection and for consolidation of the knowledge acquired. We therefore recommend that, if possible, some work in these subjects should form part of the curriculum of every year of training.

(e) Social Studies

35. Every teacher should have a broad knowledge of sociology. On the theoretical side this will emerge from his studies in history, geography and educational theory if these subjects are properly taught and integrated. If a special additional course should be thought desirable, it should be neither very detailed nor very academic. Its main aim should be to give the student an understanding of the structure of Christian democratic society, the forces that have shaped it, its ways of life, its economic, social and international problems. From such studies the student will come to take a wider view of his vocation, to realise that education is a function of society and that the classroom should be no more than the focal point of his activity. They will also give him the beginnings of a philosophy of life that will lend purpose to his teaching.


[page 20]

36. The teacher should, however, have a warmer and more intimate knowledge of the social setting of his work than that which comes from books and lectures. He should know something of the home conditions of his pupils, the problems and difficulties that have their origin there, the interests and concerns of young people, the social services that influence their lives. In this connection we have been much impressed by the developments that have taken place in the Scottish training colleges in recent years in affording opportunities to students to participate in various forms of social-educational work. This has comprised assistance with, and studies of, the activities of boys' brigade, scouts, guides, girls' guildry, boys' and girls' clubs, play centres, nursery schools, clinics, school camps, local settlements, holiday homes, parents' associations, women's rural institutes, rural community councils, young farmers' clubs, libraries and juvenile advisory committees. Such opportunities of experience form one of the most enriching elements in the life of a training institution. Through them, the student's social sympathies are strengthened, sometimes awakened; he comes to approach his work in a warm-hearted spirit of social service; he is prepared to play a reasonable part in the cultural and recreative life of the community in which his own life will be spent; he comes to view children and young people differently, through seeing them in varied contexts and placing them against a social background. Incidentally, he cultivates the flexibility that is so essential to the modern teacher.

37. We believe that such facilities should be provided by all training in institutions, that students should have opportunities of discussing their experiences, that their interest should be quickened and their knowledge extended by lectures from outside speakers, either occasionally or in arranged courses. We feel, too, that these practical social studies should neither be deferred nor condensed; they should form one of the central interests throughout the whole course of preparation.

38. The suggestion has been made that all teacher students, at some stage in their preparation, should have an interlude of industrial or commercial experience or other contact with life outside educational institutions. We realise the advantages of such an arrangement, but we are unable to recommend that it should be made compulsory. Apart from the inconvenience they would cause in any factory, shop or office, young people going in for an academic career could not be fitted into industry in anything but a marginal capacity; the contacts with life which they gained would be somewhat artificial; the arrangement would involve an extension of an already long course. The disadvantages that result from the fact that most teachers lead somewhat cloistered lives can be met to some extent in other ways. Through the practical social work which we have recommended, the students will make contacts with many sides of life. These could be increased by visits to mills and workshops, by lectures from welfare officers, works inspectors and others, and by films showing industrial conditions. Periods of absence to enable teachers to gain special experience of value in teaching, and the introduction into the profession of men and women with experience in other walks of life would also help.

(f) Educational Administration and School Organisation

39. Either in the combined course in educational science or in a separate course, the teacher should obtain a general knowledge of the administration of his own educational system, of the various central and local controlling bodies, of the relationship of education to other social services, and of the structure of the school system. This involves some knowledge of the historical roots of the system and of the traditions of which it is an expression. Under school organisation, we include such matters as classification and promotion of pupils, examina-


[page 21]

tions, house and prefect systems, methods of conducting camp and residential schools, and so on.

(g) Methods

40. The changed educational situation has raised new problems on this side of training. The methods lecturer cannot confine his course to giving dogmatically a few mechanical rules for the conduct of lessons and the management of classes. Students must be kept informed of the growing results of scientific studies of the best methods of teaching the various subjects at the various stages; they must be familiar with the great variety of new methods, some of which break away from the traditional class organisation; they must have guidance as to the part they have to play in training for citizenship; they must have a general knowledge of the methods of dealing with dull and retarded children; they must be expert in the use of the new teaching aids. The methods lecturer must therefore discuss the claims of the various methods, and he cannot do this without touching on the soundness of the principles on which they are based. The fact that he must enter the domain of educational theory raises important issues both in regard to the staffing of the methods departments and to the organisation of the courses of training. All lecturers on methods should have a thorough and up to date knowledge of educational theory and psychology, and the borderline between the classes in educational science and in methods becomes very difficult to draw. This securing of the desirable harmony between theory, methods and practice is perhaps the most important problem that the new training institutions will have to face on the side of instructional organisation.

41. The simplest solution would be to place education, psychology, methods and practice in the hands of a single lecturer, but we feel that, in the training institutions which we propose, some specialisation of function is inevitable. Quite apart from problems of organisation in large colleges, it would be extremely difficult to find lecturers with a sufficiently high standing on all four sides. Probably the most that will be found possible will be to reduce the types of lecturer to two, one for educational science and one for methods and practice. The necessary co-ordination could be ensured by frequent conferences between lecturers and by requiring that lecturers in theory should do a small amount of supervision of practice teaching.

(h) Practice Teaching

42. Practice teaching should, as far as possible, be continued throughout the whole course of preparation. As we have indicated, it should serve as the main source of the problems from which the student's excursions into educational theory and psychology will start. Great care should be taken to ensure that students are sent only to schools where the environment will be suitable and where sympathetic treatment and guidance are likely to be given, and use should be made of experimental schools, or schools using new methods, in the areas in which the training institutions are situated. To give students experience of teaching pupils at different stages in the same class, more use should be made of one to four teacher schools for teaching practice. School staffs, who should have a sense of responsibility in connection with the practical training of students, should allow ample opportunities for actual teaching of classes.

43. Different plans of organisation of the practice teaching have been tried in Scottish training colleges. In some, the student spends one or two half-days weekly in the schools, this being supplemented by a limited number of continuous periods of two, three or four weeks: in others, the student spends alternate periods in schools and in college. We do not discuss the relative


[page 22]

merits of these plans, but we are of opinion that all of them are defective in one important respect. It is, in our view, essential that the teacher student should have an adequate period of continuous teaching with virtually independent charge of a class. Only in this way is he able to enter fully into the day-to-day life and work of the school and class: only in this way can we overcome the artificiality of the present arrangement under which the student has little or no experience of managing a class without the presence of the class teacher and perhaps also a methods lecturer. Disciplinary problems do not arise under such a system, and the opportunities of judging the student's real teaching capacity are limited.

44. We recommend that this continuous period should extend to one term, that the student should have experience of two classes within that term, and that it should normally be taken in the third year of the four year course. It could, in certain cases, be taken in a suitable school in the student's home area. The class teacher would be present for a few days until the student had become familiar with the class and its work; frequent visits would be paid by the headmaster, class teacher and methods supervisor, and there would be periodic conferences at which difficulties and problems would be discussed.

(i) Hygiene and Speech Training

45. The attitude of the students to these subjects is somewhat mixed, their reactions depending largely upon the methods used by the lecturer. We regard them as essential in the preparation of the primary teacher, but we recommend that there should be a reconsideration by the training authorities of the aims behind their inclusion in the curriculum with a view to ascertaining whether the content of the courses and the methods used are such as to achieve these aims. Students should be so trained that they would be impressed with the need for seeking to raise the standard of speech in the class-room, Some instruction in the treatment of pupils with simple speech defects should be included.

(j) Religious Education

46. In Chapter XIV, we make certain recommendations as to religious education in training institutions. At this stage we merely record our conviction that all courses of training should make adequate provision for this important subject.

(k) Practical Subjects

47. Under this somewhat unsuitable heading we include a number of subjects and activities which are of great importance to the primary teacher. Physical education and a general course in music should form part of the training of all students, and no student should obtain a qualification to teach in a primary school without having taken courses in an appropriate selection from music, art, needlework, handwork, gardening. The corporate life of the college should provide opportunities for the further cultivation of the student's gifts in these spheres through choirs, orchestras, dramatic societies and games clubs. In such studies the student will not only discover his own creative powers but will also obtain an insight into those of the child. The brevity with which we refer to these subjects should not prevent a realisation of the amount of the student's time that must be devoted to them.

(2) LENGTH OF TIME REQUIRED FOR THE SPECIAL PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION

48. Our survey of the elements that must be regarded as essential on the


[page 23]

professional side led us to the important conclusion that the special professional preparation, apart from academic studies, required for the modern primary. teacher could not be adequately covered in less than the equivalent of two years of full-time study.

CHAPTER III

The Present Courses of Training for Teachers of General Subjects in Primary Schools

1. THE NON-GRADUATING COURSES

49. This type of course is open only to women. After obtaining the Senior Leaving Certificate, which is the normal requirement for entrance, the student proceeds to a training college for a course of three years. Alternatively, she may take the first year of training in her secondary school, entering the training college course at the beginning of the second year. In certain colleges courses with a rural bias are offered. On the completion of the course for the Teacher's General Certificate,* the student may continue for a further period of training leading to certain special qualifications. She may, in an additional year, obtain an endorsement of special qualification for infant work, nursery school work, or for the teaching of art, domestic subjects, rural subjects, commercial subjects or industrial subjects to younger secondary classes. The corresponding additional course in music extends to one term, and a double qualification in infant and nursery school work may be taken in an additional course of one year and one term. Of these additional courses the most popular is that leading to the qualification for infant work, the numbers taking the others being very small.

50. Arrangements are occasionally made whereby students may take a limited number of subjects at the university. In one of these varieties of the course the student takes classes in English and geography at the university instead of at the training college: in another, she may take five university classes and thus obtain a qualification to teach one or two academic subjects to younger secondary classes.

51. We are, at this point, concerned only with the general structure of the courses, not with the content of the special subjects or the methods by which they are presented to students: and when we consider the non-graduating course in the light of the general principles we have laid down in Chapter II, we find that it offers satisfactory possibilities on the side of professional training and the cultivation of personal qualities. It would, however, be strengthened by the inclusion of fuller provision for social studies.

52. The main weakness lies on the side of general culture. The curriculum meets the requirement that it should provide a background of knowledge of the subjects the student will have to teach: but it makes no provision for carrying on certain cultural interests that have no direct professional bearing. It is open to the further serious objection that the students, apart from the small number who take certain university classes, are segregated in a special institution and have only limited opportunities of mixing with those preparing for other professions.

2. THE GRADUATING COURSES

53. These courses, which are open to both men and women, fall into two main types. In the first, the student takes his professional training after obtaining his degree: in the second, the university course and the professional training

*See footnote to paragraph 6.


[page 24]

are taken concurrently. Men who take the concurrent course must obtain their degrees before their Teacher's General Certificates* are granted. Students who hold a Senior Leaving Certificate together with a diploma recognised for the purposes of Chapter VI of the Regulations* may also be admitted to courses leading to the Teacher's General Certificate; but the number who enter by this door is negligible, and we shall confine our discussion to those who take a university degree.

54. As the courses for ordinary degrees in Arts or Science normally extend to three years, the student taking the non-concurrent course does not enter the training college until the fourth year of his post-school education. The duration of the professional training is one year and one term*, making four years and one term in all. During the course of professional training most of the men and a considerable proportion of the women obtain endorsements, under Article 39 of the Regulations†, for the teaching of two or more academic subjects to younger secondary classes. Provision for additional courses leading to special qualifications is also made in graduating courses. For example, a woman desiring special qualification for infant work or nursery school work may obtain this in one additional year: she may take the double qualification in infant work and nursery school work in an additional course of one year and one term. The student may also take additional courses leading to qualification under Article 39† in art, commercial subjects, domestic subjects, industrial subjects, music or rural subjects, but the numbers taking such courses have been very small.

55. In the concurrent form of the course an attempt is made to orient the student's mind towards his life's work from the beginning. Some practice teaching is included in all years, and provision is made in each year for such professional training as will not interfere with the student's success in his university studies. Various arrangements have been tried, the commonest being that in which the student completes the university work in the first three years and takes the major part of his training in the fourth. During the first three years, the amount of training included depends upon the number of university classes taken in the particular year. When the student has three classes it is usually limited to a period of two or three weeks' teaching practice taken after the close of the university summer term, with perhaps a weekly period of physical education throughout the session. When only two university classes are taken the student, in addition to the teaching practice in the long vacation, attends for one or two half-days weekly for courses in practical subjects like art, handwork, needlework or music. The course is fitted to the special conditions and capabilities of the individual student. By using the time available in the first three years, it is always possible for the student to put in an amount of training equivalent to that taken in the fourth term of the postgraduate course; and for this reason the concurrent course can be completed in four years instead of four years and one term as in the non-concurrent form.

56. In certain centres courses with a rural bias are offered, the curriculum including rural economy, school gardening, organisation and methods of instruction for rural schools, practice in teaching in rural schools. Students, whether they are going to teach in rural or in urban areas, may take a university diploma in Education along with their training.

CHAPTER IV

Three Important Issues in Teacher Training

57. In this chapter we deal with three central questions on the answer to which the form of the teacher training system largely depends. While we discuss

*The training arrangements described in this Report are those which were in force just before the outbreak of war.

†See footnote to paragraph 6.


[page 25]

them mainly from the point of view of the training of teachers of general subjects for primary schools, much of what we say is applicable to the training of all types of teacher.

1. SHOULD THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING BE TAKEN AFTER THE COMPLETION OF THE COURSE OF GENERAL EDUCATION OR CONCURRENTLY WITH IT?

58. One of the watchwords of modern education is integration of studies; and there is special need for such integration in the preparation of the teacher in that he will thus obtain experience, often his first, of a principle that he should strive to apply in school. His training should not be split up into separate parts, one to give him general culture, one to give him professional knowledge and one to give him teaching skill. It should be treated as a whole, with an integration not merely of the large departments but also of the studies within each department. The principle for securing such integration is that teacher training should be regarded not as a collection of separate subjects but as a sequence of planned activities and experiences all related to a central purpose. Such integration is clearly unattainable, or attainable only to a limited extent, if the general culture is not undertaken concurrently with the professional preparation. It is best secured if the student's course is planned as a whole and not as two separate parts, each conforming to the regulations of a separate institution.

59. It is an advantage for the teacher student, while he is yet plastic, to have experience of the actual problems of the classroom, club and play centre. It is from these that his studies in education and psychology should radiate, and to them they should frequently return. It is essential to a sound training that these subjects, and also the social studies we have recommended, should be started early and continued throughout the whole course.

60. From the point of view of the cultivation of personal qualities, in our opinion one of the most important aspects of teacher training, the concurrent type of course is clearly the more satisfactory. Its effects are less transient than those of a short post-graduate course. The student is in the environment long enough for it to exert a lasting formative influence, and there are fuller opportunities for the handing on of traditions from older to younger students.

61. The concurrent course has many other important advantages, The training college staff are in close touch with the student over a long period; they have time to learn his defects and to cure them; their marking is therefore more reliable; they can, without hardship, eliminate unsuitable students at an early stage; they can guide and advise the student in his choice of university curricula. In addition, a more effective use of the available time can be made. The crowded post-graduate course, with a large number of new subjects to be studied at the same time, leads to mental confusion and often to little more than an accumulation of half-digested and soon forgotten knowledge.

62. We are not greatly impressed by the argument that, in the concurrent course, there is a possibility of divided allegiance between the two sides, cultural and professional, and that there is a dissipation of the student's energies. The harmful division, the one that may cause strain and tension is not between the cultural and the professional but between two artificially separated objectives, the obtaining of a degree and the obtaining of a teacher's certificate. If the cultural and professional sides are combined and integrated as we have outlined in Chapter II, there is no cleavage: they are complementary parts bound together by a regulative central purpose. But even if there were such a cleavage in the concurrent course, we would point out that it is not avoided in the non-concurrent type: it is merely postponed. If the student takes his


[page 26]

university degree first there are inevitable difficulties in the transition to the professional training which reduce the effectiveness of the latter. These arise from differences, whose necessity is not always appreciated by the student, between the two parts. During the three years at the university the student has been accustomed to the study to a fairly high level of two or three subjects in each year. In the training college he has to study a large number of subjects simultaneously in a way that he feels to be superficial; and he reverts to a time-table reminiscent of his school days. He changes from the freedom of university life to an institution with a specific vocational function where personal qualities and conduct have necessarily to be taken into account. As a result students tend to begin their training in an impatient if not antagonistic spirit. It may be well on in the course before this attitude is lost, and as the later part is considerably disturbed by visits from interviewing authorities and inspectors, the really effective part of the present post-graduate training is relatively short. The cleavage at this difficult transition goes much deeper than these matters of time-table and behaviour, for if the professional training is sound there must be a modification of educational values which have been gradually built up during the university course. In his years at the university the student has been accustomed to the systematic study of individual subjects by methods applicable to mature students of a highly selected type. With a mind somewhat set in the relative attitudes he finds it difficult to adjust himself to the changed outlook necessary if he is to be a successful teacher of young children in a modern school, and the earlier such adjustments are made the better.

63. We are confirmed in our preference for a system in which the general education and professional training of the primary teacher are taken concurrently, and in our view that the course should be combined and integrated on the lines we have suggested, by the fact that, of the twenty-one witnesses who gave us their views on this point, fifteen favoured the concurrent arrangement. We cannot, however, recommend that it be made a definite requirement that all courses should be of this type. The distance between the training institution and the university may make the arrangement impracticable, and such courses will be successful only when both of the institutions concerned are favourably disposed to the plan. The door must also be kept open to students who have taken a university course before making up their minds to enter the teaching profession.

2. SHOULD ALL STUDENTS DESIRING TO BECOME TEACHERS OF GENERAL SUBJECTS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS BE REQUIRED TO TAKE A UNIVERSITY DEGREE IN ARTS OR SCIENCE?

64. The answer to this question depends largely upon the extent to which the degree courses at present available meet the requirements of a sound course of training for a modern primary teacher, Degree courses are rightly framed in accordance with certain principles relating to cultural balance and coherence, and are well adapted to their special purpose; but their purpose is naturally not that of providing the general education necessary for a teacher of young children. Judged from this point of view, they suffer both from excess and from defect. Few include even a reasonable preparation of the subjects we regard as essential: indeed many graduate entrants come forward with curricula which have not included any of the three important subjects, English, history and geography. It is sometimes difficult for the student to choose outside this group subjects which are either congenial or profitable professionally. He frequently undertakes their study not because he is interested in them but because they are necessary to conform to the degree regulations, or, in some cases, because they are considered to be "soft options" - not the best prepara-


[page 27]

tion for one who should inspire his pupils with a love of learning. If we were to insist both upon graduation and upon the requirements we have laid down in Chapter II, the course of training for many primary teachers would have to be extended to about six years. The primary teacher must be a citizen of the modern world, able to play his part in the training for citizenship, and a broad course in the modern humanities is more appropriate to his needs than a traditional academic course.

65. Another difficulty in the way of accepting the principle of graduation for all lies in the fact that it deprives us of the opportunity of making full use of the resources of institutions of higher education other than the universities. The student's cultural interest may not lie in an academic subject: it may lie in painting, architecture, music, agriculture or some aspect of technology, and the most suitable course available may be in a central institution. Here also may be found many valuable courses that have a direct professional bearing. A course at an agricultural or veterinary college may be very useful to a teacher in a rural school, and teachers of science in industrial areas might derive great value from certain of the courses offered by the technical colleges. We recommend that much fuller use be made of the rich and varied resources of these institutions.

66. Insistence on graduation for all is not the right way to overcome our Scottish propensity to over-emphasise school attainment and the intellectual side of education, for we should thus fill our schools with men and women whose minds have been stiffened in that part of our educational tradition. Indeed, a rule of this kind would begin to have its influence even at the secondary school stage, for students would tend to take only the Senior Leaving Certificate groups that would qualify for university entrance. If the education of the pupils in the new day schools and junior colleges is to have the reality and relevance to life that we regard as desirable, the teachers must have a wider outlook and broader contacts with life than those gained through academic study. This involves no depreciation of the value of the academic attitudes and contacts with life; yet we must not fail to realise that the great majority of pupils are not of the bookish type, and that there is a place on the staffs for teachers who have other gifts and other forms of experience. A rigid application of the principle of graduation would impoverish the schools by depriving us of the services of two very desirable types of teacher. It would exclude many of the non-bookish girls who train as teachers of young children, girls who have talents of a high order but have neither the tastes nor the special abilities to face a full degree course. It would also tend to prevent the entry into the profession of men and. women who have experience in commerce, industry or other walks of life. In short, emancipation from the restrictions imposed by regulations framed for a different purpose would lead to far greater freedom in planning courses suited to modern demands and to the needs of the individual students, and it would enrich the schools through the introduction of teachers with a greater variety of interests and knowledge.

67. The influence of the adoption of the principle of graduation for all on the status of the teaching profession may be over-emphasised. The status of the teacher can be raised in many other and surer ways, and no scheme of training which has so clear and serious defects on the educational side can, in the long run, have a beneficial effect. The formula served a useful purpose in that it helped to raise the standard of the teacher's general education; but its usefulness is now past.

68. Of the seventeen witnesses (bodies and individuals) who gave us their views on this question, sixteen were opposed to the principle of graduation for all primary teachers.


[page 28]

69. It has been suggested that the universities might be asked so to change their regulations for degrees in Arts and Science that the courses would conform more nearly to the requirements that we have laid down. This, in our view, is a request which it would be unfair to make and to which the universities could not accede without prejudice to their own cultural aims.

70. Therefore, although we fully appreciate the value of a university course for those teachers who are suited for such education, we recommend that all teachers of general subjects in primary schools should not be required to take a university degree in Arts or Science. On the other hand, nothing but good will come from the close association of the training colleges with the universities in ways that do not limit the freedom or distort the aims of either institution. Most, if not all, teachers should have opportunities for participation in the life and culture of the university, and this should be looked upon as one of the most valuable aspects of their preparation.

3. SHOULD A SPECIAL UNIVERSITY DEGREE FOR TEACHERS BE INSTITUTED?

71. A minority of our witnesses, considering the present degree courses in Arts and Science unsuitable as a cultural preparation for teachers, proposed that the universities should be asked to institute special degrees for teachers. The course for the primary teacher's degree would consist of certain subjects of general education chosen from the curricula for Arts and Science, together with education, psychology and the other subjects of professional training. This proposal, whose adoption we are unable to recommend, could be put into practice more easily if the whole of the training of teachers were in the hands of the universities; for the universities would then be granting a hall-mark for work wholly carried out by their own staffs and under their own supervision. In Chapter XXII we give the reasons why we are unable to recommend such an arrangement, and we therefore, at this stage, consider merely the possibility of the institution of a special degree in a system where separate training institutions are retained.

72. Our first objection to the proposal is that if the courses are properly planned a large proportion of the work in respect of which the degree would be granted would be taken outside the university, in the training institution, and other institutions of higher education. Such an arrangement would be satisfactory to none of the parties concerned; and it would, in particular, give the training institutions another master to serve. Their schemes would be subject not merely to the approval of the National Committee or their successors and of the Secretary of State but also to that of the universities. There would, in fact, be possibilities of disagreement and cleavages of opinion not merely between them and their masters but among the masters themselves.

73. Apart from the administrative difficulties in working the plan, we are not convinced that it would achieve the aims for which it is put forward. In the view of the majority of our witnesses a special university degree for teachers would probably be regarded generally, and in the universities themselves, as inferior to the older degrees; and that the result might well be a lowering rather than a raising of the status of the profession.

CHAPTER V

The New Courses proposed for the Training of Women Teachers of General Subjects in Primary Schools

1. THE NON-GRADUATING COURSE

74. The non-graduating course for women should be one in which general education and professional training are combined and integrated over a period


[page 29]

of four years. It should be general in the earlier part, but with a measure of specialisation in the later part. While it should be conducted in a training institution, facilities should be provided whereby certain subjects may be taken in a university or other institution of higher education.

75. We recommend that the system under which the first year of training may be taken in a secondary school should be abandoned. The content and quality of the courses offered in the secondary schools vary with the staffing and other resources available. Frequently they differ materially from those given in the training colleges whose second year groups have therefore not the homogeneity necessary for effective handling.

(1) General Education

76. This part of the course should follow the lines indicated in Chapter II; that is to say it should include (1) English, history, geography, general science and elementary mathematics, and (2) at least one subject studied for purely cultural interest. Subjects in the latter group should normally be taken at a university or a central institution. As far as English, history and geography are concerned, the great majority of the witnesses who gave us their views felt that the classes in these subjects at present offered in the universities are not suited to the needs of the teacher of young children. On the other hand, a measure of unsuitability in content and method of treatment would be compensated by the advantages which come from participation in the life and culture of the university. Having in mind the different conditions in the four universities and the fact that the university may be at a considerable distance from the training institution, we recommend that it should be left to the training authorities either to arrange for the attendance at the university for these subjects of students with the necessary qualifications or to provide courses of a similar standard themselves. The course in general science could be taken in a university if a suitable course is available, but the standard of the ordinary university course in mathematics is too high for the majority of the students, and a special course in this subject should be available in the training institution. When courses of general education are organised within the training institution we recommend that experiment be made with plans for giving greater unity to this part of the student's preparation and breaking down the barriers between the subjects.

(2) Professional Training

77. A general outline of the course which we recommend has been given in Chapter II, and it is now necessary for us to deal merely with a few special points of administration. Educational theory and psychology, in our view, should be treated in a combined course provided in the training institution and extending over all the four years. It has to be borne in mind that the Scottish universities offer courses in theory and history of education, and in certain cases it should therefore be arranged that the university class should serve as the systematic part to which we referred in paragraph 27. In the first three years of the course students would make preliminary studies arising from problems which they had encountered, and their knowledge would be systematised through attendance at the university course in the fourth year. The necessary co-ordination would be easily secured in the two cases where the Professor of Education in the university is also Director of Studies of the training college. The psychological part of the course should, in all cases, be taken wholly in the training institution. We agree with the great majority of our witnesses in believing that the university classes in this subject, while admirably adapted to their special purpose, are not of the type required by the teacher of young


[page 30]

children. The university class could, however, be taken as an addition by students who elect psychology as a subject to be studied for cultural interest.

78. The course and practical work in social studies, and the remaining parts of the professional training, should be provided in the training institution.

79. In view of the limited time available even in a four year course, and the increasing extent to which instruction in primary schools in art, handwork, needlework, music and gardening is given by specialist teachers, we recommend that students should include courses in at least two and not more than three of these subjects. Provision should be made for students to obtain qualifications in the remaining subjects after they have started to teach.

80. The course in physical education should be fuller than that which is offered at present, and all students should receive some instruction in methods of dealing with handicapped children.

(3) Specialisation

81. In the present Chapter III courses* there is no specialisation for the different stages in the primary school age range, the only approach to such specialisation being provided in the additional courses described in paragraph 49. Our witnesses were almost unanimous in their view that this is a mistake. Teaching practice, methods, and at least the emphasis in the theoretical subjects are different for the teacher of infants from what they are for the teacher of the higher classes. Taking this in conjunction with the time available we feel that a measure of specialisation would lead to a more effective use of the student's time.

82. The specialisation should not be too extreme; for a system under which the student was qualified only for a limited part of the age-range, say 5-7 or 9-12, would have serious disadvantages. Students would find difficulty in deciding at the outset whether they would like to spend their lives in teaching infants or senior pupils; the compartmentation of the profession would be increased; education authorities would be hampered in their staffing arrangements; and the plan would not meet the needs of small rural schools.

83. The form which we recommend is free from these objections. We suggest that the earlier part of the course should be general in the sense that it would cover the whole of the 5-12 range, and that the specialisation should come in the later part. The allocation of time to the general and to the specialised parts, and the problem whether the two parts should be end-on or overlapping should be the subject of experiment by the training authorities.

84. We recommend that there should be four types of specialisation: for the age ranges 2-7, 5-9 and 7-12 and for rural schools. Under this arrangement the specialisation would not be too narrow, and it would lead to a distribution of teaching qualifications that would be suitable both to headmasters and to the appointing authorities. The whole object of the plan would, however, be defeated if it were not realised that all teachers would be qualified to teach in any type of primary school, city or rural, and in any part of the primary age range.

85. We make recommendations in Chapter XI as to various forms of specialised training which should be provided, usually after the teacher has had a few years of experience in ordinary schools, for teachers of handicapped children.

(4) The Training of Nursery School Teachers

86. The first direction of specialisation that we have recommended covers

*See footnote to paragraph 6.


[page 31]

the nursery school and infant stages. An alternative proposal to which we gave careful consideration is that there should be a special course leading to a qualification for nursery school work only, and that it should not be obligatory for such teachers to take the complete qualification for primary work. Our evidence on this issue was conflicting. In favour of the ad hoc course it was urged that many girls who are well fitted for nursery school work and keen to undertake it would be deterred from entering if they were obliged to take the full primary training. Few nursery school teachers, we were informed, ever desire to change later to a different department of the school; for them a full primary training is not merely unnecessary but positively undesirable in that it tends to the introduction of primary school methods and a primary school atmosphere in to the nursery school. While we realise that these considerations are important, we feel that every teacher of young children should have a broad view of the whole early education of the child; that a shorter ad hoc course would result in a lowering of the status of the nursery school teacher.

(5) The Specialised Course for Rural Schools

87. The first and broadest aim of this course should be to inspire the student with an enthusiasm for country life and to show her that in rural teaching she can have a rich and full life spent in congenial activities of high social value. Through a course in rural economy she should be given a knowledge of social conditions and problems in rural communities, of the various educational and recreative agencies in such communities and of the teacher's relationship to them. The interest thus aroused should be confirmed and intensified by lectures from outside speakers and through actual participation in the work of these agencies. The course in rural economy should also give her a general knowledge of farming interests and activities which, taken in conjunction with her work in such subjects as botany, zoology and gardening, will enable her to effect that relationship between school instruction and the everyday life of the pupils which will enable them to take an enlightened and appreciative interest in what lies around them. In planning these rural courses consideration should be given to the possibility of including certain classes available in agricultural and veterinary colleges.

88. All rural courses should provide adequate practice in teaching composite classes in rural schools; and, associated with this, there should be a special course on organisation, management and methods of teaching appropriate to small schools. A certain minimum of such instruction should be included in the course for all students, whether they are taking the rural specialisation or not.

89. We recommend that the National Committee or their successors should consider the establishment, in connexion with one or more of the training institutions, of rural residential annexes in which students taking the rural courses would spend a part of their training period. The students would thus have opportunities of obtaining direct experience of rural life and conditions which could not be so well acquired through periods of teaching practice.

2. THE GRADUATING COURSE

90. If a student decides at the outset of her course to take a university degree in Arts or Science, a course should be planned that will allow her to do so. Such courses would normally extend to five years. In order that no undesirable restriction arising from the student's early decision to become a teacher may be placed upon her freedom of choice of the subjects to be included in her degree course at the university she should not be expected to include more than three of the subjects she would have to teach in a primary


[page 32]

school; viz. English, history, geography and general science. She should also be allowed to replace the course in general science by any science course taken at a university or a central institution.

3. THE POST-GRADUATE COURSE

91. Where after obtaining a degree in Arts or Science a student decides to enter the teaching profession she should be required to take a post-graduate course of professional training extending to two years. Students entering as graduates will be more mature; they will be a selected group as far as intellectual ability is concerned and they will have had the discipline that comes from a full course of university study. On the other hand, many of their university courses, particularly if taken for a Science degree, will not have included several of the subjects which we have listed as essential. The two years should therefore be devoted not merely to professional training but also to the necessary supplementation on the side of general education.

4. GENERAL

92. The regulations in accordance with which courses are framed should not be too rigid, but should permit adaptation for the courses to the needs of the individual student. Prescription of a definite and uniform number of hours of instruction for each subject is undesirable.

93. The lecture and note-taking system should be limited and largely replaced by lecture-discussions, study-groups, independent study, directed reading and conferences with members of the staff. In certain cases it could profitably be arranged that several lecturers should take part in the lecture-discussions; and, wherever possible, students should be allowed to act as chairmen of the study groups.

PART II

TEACHERS FOR THE YOUNGER CLASSES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

CHAPTER VI

The Present Arrangements for the Training of Teachers for the Younger Classes in Secondary Schools*

94. In senior secondary schools the instruction is largely in the hands of specialists with the Teacher's Special Certificate, but, for the younger classes, considerable use is also made of the services of teachers with the Teacher's General Certificate who have a qualification under Article 39 of the Regulations to teach certain subjects in junior secondary schools or in senior secondary schools where the services of a teacher with the Teachers' Special or Technical Certificate cannot reasonable be required. The Article 39 endorsement may be regarded as a qualification to teach a subject or subjects in the first three secondary years. Holders of the Teacher's General Certificate can obtain an Article 39 qualification only if they have a university degree, or the diploma of a recognised central institution, or if they have had a course of training of not less than four years. Holders of the Teacher's Special or Technical Certificate may also receive entries on their certificates under Article 39 on fulfil-

*For an explanation of the technical terms used in this Chapter see footnote to paragraph 6.


[page 33]

ment of the necessary conditions. Thus, a teacher who has the Teacher's Special Certificate in French may also be qualified under Article 39 to teach German in the first three secondary years. The subjects in which the Article 39 qualification may be obtained are divided into academic subjects - English, French, mathematics, etc. - and practical subjects - domestic subjects, art, music, commercial subjects, industrial subjects, rural subjects, nautical subjects.

95. The Article 39 qualification in academic subjects is taken almost exclusively by graduates. The candidate must first satisfy certain academic requirements in the subject concerned, the general standard demanded being degree passes in the subject at the first and second ordinary stages, or a degree pass at the first ordinary stage in the subject, together with a degree pass at the same stage in a cognate subject. Training for the endorsement is taken as part of the ordinary course for the Teacher's General or Special Certificate. The normal number of subjects in which qualification is obtained is two, but this may be increased if the subjects are cognate.

96. Training for an endorsement under Article 39 in a practical subject is not included in the ordinary courses for a Teacher's Certificate: an additional course, which extends to one term in music and to one year in the other subjects, must be taken. There is no qualification under Article 39 in physical education. Little advantage has been taken of these courses, particularly by graduates; and, in practice, the qualifications are usually obtained by attendance at Article 55 classes† after the teacher has entered upon service. As would be expected, the number of enrolments tends to fall when the supply situation is such that students can readily obtain posts on the completion of the certificate course.

CHAPTER VII

The Staffing of Secondary Schools

1. ACADEMIC SUBJECTS

97. For the fourth and higher years in secondary schools fully qualified specialists will clearly be needed, and we deal with the preparation of teachers of this type in Part III. But while it is desirable that the instruction in secondary schools should be under the supervision of these specialists, it is not necessary that all the actual teaching of the younger classes should be undertaken by them. The witnesses who gave us their views on this point were unanimously of opinion that the younger secondary pupils tend to be bewildered when they are suddenly transferred from a primary school, where all the instruction is given by one teacher, to a system where every subject is taken by a separate teacher. At this stage, too, particularly in the case of pupils taking shorter secondary courses, it is educationally undesirable that the borderlines between the various subjects should be too clearly defined. With these pupils considerable use should be made of centres of interest and projects that cut across various subject fields. We therefore recommend that the instruction of the younger classes in all secondary courses should be largely in the hands of teachers who are able to teach at least three subjects. The distinction between these two types of secondary teacher should not be too sharp. If it should suit the school organisation, some of the instruction of the younger

†Article 55 of the Regulations provides for courses for the further instruction of teachers in actual service. Recognition under Article 39 may be granted in respect of work done at such courses.


[page 34]

classes could well be given by the full specialists; while the teacher of a group of subjects who is judged competent could be entrusted with the instruction of some of the higher classes.

98. The question arises whether the teacher of a group of subjects for the younger secondary classes should be trained solely for this type of work, or whether he should also be prepared for general primary work. We regard the latter arrangement as preferable. Specialisation for three subjects for a limited age range is too narrow to satisfy the professional aspirations of the student or to meet the convenience of appointing authorities and headmasters.

99. We realise that the whole question of the staffing of the secondary schools may have to be reconsidered when the upper limit of the school age is raised to 16, or if, as we shall recommend in our Report on Secondary Education, a school certificate to be taken at the end of a four years' course should be instituted, with fifth and sixth form specialisation thereafter. It may then be desirable to break the link between the qualification for primary work and that for the younger secondary classes, and to provide for two types of secondary certificate. The first would correspond to the Teacher's Special Certificate*: the second, while of the same status and based upon a course of the same duration, would be characterised by breadth rather than depth. Such an arrangement would have obvious advantages., The course for the teacher of the younger classes would have a single aim: a more adequate background could be given in the subjects professed; and it would be possible to provide for larger groups of subjects. Yet, having regard to difficulties of supply and to the needs of smaller schools, we feel that an immediate change in this direction would be premature.

2. PRACTICAL SUBJECTS

100. Instruction in practical subjects will normally be given by specialist teachers in every type of secondary school. There are, however, many small secondary schools where the services of full-time or visiting specialists could not be provided in all the subjects of this group, and we feel that there would be considerable advantage in having a limited number of teachers qualified to teach one practical subject and certain academic subjects to the younger secondary classes. It would be impossible, in a course of reasonable length, to give a sufficient preparation in more than one practical subject or group.

CHAPTER VIII

The Courses of Training proposed for Teachers of the Younger Classes in Secondary Schools

1. COURSES FOR WOMEN

(1) Academic Subjects

(a) The Non-Graduating Course

101. We have recommended that teachers of the younger classes in secondary schools, other than full specialists, should be qualified to teach a group of at least three academic subjects, and the planning of the relative training course depends largely upon the level of academic attainment to be demanded in each subject. On this point the opinions of our witnesses were very varied. Some would entrust the instruction of the younger secondary classes only to teachers

*See footnote to paragraph 6.


[page 35]

with an honours degree of the first or second class in the subject concerned; others thought that a teacher who had taken a first ordinary university class in the subject would have a sufficient background of knowledge for this purpose. Taking account of the standard of attainment required, of the desirability that the teacher should be fitted to teach at least three subjects, and of the necessity for keeping all courses of training of a reasonable length, we recommend that the general standard adopted be that at present demanded for the Article 39 qualification*.

102. If this standard were used and if students were not hampered through having to conform to regulations for degrees, the training could be provided in a course of four years which would lead both to a qualification for the teaching of general subjects in primary schools and to a qualification to teach a group of subjects to the younger classes in secondary schools. The training for the latter qualification could, in fact, be regarded as one of the directions of specialisation of the normal four year course outlined in Chapter V; but it is desirable that students taking this specialisation should make up their minds to do so at a very early stage. Courses would have to be arranged individually to suit the abilities of the student and the group of subjects in which she desired qualification for secondary work. Normally, the student would not be able to include more than six classes at a university or central institution, but students of good ability might be allowed to take a larger number if that were necessary to form a suitable group. To give greater latitude, and to avoid overcrowding the student's curriculum, we recommend that students taking this direction of specialisation should be allowed (1) to take only three of the subjects English, history, geography, general science, (2) to replace the course in general science by any science course taken at a university or central institution, (3) to train only for the 7-12 age range in the primary school, (4) to profess only two of the subjects art, music, needlework, handwork, gardening.

103. Special difficulties will arise in the case of science, and we recommend that the training of teachers of this subject should be considered by the training authorities in relation to the development of general science courses in the schools. The preparation of modern teachers of science should include not merely the physical sciences, but also some knowledge of the sciences of life and of mathematics as an instrument of human thought. Their courses should have the reality that comes from an appreciation of the bearings of science on the life of the modern world, and they should not be limited to classes in pure science taken at a university. As it is clearly impossible to include classes in all the necessary science subjects in a course which is designed to lead also to a qualification for primary work, we recommend that the training authorities should consider the institution of a general science course which would fill in the gaps left by the separate classes and give them a measure of unity from the point of view of presentation to immature minds. A student whose course had included English, geography, mathematics, physics, chemistry and botany at a university or central institution, and who had also taken the general science course, would, in our view, be adequately prepared to teach science in the early secondary years.

(b) The Graduating Course

104. Some of the courses planned for this direction of specialisation may come near to meeting the requirements for university degrees, and we recommend that provision be made whereby students may take a full degree course if they desire to do so. Two points will have to be kept in mind in arranging

*See footnote to paragraph 6.


[page 36]

such courses. Even in those cases where the plan is practicable, additional university subjects will have to be taken; and, apart from the possible overloading of the course, difficulties will arise in fitting in the term of continuous teaching practice which we have recommended for all students. The course will thus normally extend to five years.

(c) The Post-Graduate Course

105. We have recommended that a post-graduate course of two years be available for students who decide to enter the teaching profession only after obtaining their degrees. The direction of specialisation leading to qualification for work with the younger secondary classes will be specially suitable for such students. The two years should be devoted mainly to professional training, but also to any necessary supplementation on the side of general education.

(2) Practical Subjects

106. We recommend that the same general plan be followed in practical subjects. That is to say, that one of the directions of specialisation should lead to a qualification to teach one practical subject and perhaps two academic subjects to the younger classes in secondary schools. The academic subjects for students taking the non-graduating course referred to in paragraphs 101 to 103 will normally be history and geography, for which the students will have already satisfied the academic requirements, and the taking of additional classes at a university or central institution will be unnecessary.

107. We recommend that the special courses leading to the qualification in practical subjects should include some further instruction in methods of teaching the subjects in primary schools. Teachers with this fuller knowledge of a subject would be able to assist other teachers in the primary departments, particularly those who had not been able to include it in their course of training. Partly with these considerations in mind, we recommend that physical education be added to the list of practical subjects.

2. COURSES FOR MEN

108. On purely educational grounds we can find no reason for recommending that men desiring a qualification to teach academic subjects to the younger classes in secondary schools should be required to graduate. We have however already noted that for men graduation or the possession of a diploma of a central institution has for a number of years been the accepted practice. We recommend therefore that, with the exception of men with experience in other walks of life who wish to enter the teaching profession at an age above the normal, the course of preparation for all men desiring a qualification to teach the younger classes in secondary schools should extend to five years and that it should include the course for a degree in Arts or Science or a clearly equivalent course taken in whole or in part at a central institution. Special courses suitable in content and length to the circumstances of each case should be planned for those taking up teaching at an age above the normal.

3. GENERAL

109. As teachers who have taken the specialisation for work with younger secondary classes may later be called upon to teach in junior colleges, we recommend that all the relative courses of training should include a thorough study of the psychology of adolescence, a course in methods appropriate to junior colleges and some practice teaching in classes in these colleges.


[page 37]

PART III

SPECIALIST TEACHERS

CHAPTER IX

The Present Courses of Training for Specialist Teachers*

110. A specialist teacher is qualified to teach his special subject up to the highest class in the senior secondary school. The subjects of specialisation are divided into two groups. The traditional academic subjects (English, French, mathematics, etc.) are called Special Subjects; and teachers qualified in these hold the Teacher's Special Certificate. As this certificate is granted under Chapter V of the Regulations it is often referred to as the Chapter V qualification. The second group is called Technical Subjects and includes art, domestic subjects, handwork, commercial subjects, etc. The corresponding certificate is the Teacher's Technical Certificate, which is frequently referred to as the Chapter VI qualification. In two subjects, engineering and agriculture, there is both a Chapter V and a Chapter VI qualification.

1. THE TEACHER'S SPECIAL CERTIFICATE

111. Applicants for admission to a course of training leading to the Teacher's Special Certificate must have a university degree with honours of the first or second class in the subject or subjects which they profess. In practically all cases the student obtains qualifications under Article 39 in certain additional subjects, for which he satisfies the academic requirements.

112. The course of professional training, which extends to one year, is almost always taken after the completion of the degree course. By taking a further course of one term the student may obtain the Teacher's General Certificate in addition. Under footnote (c) to Article 44 of the Regulations students who, after obtaining an honours degree in a subject, have continued the study of that subject under certain conditions, may have their course of training reduced to one term. Alternatively, they may be accepted for service in schools approved for the purpose for one year without previous training, and thereafter receive a Probation Certificate, provided that during that year of service they follow a prescribed course of study and give proof of their practical efficiency as teachers.

2. THE TEACHER'S TECHNICAL CERTIFICATE

113. Candidates for the Teacher's Technical Certificate usually take an ordinary degree or the diploma of a central institution, followed by a course of professional training of two terms. By taking additional courses, holders of the Teacher's Technical Certificate may receive endorsements under Article 39 in other subjects. In certain subjects, combined courses leading to the Teacher's General and Technical Certificates are offered.

3. THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN SPECIAL AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS

114. The requirements for the Teacher's Technical Certificate are less exacting than those for the Teacher's Special Certificate, and the Chapter VI qualification is regarded as of a lower level than that granted under Chapter V. Yet both qualifications entitle the holder to teach his subject up to the most advanced class in a senior secondary school. The implication is, therefore, that, for teaching up to this stage, a higher standard of attainment is necessary in a special subject such as mathematics than in a technical subject such as music.

*For an explanation of the technical terms used in this Chapter see footnote to paragraph 6.


[page 38]

115. With the rising appreciation of the educational value of subjects like art and music, and with the progressive development of full secondary courses in which the main subjects come within the technical group, a distinction of this kind is not easy to maintain. It cannot be justified on the basis of importance of the subject for school education, of its content, or of the attainments required in the student. Further, it tends to give the technical subjects an undeserved position of inferiority which is not in conformity with modern educational ideas.

116. We therefore recommend that the distinction be abandoned, and that there should be only one type of qualification, that of specialist teacher of a particular subject. The essential thing is that the course of preparation should, in all cases, equip the teacher to teach his subject up to the highest class in the senior secondary school. The ideal scheme would be one in which all courses leading to this qualification would be of the same length, comparable in content and in the demands upon the students. While this is not possible as the next step, our first endeavour should be towards a system in which no course leading to the specialist teacher's certificate will be less than four years of which, roughly, the equivalent of three years are devoted to academic or technical attainment and the equivalent of one year to professional preparation.

CHAPTER X

The Courses proposed for the Training of Specialist Teachers

1. GENERAL

117. The evidence of adequate academic or technical preparation should be the possession of an honours or in certain cases an ordinary university degree, or of the diploma of a central institution, or of equivalent qualifications.

118. For the general reasons stated in Chapter IV, we recommend that, wherever practicable, and particularly in cases where special diploma courses for teachers are instituted at central institutions, courses should be of the concurrent type. We realise that this plan will not always be feasible, and sometimes only to a limited extent. An honours course in an academic subject, for instance, is very heavy, and nothing should be done which would seriously distract the student's attention from the important objective of obtaining the full educational value of an honours course or lower the class of his degree: but while the honours course should be completed before the major part of the training is undertaken, it would be valuable if the student had short periods of teaching practice in the early years of his course. These could be taken at the beginning of the summer vacation after the university examinations are over. During these periods, which should not extend beyond two weeks, arrangements could be made for short talks on methods and educational problems which would have the effect of orienting the student's mind and interests towards his life's work. Even when concurrent courses are arranged, post-graduate or post-diploma courses should also be available for those who do not decide to enter the teaching service at the outset.

119. Diploma courses specially planned to meet the needs of teachers are at present available in domestic subjects, commercial subjects, physical education and handwork. We recommend that this arrangement be extended to the other subjects in the present Chapter VI group*, and that the matter be discussed at conferences between the National Committee or their successors, and the authorities of the central institutions. The prospective teacher requires a

*See footnote to paragraph 6.


[page 39]

somewhat broader course than that appropriate for students aiming at the ordinary central institution diplomas. A class devoted to improvement of the student's power of correct use of English and appreciation of good literature should be included. A place might also be found for certain other classes taken at a university or other institution of higher education and chosen with a view to broadening the student's cultural interests. Such arrangements would have the important advantage that students would participate in the life of another institution. If such special courses were instituted, it might be arranged that the teacher's diploma course and one of the ordinary diploma courses would be the same in the first year, thus permitting easy transfers when the student's gifts and interests had more clearly revealed themselves. Even when such ad hoc courses are offered, it should, of course, be possible to admit to training students who have taken the ordinary diploma courses.

120. We recommend that the professional training for all specialist teachers should extend to the equivalent of one year of full-time study whether the training is taken concurrently with, or after, the degree or diploma course. A course of the same length as that provided for teachers of general subjects in primary schools is not essential. For specialists, a thorough mastery of the subject to be taught is of great importance, and the academic or technical preparation will occupy three or four years; much of the professional training outlined in Chapter II is not necessary for them; they are more mature and of a highly selected type.

121. Unfortunately, it will not, as a rule, be possible to include one term of continuous teaching practice, but as far as practicable the courses should be organised on the general lines already laid down. Since many specialist teachers have to undertake teaching or supervision of their subjects in primary schools, it is desirable that they should know something of the setting of the primary school, of its aims, organisation and methods of instruction, particularly project methods that involve a number of different subjects. Facilities for obtaining further knowledge of primary work should be made available to them through additional courses or courses for the further instruction of teachers in service.

122. All courses of training for specialist teachers whose subjects will be taught in junior colleges should include some instruction in methods appropriate to these colleges, together with a certain amount of practice teaching. Courses should not be too narrowly specialised, for it is particularly important that the specialist teacher should view his work as a contribution to the education of the whole child.

2. SPECIALISTS IN ENGLISH, HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY, FORElGN LANGUAGES, MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, ECONOMICS

(1) Academic Course

123. The gifted pupils of a scholarly type specialising in these subjects in the highest forms of the secondary school should have all the inspiration that comes from teachers who are masters of their subjects, and we recommend that the possession of a university degree with honours of the first or second class, or an equivalent qualification, should be a condition of the award of the specialist teacher's certificate. We agree with the majority of our witnesses that this certificate should not be granted to candidates with honours of the third class unless exceptionally where there is evidence satisfactory to the National Committee or their successors, subject to the approval of the Secretary of State.

124. One of the main difficulties in planning academic courses for teachers in secondary schools is that of reconciling the demands of breadth and depth


[page 40]

of scholarship. The need for specialisation is clear; but breadth is almost equally important. The teacher of science, for example, should have a knowledge of other sciences than the one in which he has specialised, and also some acquaintance with the humanities. He should know something of the history of scientific discovery and of the part played by science in the life of the peoples of the world. Without these, he is apt in time to become blind not merely to the relation between his subject and other subjects, but between it and life. Some of these wider aspects could no doubt be covered in a general science course offered in the training institutions or universities; and it is most desirable that students aiming at the specialist teacher's certificate in science should take such a course. On the university side it would be an advantage if teachers of science could take a science degree carrying two subjects to the honours standard and at least two others to the subsidiary standard. From this point of view, and also from that of convenience of school organisation, a broadening of the honours courses in other subjects is required; but the difficulty could be met to some extent by a proper choice among those at present available. Courses in which two subjects (e.g., French-German, English-History) are studied to the full honours standard are more suitable than those with specialisation in only one. It is also desirable that all honours courses should be such as to qualify the student to teach an adequate number of related subjects to the younger secondary pupils.

125. We recommend that it should be a condition of the award of the specialist teacher's certificate in a modern foreign language that the candidate should have had a period of study in a country in which the language is spoken. The present length of residence required for each language is a school session of nine months if taken continuously or one year if taken in instalments. In view of the advantages of courses which carry two languages to the honours standard this regulation should be reconsidered, and we recommend that the length of residence to be required and the extent to which this residence could be incorporated within the degree course should be a subject of conference between the training authorities and the universities. Conferences of this kind could profitably be held from time to time to deal with such questions of joint interest as the broadening of the degree courses, particularly in science.

(2) Professional Training

126. The general principles which we have already laid down in regard to the planning of courses of training should be applied so far as they are practicable. In particular, we regard it as of great importance that specialist teachers should have some experience of educational work with youth outside the classroom.

127. We recommend that the provisions of footnote (c) to Article 44* of the Regulations to which we referred in paragraph 112 be abandoned. We cannot accept the implied view that higher academic qualifications in a subject should be regarded as a substitute for professional training. It is certainly essential that everything possible should be done to attract into the teaching service men and women with a research outlook, but this should be done not by making an unjustifiable reduction in their professional training, but by making a justifiable allowance in their initial placing on salary scales.

*Footnote (c) to Article 44 prescribes that persons who, after taking an honours degree in any subject, "have continued the study of that subject at an approved University for two years or more, whether at home or abroad, and whether as students or as University assistants (or lecturers), may either (a) have their course of training under Article 44 reduced to one term, or (b) be accepted for service is approved schools for one year without previous training and thereafter receive a Probation Certificate, provided that during their year of service they follow a prescribed course of study, and give proof of their practical efficiency as teachers, to the satisfaction of the Training Authority and the Department."


[page 41]

3. SPECIALISTS IN ART, MUSIC, AGRICULTURE AND RELATED SUBJECTS, DOMESTIC SUBJECTS, COMMERCIAL SUBJECTS, PHYSICAL EDUCATION, ENGINEERING AND OTHER BRANCHES OF TECHNICAL INDUSTRY, TECHNICAL SUBJECTS

128. The courses which should be required for each of these specialist qualifications need separate examination and involve the consideration of a mass of detail. Our recommendations with regard to them are of limited rather than of general interest, and important though they are, we have thought it would be convenient to deal with them in an appendix rather than in the body of the Report. We have accordingly done so, and the attention of those interested is directed to Appendix II where they will be found.

4. NEW TYPES OF SPECIALIST TEACHER

129. Future educational developments in schools and junior colleges may render necessary the provision of specialists of new types such as teachers of mothercraft and teachers for pre-nursing classes. It would be premature for us to make definite recommendations in regard to the training of such specialists; and the matter will no doubt be considered by the National Committee or their successors when further information as to the situation in schools and junior colleges is available. Until new specialists are provided, these subjects will be largely taught by health visitors and others who are not holders of a Teacher's Certificate, and it would be an advantage if short evening or vacation courses of training were available. Similar courses should be provided to meet the needs of teachers in pre-apprenticeship classes.

PART IV

TEACHERS OF HANDICAPPED CHILDREN

CHAPTER XI

The Training of Teachers of Handicapped Children

1. GENERAL

130. In view of the nature of the duties of teachers of handicapped children, in which category we include teachers in approved schools, and of their limited prospects of promotion, we recommend that special consideration be given to improvement in their salaries and service conditions. Without such improvement it will not, in our opinion, be possible to attract teachers adequate in number and in quality. Steps should also be taken to bring these special branches of the teaching service to the notice of students, by the distribution of brochures to students in universities and training colleges, by talks to students in training, and by arranging visits to the various types of institution concerned.

131. We recommend that, in general, teachers of handicapped children should take a Teacher's Certificate followed by a period of service in schools and classes for normal children. Thereafter they should take a course of training leading to endorsement of special qualification for their particular branch. Such an arrangement has the advantage that the student is not required to commit himself to a somewhat restricted field of teaching at an early age; and after a period of service with handicapped children, it would be possible for the teacher to return to service in ordinary schools.

132. Unless in exceptional circumstances teachers over 40 years of age should not be admitted to these additional courses, and it would be an advantage if,


[page 42]

before undertaking the course, the teacher could be given an opportunity of serving for a short period in an institution of the type for which he wishes to prepare. In this way he would ascertain whether he would be likely to find the work congenial, and the education authority would have an opportunity of judging whether he had the qualities of personality needed for success in it.

133. As a rule, it is desirable that the additional course should be a full-time one extending to several months. No difficulty would arise where the institution for handicapped children is under the education authority in whose area the teacher is serving; the education authority would select the teachers and pay their full salaries during the course. Attendance should also count as service for the purposes of the Superannuation Scheme. Under such an arrangement it would be reasonable for the authority to make it a condition that the teacher should give at least five years' service to them in the capacity for which he had trained. Frequently, however, the institution will be under a different body, and the system of secondment would not be feasible. In view of the infrequency with which posts arise in these special institutions, it is unlikely that teachers would be willing to give up their posts and take the training at their own expense. Further, if a vacancy arose it might be necessary for the institution to be without a teacher until the selected applicant completed the course of training. For these reasons we recommend that, in certain cases, courses of training held in vacations should be available.

2. TEACHERS OF THE BLIND, OF THE DEAF, FOR SPECIAL SCHOOLS AND CLASSES, FOR DULL, RETARDED AND PROBLEM CHILDREN, FOR APPROVED SCHOOLS, FOR CHILDREN WITH DEFECTS OF SPEECH AND FOR THE CHILD GUIDANCE SERVICE

134. For reasons similar to those given in paragraph 128 we have thought it appropriate to deal in an appendix with the arrangements for the preparation of teachers for these special duties, and our recommendations will be found in Appendix III.

PART V

TEACHERS FOR JUNIOR COLLEGES, LOCAL TECHNICAL COLLEGES, CENTRAL INSTITUTIONS AND OTHER FORMS OF FURTHER EDUCATION

CHAPTER XII

Training of Teachers for Junior Colleges, Local Technical Colleges, Central Institutions, and other Forms of Further Education

1. TEACHERS FOR JUNIOR COLLEGES

135. In dealing with the training of teachers for this new type of educational institution we enter an uncharted sea, and it is impossible to do more than lay down a few general and tentative principles which may act as a guide.

136. The teachers in the junior colleges will be pioneers in a new educational venture, and success will depend largely upon the way in which they are selected and prepared. They must be able to relate their instruction to vocational needs and interests, and for this reason it is essential that they should have some knowledge of the social and industrial background of their pupils obtained partly by visits to factories and workshops. Their preparation should not be


[page 43]

too academic. The junior college courses in mathematics and science, for example, will have a bias towards technical industry for many of the pupils, and it is there that the teacher must find the main source of his illustrations. It may, indeed, be found that the systematic course should be abandoned, and that studies in science should radiate from actual industrial problems. The correlation of subjects will be specially important in such classes: hence it is desirable that each teacher should be able to take a related group of subjects and should have a mastery of methods based on centres of interest and projects. A thorough knowledge of the psychology of adolescence and of the educational methods appropriate to this stage of development is essential, and should be given greater reality through participation in the activities of youth service agencies. This experience would, we hope, lead to an importation into the junior colleges of some of the freer methods used with success in the youth clubs. It must not be forgotten that the aims of the junior colleges are not purely vocational. In accordance with section 1 (5) (a) of the Act of 1945 the purpose of these colleges is to enable the students "to develop their various aptitudes and capacities and to prepare them for the responsibilities of citizenship." Their interests must be quickened and raised to a higher cultural level. Hence the teacher must have some of the breadth of scholarship which we have advocated for other types of teacher.

137. The essentials in the preparation of teachers for junior colleges (other than craft or trade instructors) are almost identical with those for teachers of the younger classes in secondary schools. We therefore recommend, not that special courses. of training should be instituted, but that preparation for work in junior colleges should be included in all courses with specialisation for the 12-15 age group. Such an arrangement has the advantage that it would facilitate free interchange of staff between the schools and junior colleges: and it would, in addition, lead to a leavening of the ordinary courses of training.

138. Teachers in junior colleges who take vocational courses should be given opportunities of bringing their knowledge of the industrial background up to date by release for short periods to be spent in industrial or commercial establishments.

139. Until the new training courses outlined earlier in this Report are established we recommend that the training authorities should institute short sessional or vacation classes for teachers selected to serve in the junior colleges.

140. General subjects will include English, history and geography, and in our Report on Compulsory Day Continuation Classes we suggested that these should not be taught as isolated subjects but under some such grouping as "Citizenship" and "Human Relations". For this group, the most suitable teachers will be found among those trained to teach English, history and geography to the younger classes in secondary schools, but holders of the specialist teacher's certificate who have had a curriculum of the necessary breadth could also be employed. It will often be desirable that mathematics and science should be taught by the same teacher, and the most appropriate training will be provided in one of the newer types of course suggested in Chapter VIII where the student has taken classes at a technical or agricultural college, supplemented by a general science course in a training institution.

141. We recommend that art, music, physical education, agriculture, commercial subjects, domestic subjects and technical subjects should be taught mainly by holders of the specialist teacher's certificate, but some assistance could also be given by teachers who hold the certificate for general subjects in primary schools together with a qualification to teach one of the subjects to younger classes in secondary schools. In this connection it has to be kept in


[page 44]

mind that many of the pupils will already have had a course of three years in these subjects in a day school. We have recommended that courses for both of these types of teacher should include training for work in junior colleges. Specialists in physical education who have taken youth service as their direction of specialisation during training would be peculiarly well fitted for this work.

142. The group of craft and vocational teachers will include skilled craftsmen in building, printing and other trades for whom short courses in methods of teaching should be provided.

2. TEACHERS FOR LOCAL TECHNICAL COLLEGES AND CENTRAL INSTITUTIONS

143. It is not necessary for us to enter into the technical preparation of such teachers, but we recommend that courses in methods of presenting their subjects to students should be available for those who desire to take advantage of them. Full-time courses of about two weeks could be offered, or, alternatively evening classes extending over a longer period. The instruction should be given partly by lecturers of the training institution and partly by experienced and successful lecturers in the central institution concerned.

3. TEACHERS FOR OTHER FORMS OF FURTHER EDUCATION

144. In the Education (Scotland) Act, 1945, provision is made for voluntary part-time and full-time courses of instruction, and for voluntary leisure-time occupation, in such organised cultural training and recreative activities as are suited to their requirements, for persons over school age. We recommend that evening courses or short full-time courses devoted mainly to educational methods should be available for teachers and leaders for these forms of further education.

PART VI

RESPONSIBLE POSTS IN THE EDUCATION SERVICE OUTSIDE THE SCHOOLS

CHAPTER XIII

Training for Responsible Posts in the Education Service outside the Schools

1. GENERAL

145. Training for responsible posts in the education service outside the schools is relevant to our remit partly because it affects our conception of the training institution and partly because the external posts are now commonly held by trained teachers. They include posts as Directors of Education, Inspectors of Schools, Lecturers in Training Institutions and University Departments of Education. It is not too much to say that the quality of our educational system and its capacity for progress will be largely influenced by the calibre of the men and women appointed to these external posts and by the adequacy of their preparation.

146. The first requirement is that the future holders of these responsible posts should be men and women of first-grade intellectual ability, with a high standing in some branch of scholarship or technical attainment, and with the requisite personal qualities. They should have a course of teacher training which like that suggested for the specialist teacher's certificate, covers primary and


[page 45]

secondary schools and junior colleges: they should have had experience of sufficient length in these types of educational institution and should have proved themselves to be successful teachers. They must, in addition, have a much fuller preparation in educational science, comparative education and psychology, than can be given to the class teacher. They should be thoroughly versed in the tendencies of educational thought in other countries and the theoretical doctrines behind these tendencies: they must be familiar with the techniques and results of educational research: they should have a general knowledge of the structure of some of the more important foreign educational systems, obtained not merely from books but from visits to the countries concerned.

2. THE PRESENT ARRANGEMENTS

147. Many of the students who aim at such posts have honours or doctorate degrees in Arts or Science. During their teacher training they take the university diploma in education, the course for which includes classes in education and psychology together with a half-course in another subject such as modern educational systems and problems. Experimental education is included in the training course for diploma students, and they must have attained a certain standard in their training as a whole before the diploma is awarded. They then proceed to the degree of Bachelor of Education, which is of honours standard, and involves one further year of university study in advanced education, advanced psychology, advanced experimental education, and other classes such as administration and organisation of schools. Some students take the degree stage immediately after obtaining the diploma: others have a number of years of teaching experience between the two stages.

148. This path meets the requirements which we have laid down, with the exception that no provision is made for first-hand experience of foreign systems. The need was partly met by a Reciprocal Interchange Scheme, arranged by the National Committee for the Training of Teachers and in operation from 1925 to 1932, under which a small number of students or teachers in service could obtain scholarships of 300 for one year tenable at Teachers College, Columbia University, New york, or McGill University, Montreal, or Toronto University. A small number of students, after taking the diploma in education, have also obtained Commonwealth or other open scholarships for the purpose of continuing their studies in education in foreign countries.

3. RECOMMENDATIONS

149. While we are of opinion that the present arrangements are on sound lines, we recommend that the facilities be extended in various ways. The course for the degree of Bachelor of Education provides a very general preparation which is well suited for a number of the external posts. Courses of higher study in education and psychology should also be provided for those aspiring to posts in more specialised spheres, such as lecturers in art, music, domestic subjects, etc., in training institutions or inspectors of these subjects in schools. Fuller facilities should be provided for the study of education in other countries, and for this purpose we recommend that the Secretary of State should institute a scheme of scholarships to enable selected students to continue their studies at institutions outside Scotland. With the same end in view holders of external posts should have "sabbatical periods" to enable them to visit other countries and study their educational systems and methods. Having in mind the need for width of teaching experience in the future holders of external posts, we recommend that education authorities should be required to accept teachers who are preparing themselves for these posts for special two-year appointments


[page 46]

in which they would obtain varied experience in schools and junior colleges. Finally, we recommend that steps be taken, by the provision of bursaries and in other ways, to increase the number of students who undertake more advanced studies or research in education. This is a sphere in which there is no danger of oversupply: the more of these highly-trained experts there are in our educational system, the more assured will be its advance.

PART VII

TEACHERS OF RELIGION

CHAPTER XIV

The Training of Teachers of Religion*

1. THE PRESENT ARRANGEMENTS

150. In each of the four training centres there is a whole-time lecturer in religious education appointed and paid by the Education Committee of the Church of Scotland, and facilities are granted to other denominations to conduct classes for their own students. Generally speaking, religious education forms part of the curriculum of all courses leading to the Teacher's General Certificate and the Teacher's Special Certificate, but the arrangements for its inclusion in courses leading to the Teacher's Technical Certificate vary in the different centres.† These classes, though optional, are taken by all but a very few students. No provision is made for the training of specialist teachers of this subject.

2. RECOMMENDATIONS

151. We recommend that in the training centres, classes in religious education, open to all students who desire to attend them, be included in every course of training for teachers of general subjects in primary schools, teachers of the younger classes in secondary schools, and specialist teachers.

152. In view of the other claims upon the time of the students in these courses the number of hours that can be allotted to religious education is not large; and while the instruction may be adequate for teachers in primary schools, it will have to be supplemented for those teachers who have to meet the spiritual and intellectual needs of secondary pupils and youths in junior colleges. Mental tensions and conflicts arising from doubts and difficulties in religious matters, are a common feature of late adolescence: indeed, it might be held on psychological grounds that the need for skilled and sympathetic religious guidance is greater in these critical years than at any other stage of the individual's development. The pupils in the highest classes of the senior secondary school will have an influence in determining the character of the religious life of the community out of all proportion to their numbers. Many will be specialising on the science side, and in such circumstances the normal conflicts are often more acute. For them, religious studies, under a teacher who has not merely religious conviction but a thorough insight into adolescent psychology and a background of knowledge of religion and related subjects, can do much to restore the balance. But it must be a broad course, planned in the full realisation that it is for pupils who are relatively mature and highly

*This chapter does not apply to the Roman Catholic Training Colleges.

†See footnote to paragraph 6.


[page 47]

selected in ability and scholarly tastes. The pupils should have ample opportunities of stating their difficulties and having them frankly and reasonably discussed.

153. In view of these facts it is evident that the teacher of religion in a secondary school should have a knowledge of the subject comparable with that required in the teacher of secular subjects.

154. The situation could be met by the provision of teachers who are specialists in religion only, or of teachers qualified to teach religion together with some other subject or subjects. We prefer the latter, on the ground that the teacher would command greater confidence in the eyes of his pupils and would be brought more fully into the general cultural life of the school.

155. With a view to the more adequate preparation of teachers of religion for the younger secondary classes we recommend that courses in the study of religion of the general level of first and second ordinary university classes should be instituted, either in the universities or in the training institutions. Students who, in the courses outlined in Chapter VIII, had included these two classes would be qualified to teach religion and a group of other subjects (usually English, history and geography) to the younger classes in secondary schools, A number of students preparing for other types of teacher's certificates would no doubt include the first ordinary class in their courses and thus be more fully prepared to undertake instruction in this important subject in their respective spheres.

156. As far as the higher classes in senior secondary schools are concerned, we recommend that arrangements be made whereby a student could take the specialist teacher's certificate in religious education and in one other subject, such as English or history. This would involve the establishment of a third course, on the honours standard, in the study of religion.

157. We suggest that the universities should be invited to consider the institution of these three classes and the possibility of their inclusion in the lists of subjects qualifying for ordinary and honours degrees in Arts. If the universities are unable to undertake this, we recommend that the courses be established in the training institutions, use being made of any facilities available in the university faculties of divinity.

158. The presence in the schools of specialists trained as we have recommended would have many advantages. They could assist their less highly trained colleagues; they would play an important part in forming the general religious tone of the school; and they would be able to take the instruction in religion for those who do not desire to teach the subject.

3. THE STAFFING OF THE RELIGIOUS EDUCATION DEPARTMENTS OF THE TRAINING INSTITUTIONS

159. If the above recommendations were adopted, and if the new courses in religious studies were instituted in the training institutions, fuller provision of staff would have to be made. But apart from this possible extension of functions, we recommend that the number of lecturers in religious education in the training institutions be increased in order to provide for (1) the inclusion of religious education in the course of training for all types of teacher's certificate, (2) a reduction in the size of classes and more opportunities for tutorial and study group work, (3) more adequate supervision by the lecturers of the teaching practice in the schools, and (4) a measure of specialisation in the lecture courses. We are of opinion that in the smallest centre there should be one male lecturer, and one woman assistant who would take courses for


[page 48]

teachers of the younger children in primary schools; and that there should be proportionate increases in the larger centres. We regard it as of great importance that the lecturers in religious education should have private rooms in which they could have interviews and discussions with individual students.

160. The representatives of the Church of Scotland informed us that, while they would be able to continue to provide a lecturer in religious education for each of the four training centres, they would be unable to shoulder the additional financial burden imposed by an increase in the staffs, or by the raising of the salaries of the existing lecturers to the level of those of training college lecturers in other subjects. We feel, moreover, that it would be unfair to ask them to do so, and that it is not desirable that some of the lecturers should be servants of one body and some of another. The religious education of the pupils in the schools is by custom, reinforced by statute, in fact, though possibly not in strict law, a duty of the education authorities, and the cost of the training of teachers to undertake the work should be a charge upon public funds. Lecturers in religious education in training institutions should be members of the college staffs; they should have parity of status with lecturers in other subjects; they should be paid on the same salary scales and should have the advantages of the same superannuation scheme. We therefore recommend that all the lecturers in religious education should be members of the staff of the National Committee for the Training of Teachers or their successors, and that the procedure for making the appointments should be the subject of consultation with the Church of Scotland and the other Churches associated with it in the work of religious education.

PART VIII

RECRUITMENT AND ADMISSION TO TRAINING

CHAPTER XV

Recruitment

161. At present the teaching profession is recruited mainly from those who have passed through the senior secondary schools and proceeded direct to an institution of higher education; that is, from a class whose studies and experience have lain outside the practical activities of the modern world. While teachers of scholarly tastes and aptitudes are essential in our schools and junior colleges, we feel that great advantage would result from the infusion into the profession of men and women of other types who have led a less sequestered life. We need a proportion of teachers who, before entering the teaching service, have had more varied contacts with men and affairs. The spirit of educational adventure and the flexibility of these teachers would have a different quality; they would have a better knowledge of the conditions which pupils will have to face; and they would, in many ways, be better fitted for the education of the large proportion of pupils who are not of bookish tastes. Experience of industry or commerce or a period of residence abroad may be just as relevant to the preparation of a teacher for work in a junior college as some of the classes which form part of the present curricula taken by teacher students. While it is certainly desirable that all candidates for admission to training should have reasonably well filled minds, it is not essential that they should be filled in the traditional academic way; and we have to bear in mind that deficiencies can be made good in the course of training.

162. To deprive ourselves of the services of such teachers is a self-denying ordinance which it would be unwise to pass. We therefore recommend that


[page 49]

the door into the teaching profession should be opened wider than it has been in the past; and that the profession should not be weakened through a too pedantic insistence upon the possession of certain certificates at entrance. But the door by which these new recruits are admitted should be carefully guarded. It should not permit the entrance of men and women whose minds have turned to teaching merely because they have been failures in some other vocation or because they seek a life of sheltered security. Nor should experience of the kind we have described exempt the candidate from what we have listed as the essentials of the teacher's education. Experience in commerce or industry could not, in itself, be accepted as a substitute for the knowledge of history required in a teacher of history for the younger secondary classes; and the courses of these recruits from new sources would have to be planned with due consideration of their entrance qualifications and of the fact that they will have to take their place in a learned profession. Applications from such recruits should be carefully considered by a committee of the National Committee or their successors on which the teaching profession is adequately represented.

163. The courses of training which we have outlined in the previous Parts of the Report have been designed with this enlarged area of recruitment in mind, and it was partly on this ground that we were unable to recommend that graduation should be made obligatory for all teachers of general subjects in primary schools or for teachers of the younger classes in secondary schools.

164. Since many of the recruits from the new sources would enter the profession at a higher age than the normal, we recommend that steps be taken to safeguard their position in regard to conditions of service and professional prospects.

CHAPTER XVI

Admission and Selection of Entrants*

1. THE PRESENT PRACTICE

165. For women desiring entrance to non-graduating Chapter III courses the requirement is the possession of the Senior Leaving Certificate, but students who have had no opportunity of obtaining this certificate may be accepted if they produce evidence of the satisfactory completion of an equivalent course of education. Men are admitted to concurrent Chapter III courses on the same conditions, but they do not receive a Teacher's General Certificate unless and until they obtain a degree or a diploma recognised for the purposes of Chapter VI of the Regulations, these being the requirements for admission to postgraduate Chapter III courses.

166. Students aiming at the Teacher's Special Certificate are admitted to training if they have an approved degree with honours of the first or second class in the subject to which their certificate relates.

167. Candidates for entrance to a Chapter VI course must have satisfactorily completed a course of study approved for the purpose of the Senior Leaving Certificate and must have been presented for that certificate, but failure to obtain it does not necessarily involve rejection. Evidence of the successful completion of an equivalent course of education is considered if the candidate has had no opportunity of following a course for the Senior Leaving Certificate. Candidates for admission as teachers of educational handwork or of needlework

*See footnote to paragraph 6 for an explanation of the technical terms used in this Chapter.


[page 50]

and dressmaking receive special consideration if they have completed an approved apprenticeship. Generally speaking, the standard required from these applicants is that of the Junior Leaving Certificate.

168. It is not a requirement that all candidates for admission must be interviewed, and reports are received by the training authorities only where the student has taken a course of preliminary training at school. Apart from a few years when over-supply necessitated a restriction in, the number of entrants, there has been no selection: all qualified candidates are accepted.

2. RECOMMENDATIONS

169. The problem of the admission of entrants to training has two aspects. The first relates to the fixing of certain minimum requirements below which no candidate will be accepted. The second relates to the selection of a limited number from the total applicants who have reached the minimum standard.

(1) General Education

170. At this point we deal only with the admission requirements for students who take combined courses of professional training and academic or technical preparation: students who train after the completion of the non-professional part of their courses will also have to satisfy the necessary academic or technical requirements.

171. For students coming direct from school who desire to train as teachers of general subjects in primary schools, as teachers for the younger classes in secondary schools, or as specialist teachers, we recommend that the minimum requirements for entrance on the side of general education should be the possession of the Senior Leaving Certificate or an equivalent qualification. If limitation of entrants should be necessary, we recommend that the student's school record and his passes in the Senior Leaving Certificate or equivalent examination should be taken into account as one of the factors upon which the selection is based.

172. We recommend that applications from all candidates without a Senior Leaving Certificate or a clear equivalent should be considered by a special committee of the National Committee or their successors on which the teaching profession is adequately represented, and that this committee should interpret general education in the broad liberal way we have indicated in Chapter XV. When necessary, a special entrance examination should be set. In paragraph 50 of Appendix II we have made more specific recommendations in regard to the entrants for the specialist teacher's certificate in technical subjects.

(2) Intellectual Ability

173. In the great majority of cases the student's passes in the Senior Leaving Certificate or other examination, his school record, and his performance in any previous course of academic or technical preparation will provide sufficient evidence as to his level of intellectual ability. There are, however, circumstances in which intelligence tests could be applied with advantage; for example, when the applicant is more mature or has obtained the Senior Leaving Certificate at an unusually late age. We recommend that the training authorities should continue to experiment with intelligence tests with a view to ascertaining whether and how they should be employed if limitation of entrants should later be necessary.


[page 51]

(3) Personal Qualities, Appearance, Speech, etc.

174. The assessment of applicants in regard to these matters could be based upon (1) scientific tests of personality, (2) reports from headmasters and others, (3) personal interviews. Though we believe that the value of personality tests would be a suitable subject for research by the training authorities, this technique is not at a sufficiently advanced stage for us to advise its general use. We recommend:

(1) that reports on all applicants, on a form specially prepared to elicit the necessary information, should be obtained from headmasters, authorities of universities and central institutions or other referees;

(2) that all applicants not coming direct from school or from an institute of higher education, and those applicants coming direct from school whose reports are not clearly satisfactory, should be interviewed; and

(3) that a decision to reject solely on grounds of personality should be made only in clear cases: where there is doubt, the candidate should be admitted, but required to withdraw if he is found to be unsuitable after a sufficient trial.

(4) Procedure when Limitation of Entrants is necessary

175. If limitation of entrants should be necessary, the selection of candidates should be based upon a weighted system of assessment of the above factors. It may also be found desirable to interview a larger proportion of the applicants.

(5) Minimum Age for Entrance upon Training

176. Before the war there was a general understanding that students should not, as a rule, be admitted to non-graduating Chapter III courses if they were under 17 at the date of entry. The minimum age for entrance upon Chapter VI courses was 18.

177. If our recommendations as to courses of training are adopted there will be little danger of students entering the teaching service at too early an age. It has to be kept in mind, too, that the imposition of a minimum age for entrance has an adverse effect upon supply, for students who have to wait for a year after they have qualified to enter may decide to take up some other profession. We therefore recommend that no definite rules be made, but that the matter be left to the discretion of the principal of the college.

PART IX

AWARD AND WITHDRAWAL OF TEACHERS' CERTIFICATES

CHAPTER XVII

Examinations, Certificates and Diplomas

1. THE PRESENT ARRANGEMENTS

178. On the satisfactory completion of the course of training the student receives a Probation Certificate which is issued by the Secretary of State and confers the status of certificated teacher. If the reports are satisfactory during the probationary period, normally two years, the teacher receives a Final or "Parchment" Certificate. The certificates are of three types, (1) The Teacher's


[page 52]

General Certificate, (2) The Teacher's Special Certificate, and (3) The Teacher's Technical Certificate. Teachers who have taken special courses either during their training or in classes for the further instruction of teachers in service may receive endorsements of additional qualifications.*

179. Along with the Probation Certificate the student who has satisfactorily completed a course of training receives from the training authority a training record which gives a list of the subjects included in the training course, with a letter mark indicating the standard of proficiency in each. One of the most important marks is that for practical teaching, and the record also gives a general estimate of capacity in the categories "Exceptionally Promising", "Very Promising", "Promising", "Fairly Promising".

2. RECOMMENDATIONS

(1) Diplomas

180. We recommend that on the satisfactory completion of training the student should receive from the Institute of Education† a diploma awarded with the consent of the Secretary of State and conferring the status of certificated teacher. The diplomas, which should not be classed, or awarded with distinction, should be of two main types, one for teachers of General Subjects and one for Specialist Teachers. The diploma for Teachers of General Subjects should mention (a) the elective subjects (e.g., art, music, needlework, handwork) in which the student has reached a satisfactory standard, and (b) the nature of the specialisation taken. If the student has taken the specialisation for work with the younger secondary classes, the subjects which he is qualified to teach to these classes should be specified. The diploma for Specialist Teachers should indicate, in addition to the special subject, any subjects which the teacher is qualified to teach to the younger classes in secondary schools. A special diploma should be granted to Blind Teachers of the Blind.

181. We recommend that the qualifications for the various types of teacher of handicapped children should take the form of endorsements on a teacher's diploma. Similar endorsements should be granted to teachers who have added to their qualifications by taking courses for the further instruction of teachers in service, or in other ways.

(2) Training Records

182. We were informed by some of our witnesses that teachers are sometimes asked to submit their training records when applying for posts many years after they have left the training college, and that this may operate unfairly if the teacher has developed during service. On the other hand, it was pointed out that the abolition of the training record would place good students who have taken the greater part of the course in a training college at a disadvantage relative to those who can produce certificates of a university or central institution, and that it would remove an incentive to hard work during the training course.

183. There is no serious objection to the inclusion of marks for studies in a training record, but we regard it as most undesirable that the teacher, at the outset of his career, should be given labels for practical skill or general promise which will follow him for the rest of his professional life. It is in these aspects of the teacher's quality that changes are likely to be most significant; they are difficult to assess, and the judgments of the training authorities are made under artificial conditions. We therefore recommend that no teaching mark and no general estimate of capacity be included in the training record.

*See footnote to paragraph 6.

†See Chapter XXIII.


[page 53]

184. In selecting outgoing students for first appointments, employing authorities will require more information than that given on the simplified training record that we have suggested. We recommend that they be supplied by the college authorities with the following for each student whose application they are considering - (1) a teaching mark; (2) a studies mark; and (3) a general estimate of capacity, taking account of success in studies, practical skill in teaching and qualities of personality. It should also be open to college authorities to supply an authority with an order of merit of the students who have applied to them for first posts, but a general order of merit of students should not be made available. Such information should be given to appointing authorities on request at any time during a teacher's first three years of teaching service, but not thereafter.

(3) Examinations and Standards

185. The training colleges set and mark their own examinations, and the final marks are based on these and on the student's work throughout the course. The degrees of proficiency entered on the training record are determined by the Director of Studies or Principal, with the concurrence of the training authority, upon reports furnished by the responsible lecturers. Steps are taken through the co-operation of H.M. Inspectors and through meetings of the Directors of Studies to ensure that the standards used are reasonably uniform in all the colleges. The decision whether the student's record as a whole warrants the award of a Teacher's Certificate is made by the Secretary of State. We are satisfied that the present arrangements are sound and should continue to apply with such modifications as are necessitated by the new power of the training authorities to award diplomas. We do not favour the introduction of a system of uniform examinations that might limit the freedom of the colleges to develop along their own lines.

(4) Probationary Period

186. During the last six years only three teachers have had their certificates withdrawn on the completion of probation or extended probation. The need for this means of eliminating teachers who do not make good will be still further reduced by the lengthening of certain of the courses of training and by the rise in standards for certification likely to result from increase in the attractiveness of the teaching profession. The coming influx of recruits from new sources may render it advisable to retain the probationary period until the termination of the emergency scheme; thereafter, it should be abandoned.

CHAPTER XVIII

Withdrawal of Certificates and Diplomas

187. A teacher's certificate or diploma should be withdrawn only where this step is necessary for the protection of pupils against the risk of being placed under charge of a person who has shown by his misconduct, whether criminal or not, or by his inefficiency that he is unfitted for this responsible position of trust.

188. We recommend that where a teacher in the employment of an education authority or of the managers of a grant-aided school is dismissed on the ground of misconduct or inefficiency, or resigns or is given the opportunity of resigning because of misconduct or inefficiency, it should be the duty of the authority or managers, whether there is a criminal prosecution or not, to report the circumstances to the Secretary of State, and give him all the information available to them. If the Secretary of State considers that there is a prima facie case for


[page 54]

withdrawing the teacher's certificate or diploma either temporarily or permanently, he should intimate this to the teacher with a concise statement of the misconduct or inefficiency of which the teacher is accused and should give the teacher the opportunity of submitting in writing any representations he may desire to make. If the teacher objects to the withdrawal of his certificate or diploma the Secretary of State should usually cause a local inquiry to be held under section 58 of the Education (Scotland) Act, 1945, before making a decision. An inquiry will however seldom be necessary when the teacher has been convicted by a Court or where an inquiry into his dismissal has already been held for the purposes of section 21 of the Education (Scotland) Act, 1908.

189. We desire to emphasise our view that the withdrawal of a teacher's certificate or diploma is not for the punishment of the teacher but for the protection of the pupils and the maintenance of a high standard in the teaching profession.

PART X

TEACHERS IN SERVICE

CHAPTER XIX

Assistance to Teachers in the early years of their Teaching Careers

190. The training institutions should be growing points of the educational system, and at a time when ideas are changing they have a difficult dual function: they must inspire the students with the new educational ideals, yet they must also prepare them to conduct the schools as they are, sometimes by methods that they may be constrained to adopt against their own convictions.

191. To the young teacher this cleavage presents a very real difficulty. If he obeys the instruction sometimes given by headmasters that he must forget the new methods and teach in the old and tried ways, he gradually loses his new educational faith, and the leadership of the training colleges is largely wasted; if he clings to his convictions friction is inevitable.

192. The first year of service is a critical stage in the teacher's career for several other reasons. Even if the headmaster is willing to allow him to use the new methods, he may have a class accustomed to the old: weak students are sometimes placed with large and difficult classes: independent charge of a class always brings a flood of problems that had not arisen in the artificial practice teaching. It is, in fact, no exaggeration to say that the young teacher is often made or marred by the conditions of his first appointment.

193. The problem must be attacked in two ways. Our recommendations are designed to afford the training colleges a better chance of giving the student an enduring set in the new direction. At the same time, steps must be taken to make the conditions of the teacher's early service such as will keep the new spirit alive and foster further growth. Definite regulations should be made by the Secretary of State to ensure that the young teacher will be appointed only to a suitable school and class, preferably outside his home area, and that he will be transferred if it is clear that such a change would be to his advantage.

194. Although the beginner usually receives guidance and help from the headmaster and senior assistants, we are of opinion that advisers of young teachers should be appointed in the circumstances we set out below, some of whom would be seconded for periods of service in the training institutions. Such


[page 55]

advisers should be very carefully selected, and required to keep themselves abreast of new methods by attendance at refresher courses or otherwise. In rural areas they should be appointed for the purpose of giving help and guidance to the beginner in a school where the headmaster, because he has to teach a class, is unable to find time to give the necessary assistance, and to the young teacher appointed to a one-teacher school. In all areas advisers in the role of visiting infant mistresses should be appointed to help and guide the beginner appointed to an infant department which is not sufficiently large to have an infant mistress with no specific teaching responsibility. In these cases the headmaster cannot be expected to have the knowledge necessary to give the same assistance to the young teacher as would be given by a infant mistress. Special attention to young teachers should be given by organisers and. supervisors of special subjects like art, music and physical education.

195. Finally, we recommend that, in each education area, there should be week-end conferences for young teachers at which they would have an opportunity of stating their difficulties and receiving guidance and encouragement. Members of the staffs of the training institutions should be associated with these conferences.

CHAPTER XX

Courses for the Further Instruction of Teachers in Service

1. THE PRESENT ARRANGEMENTS

196. Provision for the further instruction of teachers in service is made mainly through classes or courses conducted under Article 55 of the Regulations. These are offered by the Provincial Committees, but education authorities or the authorities of a central institution may act as local managers. The fees charged to the teachers are small, and the classes are held in the training centres, central institutions or centres in the province of the Provincial Committee. Some are held during the session, in the evenings or on Saturdays, and others are held in vacations. Suggestions for the institution of classes are invited from the education authorities. The lecturers for the courses, which have covered a very wide range of subjects, have included pioneer educationists from abroad and scholars of the highest academic standing.

197. Vacation courses on a university standard in subjects of general education, open to teachers from the whole of Scotland, were instituted in the University of Edinburgh in 1920. They are under the control of a board of management consisting of representatives of Edinburgh University and of Edinburgh Provincial Committee, and the fees charged are on the same level as those for the corresponding university classes.

2. RECOMMENDATIONS

198. There is no profession in which it is more imperative that the members should keep themselves in touch with modern developments; nor is there any in which there is a greater risk of falling into a rut. We therefore recommend that training authorities should extend the provision of facilities in such a way that they will touch the teacher's development at every point - as a citizen, as a scholar and as an educator.

199. If our recommendations for the reform of the training system are adopted, the courses will fall into two broad types. The first group will be designed to allow the teacher to add to his qualifications by means of endorse-


[page 56]

ments: the second will be of the refresher or inspirational type, leading to no additional qualification. They should be looked upon as a national investment that pays an ample dividend. We therefore recommend that no fees be charged for classes or courses instituted by the training authorities, and that the encroachment upon the teacher's well-earned vacations should be reduced to a minimum. While a certain number of vacation classes and sessional classes held outside school hours should be retained, we are of opinion that the majority should be held within school hours, and that teachers who attend them with the approval of their education authorities should be granted leave of absence on full salary. Attendance should count as service for the purpose of the Superannuation Scheme, and should be taken into account in considering claims to promotion. While it is obviously desirable that as many teachers as possible should take periodical refresher courses we are unable to recommend the adoption of a suggestion that all teachers should be required to take such courses, but we recommend that head teachers should take an appropriate course either shortly before or shortly after taking up appointment.

200. At these courses, particularly those of the second type, Scottish teachers should have opportunities of listening to leading scholars and to educational experts and pioneers from different countries. Every effort should be made to ascertain the kind of class the teachers themselves desire, and for this purpose suggestions should be invited from the Educational Institute of Scotland and its local branches. Fuller use should be made of courses not conducted on the traditional lecture system.

201. Great advantage would result from the establishment of residential conferences or study circles at which teachers would have opportunities of discussing their own problems, and hearing short talks by outstanding authorities. Inspectors, directors of education and lecturers in the training institutions could attend; and with the aid, for instance, of the British Council, it might be arranged that selected teachers from other countries would also take part. If this aspect of the further instruction of teachers should develop to a sufficient extent the National Committee or their successors should consider whether it would be desirable to acquire a country mansion to be used as a permanent centre for such residential conferences.

PART XI

ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCE

CHAPTER XXI

The Present Administrative System

202. By the Scottish Education Department's Minute of 30th January, 1905, the training of teachers, which up to that date had been mainly undertaken by the Churches, was placed largely under the charge of four Provincial Committees, one associated with each of the Scottish universities; and to these Committees or their successors all the training institutions in Scotland were ultimately transferred. They acted independently of each other, each being responsible directly to the Department and receiving a grant from which it had to meet the cost of training and of maintenance allowances to students. The school boards made no direct contribution to the expenditure on the training of teachers.

203. Under the Education (Scotland) Act, 1918, the cost of the maintenance allowances was transferred to the new education authorities, each of which had


[page 57]

to make a contribution to the cost of training of a sum proportional to the number of fully qualified teachers in its service. In the view of the Department the duties thus imposed on the education authorities carried a corresponding right, that of adequate control over the expenditure on training to which they were bound to contribute; and by a Minute of 10th February, 1920, the existing Provincial Committees were replaced by the present administrative bodies - the National Committee for the Training of Teachers, the Central Executive Committee, Provincial Committees and Committees of Management. Particulars of these committees and of their finance are given in Appendix IV.

204. The management of the training centres and colleges by the Provincial Committees and Committees of Management is subject to any regulations and restrictions made by the National Committee; and the National Committee (while giving due weight to any recommendations made by the Provincial Committees) must retain full control over, and responsibility for, the finances of the training centres, the appointment, transfer, remuneration and dismissal of staff, and the fixing of fees to be charged to students. All students are enrolled under the National Committee who may regulate the number to be admitted. Courses of training are drawn up by the Provincial Committees and Committees of Management, but are subject to the general approval of the National Committee and of the Secretary of State.

205. The Provincial Committees have wider functions than the Committees of Management. In addition to managing the training centres, they consider claims for recognition from teachers in the province and conduct classes for the further instruction of teachers in service.

206. Such, in brief outline, is the structure of the Scottish training system on the administrative side. It is firmly based on the principle that the training of teachers is an, integral part of the State educational system, and a national concern: those who control the schools, the teaching profession, and others concerned in the provision of training, all have a say in shaping its policy.

CHAPTER XXII

Should the Training of Teachers be taken over by the Universities?

207. A small number of our witnesses suggested that the universities should be invited to undertake fuller responsibility for the training of teachers; and various plans were proposed with this end in view. The most thorough-going was that the universities should establish faculties of education and professional degrees for teachers, the courses for which would include the whole of the training. This would be tantamount to handing over the control of the training of teachers to the universities.

208. The advantages claimed for such a change were (1) that if teachers were trained wholly in the universities the status of the profession would be raised; (2) that a better type of entrant would be attracted; (3) that the ideal of an all-graduate profession would be attainable; (4) that all students in training would have the advantages of participation in the life of the university; (5) that it would be easier to ensure the integration of the student's general education and professional training. We are not however convinced of the soundness of these claims; nor can we accept in its entirety the implication of the second. The first and second appear to us to be highly speculative and even if sound could be met by the reforms which we suggest in Chapters XXIII, XXIV and


[page 58]

XXV of this Report. We have already discussed in paragraphs 64 to 70 the question whether graduation for all should be required, and for the reasons there given we have recommended that it should not. The fourth claim is met to some extent by our recommendations, for example in Chapter V of this Report, that non-graduating students with the necessary qualifications should become matriculated students of the university and take certain classes there. As regards the fifth claim, we consider that these advantages could be attained equally effectively under the system we propose.

209. We found no evidence of a desire on the part of the universities to accept the entire responsibility for the training of teachers, and we are of opinion that such a change would be to the detriment of the higher scholarship which has thriven so well under their guardianship. The taking over of the large and many-sided task of training all members of the education services would endanger the fulfilment of their true cultural mission. If this large and mixed block of students with special vocational aims were merged in the student body the whole character and balance of interests of university life would be materially altered: if it were segregated within the university, many of the advantages would be lost.

210. On the side of training the proposal is open to serious objections, administrative and educational. The training of teachers is an integral part of the State educational system, and should be under the Minister responsible for that system: it would be contrary to the tenets of democracy if it were entirely controlled by a private body, many of whose members are not in close touch with the schools, which is not composed in part at least of elected representatives of the people. Many institutions of higher education other than the universities are concerned, and many other bodies and interests have an indefeasible claim to a say in shaping the policy to be adopted. The latter include the education authorities who employ the teachers and contribute to the cost of training, the central institutions, the teaching profession and the Churches. Administrative difficulties would arise in regard to the position of the Roman Catholic colleges and the women's college of physical education. If, as is likely, use were made of the present institutions, many of which are at a considerable distance from the universities, the students would be almost as much segregated from the life of the universities as they are at present. It was pointed out to us that the placing of the training of teachers under, the control of the universities "would tend to create a bias towards the academic as opposed to the professional side of training"; and we agree that the traditions and methods of the universities are not suitable for the professional training of teachers. Certainly, the formative environment which we have described in the foregoing parts of our Report could be more readily created in a separate institution with a character of its own. In short, the preparation for the education service as we have envisaged it, is a function of such scope and social importance, that it deserves an institution to itself, an institution with a singleness of purpose which no department of a larger institution could ever have.

211. Certain less extreme suggestions for increasing the responsibility of the universities involved a dual or triple control of the training institutions, and we are unable to recommend their adoption.

212. As an indication of the trend of opinion in Scotland we may say that, of the thirty-nine witnesses (bodies or individuals) who expressed definite views on the question, thirty-four were in favour of placing the control of the training of teachers in the hands of ad hoc training authorities on which the universities would be represented.


[page 59]

CHAPTER XXIII

Institutes of Education

1. THE CHARACTER AND FUNCTIONS OF A MODERN TRAINING INSTITUTION

213. In the scheme of training that we have outlined students will take part of their preparation at universities and other institutions of higher education. Yet, while they may be geographically scattered at any one time, they should be a community, bound together by a common central purpose and shared interests: and this unification of the teacher student body can be effected only if they have a general headquarters. To act as this headquarters is one of the main functions of a training institution. As such it must be an institution dedicated to the common purpose, and with a community life, deliberately shaped to foster the ideals, attitudes and values on which, in conformity with the trend of modern educational opinion in all countries, we have placed so much emphasis.

214. We need not enter at length into its equipment on the material side, its gardens, playing fields, and so on, but we would emphasise that each should have its own nursery school and demonstration school where students can see methods not in use in the city schools, and where new plans can be tried out under the supervision of the staff. At least in association with it, there should be a child guidance clinic, youth clubs and play centres.

215. The training institution should be in the van of educational advance. It should therefore, in co-operation with the Scottish Council for Research in Education, be a centre for educational research in all its branches, training research workers and organising large scale investigations carried on with the co-operation of teachers in the province.

216. The idea of a training institution as a general educational headquarters is one that has within it elements that lead inevitably to its own expansion. There are many workers other than teachers for whom a knowledge of education and psychology is of prime importance, and they would all derive advantages from sharing in the life of an educational community, which, it may be added, their presence would enrich. The training institution should cater for the needs of all who require preparation for service in any part of the educational field, including not only inspectors, directors of education, supervisors, organisers, lecturers in central institutions and training institutions, but also such workers as probation officers, welfare officers, matrons of homes and those engaging in the various forms of youth service. For this purpose, the staffs would, of course, have to be strengthened by the appointment of the necessary specialists. In addition we recommend that use be made of part-time outside lecturers of the highest standing in their respective spheres. In some cases the training institution should have full control of the courses of preparation, and we believe that the training of those engaging in youth service should come into this category: in others, it would merely provide parts of courses organised by other bodies.

217. The training institution should be a resort for teachers, and the focal point of the educational activities of the province. Teachers' meetings and conferences should be held there. Demonstrations of the use of school broadcasting, educational films and other teaching aids should be arranged from time to time. There should be a room set apart for a permanent display of such materials as pictorial illustrations, apparatus and materials for individual work and special teaching techniques, school text-books, intelligence and scholastic


[page 60]

tests. A common room and a reading room with educational and psychological periodicals should be available, and visiting teachers should have the use of the library and the help of its trained librarian. In short, everything possible should be done to make the training institution useful and attractive to the teachers of the province.

218. It is an institution conceived in this broad way, an institution for which the name "Training College" would be no longer appropriate, that will provide the environment most favourable to the growth of our future educators. Our conception of it, taken in conjunction with our proposals for the reform of the courses of training, is not open to the objection that teacher students would be segregated: they would have opportunities of participation in the life of other institutions, and would associate with students preparing for other professions both there and in the joint residences which we suggested in our earlier Report*.

2. INSTITUTES OF EDUCATION WITH CONSTITUENT COLLEGES

219. The principles which should determine the character of the training institution are, in one respect, apparently incompatible. On the one hand, the training of teachers can best be carried on in an institution with a community life and an individuality of its own. For this reason the institution must not be too large. For example, no college should exceed the present size of the Aberdeen Centre. On the other hand, the institution should have a wider function than the training of teachers: it should be a centre of higher study and research; it should provide courses of preparation for all branches of the education service; it should have a standing among the institutions of higher education commensurate with its high social function, and its staffing and equipment should be worthy of that standing. These considerations point to a large and influential institution; and the plan which we propose is an attempt to reconcile the conflict which thus arises.

220. We recommend that there should be four Institutes of Education (Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow and St. Andrews) conducted in association with the universities and other institutions of higher education and serving the needs of the existing provinces into which Scotland is divided for the purposes of the training of teachers. Each Institute would be composed of at least two constituent colleges with appropriate names and each with a considerable measure of autonomy. We recommend that the Glasgow Institute, for example, should be constituted by two or preferably three colleges in addition to the Notre Dame Roman Catholic College and the college of physical education for men. Hostels should be associated with the Institutes, providing not only for students attending the Institutes but also for those at universities and central institutions as recommended in paragraph 30 of our Report on the Recruitment and Training of Teachers in the Period immediately following the War*. The constituent colleges would have Principals, one of whom would act as Principal of the Institute and Executive Officer to its administrative body. Graduation ceremonials would be held for the purpose of presenting diplomas awarded by the Institute of Education with the consent of the Secretary of State. While each of the colleges providing courses for teachers of general subjects and specialist teachers would be complete in itself as far as these types of training are concerned, there would be specialisation in the provision of training for other branches of the education service. It would not be desirable to establish courses for supervisors mid organisers at more than one of the constituent colleges. There would also be some sharing of resources of staff within the Institute.

*Cmd. 6501.


[page 61]

221. We recommend that consideration should be given to the question whether the number of Roman Catholic men teachers required annually would justify the establishment of a Roman Catholic college for men students. If such a college were established, it should be a constituent of one of the Institutes of Education.

222. If the women's college of physical education is retained at Dunfermline it should be regarded as a constituent college of the St. Andrews Institute of Education. If effect is given to our recommendation that it should be transferred to one of the cities, it would become a constituent college of the Institute of Education for that city.

3. THE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENTS OF EDUCATION

223. When the Institutes of Education reach their full stature, the question whether they could be empowered to grant degrees in education should be explored. If this should be found to be possible, they should take over the work at present undertaken by the university departments of education.

CHAPTER XXIV

The Staffing of the Institutes of Education

1. QUALIFICATIONS AND STATUS OF STAFFS

224. A training institution could not provide an integrated and unified training if each lecturer were a specialist immersed in his own subject. An educational community must be conscious of itself. Its shaping influences must be deliberately and intentionally directed; and this presupposes a clear consciousness in the members of the staff of the ideals and values for which they are prepared to take their stand. There should, of course, be no attempt to indoctrinate students on matters that are controversial; but new ideals that have won acceptance in the enlightened educational opinion of the world should be presented to the student in a consistent way through a wide variety of related experiences. A balanced appreciation of the place of "purposeful activity" methods in education cannot be acquired in theoretical classes alone. These should give the student a knowledge of the rational grounds on which the view is based and of the movements that have led to its present prominence in educational thought. But the lecturers in subjects like methods and handwork must show how it is put into practice in their respective spheres, and it should be so embodied in the community life of the college that students will have actual experience of its operation in their own education and training.

225. To secure such unification each member of the staff must know what his colleagues are saying and doing. The specialists in the practical subjects must know and understand the arguments used in support of a view by the lecturer in educational science: the theoretical lecturers must know something of what is done in the practical classes. For this purpose frequent staff conferences are necessary, and if these are to be fruitful, every specialist on the staff must have a sufficient knowledge of educational theory and psychology, and must keep himself abreast of modern developments in these fields.

226. We recommend that members of the staffs should have a preparation on the general lines proposed for candidates for posts of responsibility outside the schools. If the Institutes of Education are to have the requisite standing they must be staffed by men and women of the very highest attainments. Principal lecturers should be comparable in status to university professors.


[page 62]

227. We recommend that the salaries of the staffs of the training institutions should be substantially increased, and that the salaries of the principal lecturers should be brought into line with those paid to university professors and readers, H.M. Inspectors, directors of education and headmasters of the larger secondary schools. In fixing the salary scales of lecturers, due account should be taken of the fact that the opportunities of promotion for men and women who enter the service of the training of teachers are somewhat limited. The salary scales for lecturers in small colleges should be the same as those in the large colleges.

228. We recommend that there should be recognised machinery whereby the opinions of the teaching staff on problems arising out of their work may find expression.

2. CONDITIONS OF SERVICE

229. The teaching and other duties of members of the staffs of the Institutes of Education should be so adjusted that each lecturer will have time and opportunity for writing and for engaging in research. A system of "sabbatical periods" should be arranged, and every encouragement should be given to lecturers to attend conferences and to visit educational institutions in other countries.

230. Opportunities should be provided for conferences at which the staffs of a particular department from all the colleges could exchange views and discuss common problems. H.M. Inspectors, directors of education and headmasters should be invited to attend certain of these conferences.

3. MAINTENANCE OF CONTACT WITH THE SCHOOLS

231. Lecturers in education, psychology and subjects of general education should take some part in the supervision of practice teaching, and specialists in such subjects, as art, music, handwork, needlework, physical education and speech training should have opportunities of visiting their students at work in the schools.

232. With a view to ensuring that methods lecturers do not fall out of touch with actual teaching it has been suggested that all members of the staffs of the methods departments should be required to return periodically to the school teaching service. The danger which the supporters of this plan have in mind is sometimes exaggerated. Methods lecturers have usually had teaching experience of considerable length and have proved themselves to be outstandingly successful teachers. They are, moreover, in regular contact with the work of schools in the course of their day-to-day work. The proposed arrangement would not, in our view, be feasible or desirable for principal or senior lecturers; yet much would be gained if these lecturers had opportunities of coming into touch with school problems and conditions over a wider area than the district in which the training institution is situated. We therefore recommend that there should be an interchange arrangement between certain of the principal and senior lecturers and the inspectorate. The preparation of these lecturers should be much the same as for the inspectorate, salaries should be comparable, and we feel that the plan would be to the advantage of both services.

233. There is room on the junior methods staffs for a considerable number of lecturers who are seconded for service for limited periods. Advisers of young teachers would be particularly suitable for periods of service in a training institution in view of their knowledge of the deficiencies shown by outgoing students in the early stages of their teaching careers.


[page 63]

234. Such arrangements should be made with caution, and in the light of two important considerations. In all departments of a training institution there must be a reasonable measure of continuity of staffing: otherwise, the training would not have the unity of purpose which is essential. In the second place, it has to be remembered that skill in class teaching and the ability to secure a high percentage of passes in examinations are not sufficient qualifications for a place on the methods staff of an Institute of Education.

CHAPTER XXV

Recommendations in Regard to Administrative Bodies and Finance

1. ADMINISTRATIVE BODIES

(1) Outline of the Proposed System

235. Each Institute of Education should be under the management of a Council which should also act as the training authority for the province. The governing bodies of the constituent colleges should be Committees of the Council. Central control and co-ordination should be secured through a Scottish Council of Institutes of Education, and the whole system should be under the general supervision of the Secretary of State.

236. We do not attempt to lay down a definite scheme of composition of the administrative bodies, but merely indicate certain general principles which should be followed in their constitution. We think it important that none of the administrative bodies should be too large.

(2) Councils of the Institutes of Education

237. In regard to the composition of the Councils of the Institutes of Education we make the following recommendations:

(1) That Education Authorities should be represented, but that the proportion of such representation should be smaller than on the present Provincial Committees. Not more than one representative should be appointed from any Education Authority; and in certain cases two or more Authorities should be combined for the purpose of electing a joint representative.

(2) That the Association of Directors of Education should be represented.

(3) That the teaching profession should be represented, but that the proportion of such representation should be greater than on the present Provincial Committees and that there should be full representation of the profession on any committee dealing with recognition of teachers and admission to training. A proportion of Roman Catholic teachers should be included on any Council managing an Institute of Education which contains. a Roman Catholic college.

(4) That the Universities should be represented, and that such representatives should include members of the teaching staffs.

(5) That the Central Institutions should be represented, that the proportion of such representation should be increased and that the representatives should include members of the teaching staffs.

(6) That the Protestant Churches should be represented.

(7) That the Roman Catholic Church should be represented on all Councils and that representation should be greater on those Councils that have a Roman Catholic college under their jurisdiction.


[page 64]

(8) That the constitution of the Councils should be revised from time to time in the light of new developments, particularly extensions of the functions of the Institutes of Education.

(9) That the system of assessors appointed by the Secretary of State be the same as that obtaining in connection with Provincial Committees.

(10) That the Principals of all the constituent colleges of an Institute of Education should attend the meetings of the Council.

238. As managers of the Institute of Education, the Council would deal with all matters relating to the co-ordination of the activities of the constituent colleges, including the distribution of the various specialised forms of training, and the sharing of resources of staff. As training authorities for a province they would deal with claims for recognition as teachers, provision of courses for the further instruction of teachers, etc.

(3) The Scottish Council of Institutes of Education

239. We regard a central controlling body as essential if the system is to be envisaged and managed as a whole with due regard to educational and economic efficiency. Its functions would include:

(1) Management of the finances of the system from a broad national point of view, and the equitable distribution of the funds available for building hostels, extensions of colleges, etc.;

(2) Securing uniformity where uniformity is desirable, e.g., in regard to standards for admission, certification and recognition, content and duration of courses, scales of fees, salaries and retiring allowances;

(3) Control of the supply of teachers from a national point of view, and allocation of entrants to the different Institutes and Colleges if that should be found to be necessary;

(4) Centralisation of training for special subjects or special branches of the education service;

(5) Organisation of courses for the further instruction of teachers on a national basis;

(6) Organisation of schemes which should be administered nationally, e.g., interchange scholarship schemes;

(7) Appointment of staff after considering the recommendations, of the Council of the Institute concerned; and

(8) Control of the staffs as a whole with a view to promotion within the service.

240. The Scottish Council should provide a means for the pooling of ideas, for co-operation in the development of research programmes, and should act as a stimulating force in the system. From time to time, it should take evidence from bodies and individuals concerned with the training of teachers with a view to making reforms and extensions of the training facilities.

241. The present National Committee is composed wholly of representatives of education authorities, and it acts through a Central Executive Committee on which other interests are represented. We consider this arrangement both cumbrous and unnecessary. There should be a single central body called "The Scottish Council of Institutes of Education" and we make the following recommendations in regard to its constitution:

(1) The members of the Scottish Council should be selected from the members of the Councils of the Institutes.

[page 65]

(2) The scheme of constitution should provide for the inclusion of representatives of -
(a) Education Authorities;
(b) The Association of Directors of Education;
(c) The teaching profession (including Roman Catholic teachers);
(d) The Universities (including members of the teaching staffs);
(e) Central Institutions (including members of the teaching staffs); and
(f) The Protestant and Roman Catholic Churches.
(3) The proportion of representatives of the teaching profession should be greater than that on the present Central Executive Committee and the proportion of members of education authorities should be less.

(4) The scheme of constitution should be revised from time to time in the light of new developments.

(5) The system of assessors appointed by the Secretary of State should be the same as that obtaining in the case of the present Central Executive Committee.

(6) The Principals of the Institutes of Education should attend all meetings of the Scottish Council.

(4) Relationships between the Administrative Bodies

242. The relationships between the various bodies, and the administrative machinery that would be most appropriate, should be worked out anew in the light of experience that has been gained of the present system. It should be kept in mind that men and women of the right type will not be attracted unless the bodies on which they are asked to serve have a reasonable measure of power and responsibility. There should, therefore, be an all round process of delegation of powers and duties. Certain matters, such as the admission of students to training, which are now controlled by the Secretary of State, could be devolved upon the Scottish Council. Similarly, the autonomy of the Councils of the Institutes could profitably be made greater than those of the present Provincial Committees by the devolution of certain powers now exercised by the Central Executive Committee; and the Principals of the Colleges should have wide powers in their own right. Every effort should be made to simplify the administrative machinery and to ensure that delays in procedure are reduced to a minimum.

243. While the Scottish Council and the Councils of the Institutes should look on their task from a wider point of view than that of the routine administration of the system, it is both probable and desirable that a large number .of the most fruitful suggestions for advance will come from those whose duty it is to run the system and who are in daily touch with its problems. We therefore recommend that regular meetings of the Executive Officer of the Scottish Council, the Principals of the Institutes of Education, and the Assessors should be a recognised part of the administrative machinery. One of the main functions of this body should be to make suggestions to the Scottish Council as to developments and reforms and as to the organisation of co-operative research.

2. FINANCE

244. No suggestions for radical changes in the arrangements for providing the necessary finance for the training of teachers were made by any of our witnesses. A summary of the present position is given in Appendix IV. As will be seen from the figures there given, approximately four-fifths of the income of the National Committee is derived from public funds, while the larger part of the balance comes from fees paid by the students.


[page 66]

245. The question whether fees should continue to be charged is economic and political rather than educational; and we therefore make no recommendation with regard to it. We would only point out that many students would be unable to pay the fees without the help of bursaries granted by the education authorities, and refer to our Report on Education Authority Bursaries* where we dealt fully with the inadequacies of the present bursary system.

246. Approximately one quarter of the contribution from public funds is paid directly from the Education (Scotland) Fund in the form of capitation grants and capital grants. The amended paragraph (d) of section 16 (1) of the Act of 1908 under which the capitation grant is paid has been replaced by a new paragraph (d) under the Act of 1945, and it will no longer be necessary for the grant to be given on a per capita basis.

247. The remaining three-quarters of the contributions from public funds is given by the education authorities under section 9 (3) of the Act of 1918, each contribution being "such as the Secretary of State may determine, being a sum proportional to the number of fully qualified teachers in the service of each education authority on the thirty-first day of March in each year." At the same time the formula in the regulations made by the Secretary of State under which grant is paid from the Education (Scotland) Fund to education authorities provides for a sum to be included in the calculation in respect of each of the average number of teachers employed by the authority in the course of the year ending on 31st March. The Secretary of State thus fixes both these sums. It is said that the fact that an education authority has to make a payment to the National Committee ensures that they interest themselves in the proceedings of the Committee. The interest of the authorities should, however, be founded on the vital necessity of obtaining an adequate supply of well-trained teachers and should be focussed for them by their representatives on the Councils whose establishment we have recommended. It would undoubtedly simplify procedure and save labour if this method of financing the training of teachers were abandoned, and we feel that this could be done without any serious disadvantage.

248. We therefore recommend that the opportunity afforded by the change made by the Act of 1945 should be taken to reconsider the procedure under which public funds are made available for the training of teachers. We suggest that a grant based on approved expenditure should be substituted for the existing direct grants and for the contributions made by the education authorities. Whatever system is adopted it is essential to the future well-being of our schools that the training of teachers should not be hampered by inadequate finance.

SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS

249. Chapters I and II deal with the setting of the problem of teacher training and the essentials in the preparation of teachers of general subjects for primary schools. They lead to the conclusion that the special professional preparation, apart from academic studies, cannot be adequately covered in less than two years of full-time study. The Chapters contain so many suggestions and recommendations that they cannot advantageously be condensed into a summary.

250. Chapters V to XII and Appendices II and III contain recommendations as to the courses which should be provided. These recommendations are set out in brief in the Tabular Summary of Courses given in Appendix V.

*Cmd. 6573.


[page 67]

251. In this paragraph we give a summary of recommendations in other Chapters of the Report, which we have selected because of their importance and general interest. The Report contains other recommendations and suggestions, many of them important but of more limited interest, and to keep the summary to a reasonable length these have not been included.

(1) Graduation for all teachers of general subjects in primary schools should not be required, but teacher students should have opportunities for participation in the life and culture of the university. (Paragraph 70.)

(2) The universities should not be asked to introduce special degrees for teachers. (Paragraph 71.)

(3) The system under which the first year of training may be taken in a secondary school should be abandoned. (Paragraph 75.)

(4) The establishment of rural residential annexes to training institutions should be considered. (Paragraph 89.)

(5) Regulations under which courses are framed should be so drafted as to permit of the adaptation of courses to individual needs. (Paragraph 92.)

(6) The instruction of the younger classes in all secondary courses should largely be in the hands of teachers who are able to teach at least three subjects. Such teachers should also be prepared for the general work of the primary school. (Paragraphs 97 and 98.)

(7) The training authorities should consider the introduction of a general science course for teacher students preparing for the younger classes in the secondary schools. (Paragraph 103.)

(8) With the exception of men with experience in other walks of life who wish to enter the teaching profession at an age above the normal, for whom special arrangements should be made, the course of preparation for all men desiring a qualification to teach the younger classes in secondary schools should extend to five years and should include a course for a degree in Arts or Science or a clearly equivalent course taken in whole or in part at a central institution. (Paragraphs 108 and 16B.)

(9) Courses in preparation for work in the younger classes of the secondary schools should also prepare students for work in junior colleges and should include a thorough study of the psychology of adolescence. (Paragraph 109.)

(10) The distinction between the certificates awarded to specialist teachers of academic subjects and to specialist teachers of technical subjects should be abolished: there should be one qualification of specialist teacher. (Paragraph 116.)

(11) There should be an extension of the subjects in which special diploma courses for teacher students are provided at central institutions and training institutions. (Paragraph 119.)

(12) Students who, after taking an honours degree in a subject, continue to study the subject for two or more years should no longer be excused from the whole or part of their professional training. (Paragraph 127.)

(13) Provision should be made to enable teachers of physical education who are approaching the age of 50 to obtain partial qualifications to teach other subjects. (Appendix II, paragraph 34.)

(14) The training authorities should give early consideration to the extension of their facilities for the training of specialist teachers in physical education. (Appendix II, paragraph 40.)

(15) The Women's College of Physical Education should be transferred from Dunfermline to one of the towns in which the training institutions are situated. (Appendix II, paragraph 41.)


[page 68]

(16) Special consideration should be given to the improvement of the salaries and conditions of service of teachers of handicapped children and to the steps to be taken to recruit such teachers. (Paragraph 130.)

(17) Teachers should serve for a period in ordinary schools before training for a qualification to teach handicapped children of any category; they should not normally be admitted to this training after they have attained the age of 40. (Paragraphs 131 to 133.)

(18) In a school for the blind the number of blind teachers should never exceed the number of sighted teachers. (Appendix III, paragraph 3.)

(19) The training of teachers of the blind should for the present continue to be centralised in Edinburgh. (Appendix III, paragraph 7.)

(20) Steps should be taken to increase the opportunities for teachers in approved schools to be promoted to posts in ordinary schools. (Appendix III, paragraph 22.)

(21) Facilities to enable candidates to prepare for posts of responsibility in the education service outside the schools should be extended. These should include a scheme of scholarships awarded by the Secretary of State for study abroad. Education authorities should be required to give special two-year appointments to teachers who are aiming at such posts in order to give them a wide experience of schools and junior colleges. Steps should be taken to encourage more students to undertake advanced studies and research in education. (Paragraph 149.)

(22) Classes in religious education open to students who desire to attend them should be included in every course of training for a teacher's certificate. (Paragraph 151.)

(23) Courses in the study of religion of the general level of first and second ordinary university classes should be instituted, either in the universities or in the training institutions, to qualify teachers for the younger classes in secondary schools to teach religion as well as a group of subjects. (Paragraph 155.)

(24) Arrangements should be made to enable a specialist teacher's certificate to be awarded in religious education and one other subject, to qualify the teacher to give religious instruction in the higher classes of the secondary school. (Paragraph 156.)

(25) The universities should be asked to consider the institution of three classes in the study of religion and their inclusion among the subjects qualifying for ordinary and honours degrees in Arts. If they are unable to undertake this, provision should be made in the training institutions. (Paragraph 157.)

(26) All lecturers in religious education in a training institution should be members of the staff of the National Committee or their successors: the method of appointment should be discussed with the Churches. (Paragraph 160.)

(27) The teaching profession should be opened to persons with suitable experience of other walks of life although they do not possess the qualifications normally required for admission to training. Courses for such persons should be planned with due consideration of their entrance qualifications and of the fact that they will be members of a learned profession. All applications should be considered by a special committee of the National Committee or their successors. As such recruits will enter the profession at a higher age than the normal their conditions of service and professional prospects should be safeguarded. (Paragraphs 162 and 164.)


[page 69]

(28) The training authorities should continue to experiment with intelligence tests to be applied to candidates for admission to training. (Paragraph 173.)

(29) Reports, on a specially prepared form, on the personal qualities, appearance, speech, etc., of all applicants for admission to training should be obtained, and the candidates should be interviewed in doubtful cases. Candidates should be rejected on grounds of personality, etc., only in clear cases. (Paragraph 174.)

(30) No definite rule should be made as to the minimum age for entry upon training. (Paragraph 177.)

(31) On the satisfactory completion of training, the student should receive a diploma awarded with the consent of the Secretary of State conferring the status of certificated teacher. These diplomas should not be classed or awarded with distinction, and should be of two main types - for teachers of general subjects and for specialist teachers. Information as to the subjects taken during the course should be shown on the certificate. There should be a third diploma for Blind Teachers of the Blind. (Paragraph 180.)

(32) Qualifications for teachers of handicapped children and additional qualifications taken by teachers in service should be endorsed on the diploma. (Paragraph 181.)

(33) Training records should not contain a teaching mark or a general estimate of capacity. Where an education authority are appointing teachers of less than three years' service to posts, the training authorities should on request provide a teaching mark, a studies mark and a general estimate of the capacity of each candidate together with an order of merit of the candidates. (Paragraphs 183 and 184.)

(34) The present system of determining whether a student has qualified for the award of a certificate should be continued. (Paragraph 185.)

(35) A probationary period for newly qualified teachers should be continued only until the post-war influx of recruits from abnormal sources of supply is ended. (Paragraph 186.)

(36) Where misconduct or inefficiency causes the dismissal or resignation of a teacher, the employer should make a full report to the Secretary of State. After giving the teacher an opportunity of stating his case and after a formal inquiry has, if necessary, been held, the Secretary of State should decide whether the teacher's certificate or diploma should be withdrawn. (Paragraph 188.)

(37) Regulations should be made by the Secretary of State to ensure that a newly qualified teacher is appointed only to a suitable school and class, preferably outside his home area, and that he will be transferred if it is clear that a change would be to his advantage. (Paragraph 193.)

(38) Specially selected teachers should in certain circumstances be appointed advisers of young teachers. (Paragraph 194.)

(39) Weekend conferences of young teachers should be held from time to time for the purpose of giving guidance and encouragement. (Paragraph 195.)

(40) No fees should be charged for courses for teachers in service, and the encroachment upon the teachers' vacations should be reduced to a minimum. Teachers should be granted leave of absence on full pay to attend these courses. Attendance should be voluntary. (Paragraph 199.)

(41) Residential conferences and study circles for teachers should be established by the National Committee or their successors, who should later consider the acquisition of a country mansion as a centre for these and similar activities. (Paragraph 201.)


[page 70]

(42) The responsibility for the training of teachers should not be transferred to the universities. (Paragraphs 207 to 210.)

(43) There should be four Institutes of Education associated with the universities and other institutions of higher education. Each Institute should be composed of at least two constituent colleges with appropriate names and a considerable measure of autonomy. Hostels should be provided for students attending the colleges and for other students. The constituent colleges should have principals, one of whom would act as principal of the Institute and executive officer of its administrative body. Diplomas should be conferred by the Institute, which should hold a graduation ceremonial for the purpose. (Paragraph 220.)

(44) Consideration should be given to the establishment of a Roman Catholic college for men as a constituent college of one of the Institutes. (Paragraph 221.)

(45) Institutes must be staffed with men and women of the highest attainments: Principal lecturers should be comparable in status to university professors. (Paragraph 226.)

(46) The salaries of the staffs of the training institutions should be substantially increased. (Paragraph 227.)

(47) Recognised machinery should be established to enable the staffs of the training institutions to express their views on problems arising out of their work. (Paragraph 228)

(48) The work of the staff should be so arranged as to allow time for writing and research. Periods of leave should be given to enable members of the staff to attend conferences and visit other countries. (Paragraph 229.)

(49) There should be an interchange arrangement between certain of the principal and senior lecturers and the inspectorate. Teachers should be seconded for limited periods for service as lecturers on the junior methods staffs, but such arrangements should be made with caution. (Paragraphs 232 to 234.)

(50) Each Institute should be managed by a Council and the constituent colleges by committees of the Council. Central control and co-ordination should be vested in a "Scottish Council of Institutes of Education". The whole system should be under the general supervision of the Secretary of State. (Paragraph 235.)

(51) The Councils of the Institutes should be composed of representatives of Education Authorities, the Association of Directors of Education, the teaching profession, the Universities, the Central Institutions and' the Churches. Education Authorities should have a smaller, and the teaching profession a larger, proportion of representation than on the present Provincial Committees. (Paragraph 237.)

(52) The Councils of the Institutes should co-ordinate the activities of their constituent colleges, including the allocation of responsibility for specialised forms of training and the sharing of resources of staff. As training authority for the province they should deal with claims for recognition as teachers and with courses for the further instruction of teachers in service. (Paragraph 238.)

(53) The functions of the Scottish Council should include the general management of the finance of the system, securing uniformity where uniformity is desirable, controlling the supply of teachers and allocating entrants to the Institutes and colleges, centralisation of training for special subjects or branches of the education service, organising courses for the further


[page 71]

instruction of teachers in service, organising schemes which should be administered nationally, appointment of staff in consultation with the Council of the Institute concerned and control of the staff as a whole with a view to promotion within the service. If should be the progressive moving force in the system. (Paragraphs 239 and 240.)

(54) The Scottish Council should take the place both of the present National Committee and of the Central Executive Committee. It should be composed of representatives of the Councils of the Institutes, all elements on these Councils being represented. Education authorities should have a smaller, and the teaching profession a larger, proportion of representation than on the present Central Executive Committee. (Paragraph 241.)

(55) In distributing the exercise of functions relating to the training of teachers among the Councils and committees concerned, delegation of functions should be as extensive as is compatible with efficient administration. (Paragraph 242.)

(56) Regular meetings of the Executive Officer of the Scottish Council, the Principals of the Councils of the Institutes and the Assessors appointed by the Secretary of State should be held. The main function of the meetings should be to make suggestions to the Scottish Council as to developments and reforms. (Paragraph 243.)

(57) The procedure under which public funds are made available for the training of teachers should be reconsidered. (Paragraphs 247 and 248.)

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

We record with pleasure and gratitude the kindly and most efficient assistance in the preparation of this report, which we have received from our Secretaries, Mr. T. Grainger Stewart and Mr. Archibald Davidson.

We have the honour to be, Sir,

Your obedient Servants,

(Signed)

W. HAMILTON FYFE,
    Chairman.
GARNET WILSON,
    Vice-Chairman.
AGNES M. ALLISON
WILLIAM BARRY.
E. P. CATHCART.
JOHN B. CLARK.
ERNEST GREENHILL.
WILLIAM McCLELLAND.
BRIDGET McEWEN.
R. C. T. MAIR.
ADAM M. MILLAR.
AGNES B. MUIR.
RONALD M. MUNRO.
J. E. S. NISBET.
W. D. RITCHIE.
JAMES J. ROBERTSON.
J. ROTHNIE.
J. CAMERON SMAIL.
W. CRAMPTON SMITH.
J. HENDERSON STEWART.
E. J. TAYLOR.
JAMES YOUNG.

T. GRAINGER STEWART, Secretary.
ARCHD. DAVIDSON, Assistant Secretary.

St. Andrew's House, Edinburgh, 1.
22nd December, 1945.


[page 72]

NOTE OF RESERVATION BY MISS ALLISON AND MISS MUIR

While we have signed this Report, there is one important point about which we desire to enter a reservation.

We are unable to agree with the view expressed in paragraph 70 of the Report that graduation for all teachers of general subjects should not be required, and with the conclusions arrived at in support of this opinion as set forth in paragraphs 64, 66, 67, 69, 71, 72 and 73.

It follows that we do not accept the non-graduating course proposed in paragraphs 74 and 76 as one of the ways of training women teachers of general subjects in primary schools, nor the non-graduating course proposed in paragraph 101 as one of the ways of training teachers of the younger classes in secondary schools.

In our opinion, formed through many years of teaching experience and frequent contacts in a representative capacity with members of Education Authorities, the teaching profession will never attain to that place in public esteem which the importance of its work deserves, nor will it attract in sufficient numbers persons of the high quality which it requires, until it becomes a graduate profession. And it is not in the best interests of the children in Scotland that a large number of the teachers who are responsible for their education during the most formative years should continue to be designated by the negative "non-graduate", which in the minds of the uninitiated, including some members of Education Authorities, is synonymous with "unqualified".

We are not impressed by the arguments against the policy of graduation for such teachers. The present Arts courses are alleged to be unsuitable as a preparation for teaching young children. That is true of certain groups of subjects which may be taken in the Arts course, and we should never advocate the acceptance of all possible groups as a preparation for teaching at any stage. But within the Arts curriculum it is surely possible to select those subjects which are most suitable for entrants to the teaching profession and which would give that broad cultural background which it is desirable for all teachers to have irrespective of the department of the school in which they may ultimately find greatest satisfaction. It is surely no tribute to our Scottish Universities to infer that no suggestions for change of their regulations to make them conform more clearly to the requirements laid down in the Report should be put forward. In the Report of the Reform Committee of the Educational Institute of Scotland (1939) there are suggestions for alternative curricula which would best meet the needs of prospective teachers. It is difficult to understand how the provision of such groups of subjects would "prejudice the cultural aims" of the Universities.

Again, the other members of the Advisory Council find it impossible to recommend that a special degree for teachers should be instituted by the Universities. As the Universities already provide special degrees in other faculties it should not be assumed that they would not consider the desirability of doing so for teaching.

(Signed) AGNES M. ALLISON.
AGNES B. MUIR.


[page 73]

APPENDIX I

LIST OF BODIES AND INDIVIDUALS WHO GAVE ORAL EVIDENCE SUBMITTED MEMORANDA OR LETTERS, OR OTHERWISE ASSISTED THE COUNCIL

1. List of Bodies and Individuals who gave Oral Evidence

(Some of these also submitted memoranda)

TRAINING AUTHORITY

National Committee for the Training of Teachers.

EDUCATION AUTHORITIES

Association of County Councils in Scotland.
Corporation of Aberdeen.
Corporation of Dundee.
Corporation of Edinburgh.
Corporation of Glasgow.

UNIVERSITIES

University of Aberdeen.
University of Edinburgh.
University of Glasgow.
University of St. Andrews.

CHURCHES

Church of Scotland.
Representative Church Council of tile Episcopal Church in Scotland.
Roman Catholic Hierarchy of Scotland.

CENTRAL INSTITUTIONS

Governors of Dundee Institute of Art and Technology.
Governors of Edinburgh College of Art.
Council of Edinburgh College of Domestic Science.
Governors of Edinburgh and East of Scotland College of Agriculture.
Governors of Glasgow School of Art.
Governors of Glasgow and West of Scotland Agricultural College.
Governors of Glasgow and West of Scotland College of Domestic Science.
Governors of Glasgow and West of Scotland Commercial College.
Governors of North of Scotland College of Agriculture.
Governors of Robert Gordon's Technical College.
Governors of Royal Scottish Academy of Music.

VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS

Approved Schools Association (Scotland).
Blind, College of Teachers of the
Commercial Certificates, National Committee (Scotland) for
Deaf, Scoto-Irish Branch of the National College of Teachers of, the
Directors of Education in Scotland, Association of
Domestic Science, Association of Organisers of
Educational Institute of Scotland.
Handicraft Teachers, Incorporated, Edinburgh and District Branch of the Institute of
Handicraft Teachers, Incorporated, West of Scotland Branch of the Institute of
Headmasters of Senior Secondary Schools, Association of
Headmistresses, Scottish Branch of the Association of
Nursery School Association of Great Britain.
Physical Education (Men), Scottish Association for
Physical Education (Women), Scottish League for
Primary Teachers' Association.
School Music Association, Scottish
Schoolmasters' Association, Scottish
Special Schools Union (Incorporated), West of Scotland Branch of the National

INDIVIDUALS

Anderson, C. H. W. G., Esq., Headmaster, Royal Blind School, Edinburgh.
Arneil, L., Esq., Glasgow Training Centre.
Boddie, William, Esq., Aberdeen Training Centre.
Boyd, James, Esq., Depute Director of Education, Ayrshire.
Boyd, William; Esq., D. Phil., D. Litt., Glasgow University.
Carton, Mother H., Principal, Craiglockhart Roman Catholic Training College, Edinburgh.
Cursiter, Stanley, Esq., D.B.E., R.S.A., Director, National Galleries (Scotland).


[page 74]

Drummond, Miss Helen, Principal, Dunfermline College of Hygiene and Physical Education.
Ferguson, J., Esq., H.M. Inspector of Schools.
Forbes, R., Esq., D.S.O., M.C., H.M. Inspector of Schools,
Hardie, J. L., Esq., Director of Studies, Aberdeen Training Centre.
Hollingworth, Miss Catherine, Supervisor of Speech Training, Aberdeen Education Authority.
Huddleston, Sir Arthur, C.M.G., O.B.E., Director, Royal Technical College, Glasgow.
Jardine, J., Esq. O.B.E., Principal Assistant Secretary, Scottish Education Department.
Kerr, W., Esq. Director of Studies, Glasgow Training Centre.
Lamb, J. G., Esq., H.M. Inspector of Schools.
Lang, A., Esq., formerly H.M. Senior Chief Inspector of Schools.
McAllister, Miss Anne A., D.Sc., Glasgow Training Centre.
McColl, R, Esq., Glasgow Training Centre.
McCourt, T. M., Esq., Edinburgh Training Centre.
MacKenzie, Alister, Esq., M.D., D.P.H., Glasgow Training Centre.
McLeod, Robert, Esq. O.B.E., Mus. Doc., Edinburgh.
Nimmo, A, M., Esq. Edinburgh Training Centre.
Peddie, J. R., Esq., C.B.E., D.Litt., Edinburgh.
Phemister, A. G., Organiser of Continuation Classes, Glasgow.
Pullen, O. J., Esq., Headmaster, Wallace Hall Academy, Closeburn, Dumfriesshire.
Reid, James, Esq., Aberdeen Training Centre.
Reid, R. A., Esq., Dundee Training Centre.
Robb, David, Esq., Dundee Training Centre.
Robertson, Miss Claire, Principal, Notre Dame Roman Catholic Training College, Glasgow.
Robertson, W. A., Esq., Ph.D., H.M. Senior Chief Inspector of Schools.
Skinner, Professor A. F., Ph.D., Director of Studies, Dundee Training Centre.
Smail, J. Cameron, Esq., O.B.E., LL.D., F.R.S.E., Principal, Heriot-Watt College, Edinburgh.
Smith, James, Esq., Organiser of Continuation Classes in Science and Technology for Glasgow and South-West Scotland.
Snodgrass, Neil S., Esq., St. Andrews University.
Thomson, Professor G. H., D.Sc., Ph.D., Director of Studies, Edinburgh Training Centre.
Walker, Norman T., Esq., Ph.D., Aberdeen University.
West, A. C., Esq. Ph.D., Director, Robert Gordon's Technical College, Aberdeen.
Young, Frank G., Esq., Principal, Dundee Technical College.

2. List of Bodies and Individuals who submitted Memoranda or Letters

EDUCATION AUTHORITY

Association of Councils of Counties of Cities in Scotland.

VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS

Aberdeen Training Centre, Staff of
British Women's Temperance Association.
Edinburgh Business and Professional Women's Club.
Edinburgh Training Centre, Staff of
Educational Institute of Scotland, Edinburgh Secondary District Technical Subjects Section of the
Film Institute, Scottish Film Council of the British
Heriot-Watt College Staff Association.
Labour Colleges, National Council of
Saltire Society.
Women Graduate Teachers' Association.
Women's Educational Union.

INDIVIDUALS

Allan, Mrs. E. F., Rhos-on-Sea, North Wales.
Anderson, Arthur R., Esq. F.S.A. Scot., Glasgow.
Belfield, Mrs. M. H., Musselburgh.
Blair, L., Esq., Glasgow.
Cameron, Miss E. A., Rutherglen.
Cooke, John, Esq., Glasgow.
Fisher, Mrs. E. G., Dumfries.
Galbraith, Daniel, Esq., Dumfries.
Grant, Murray, Esq., Edinburgh.
Grant, Terence J., Esq., Bothwell, Lanarkshire.
Ingram, Mrs. J., North Berwick.
Leitch, Hugh M., Esq. Eaglesham.
Lockhart, J. Gordon, Esq., Glasgow.
Maclarty, Miss Annie, M.B.E., F.E.I.S., Kilmarnock.


[page 75]

Macleod. R. B., Esq., Headmaster, Oakbank School, Aberdeen.
Macpherson, John A., Esq., Portobello, Midlothian.
Maynard, Miss Emily, Edinburgh.
Mitchell, M. C. Dykes, Esq., Edinburgh.
Murray, Mrs. M. T., Edinburgh.
Pearson, A. L., Esq., D.Sc., Edinburgh.
Robb, G. A., Esq., Newtown St. Boswells, Roxburgh.
Rutherford, William A., Esq., Kelso.
Skinner, A. G., Esq., Dundee,
Smith, Miss Jessie S., Aberdeen.
Spalding, Mrs. E. L., Glasgow.
Thomson, P., Esq., Edinburgh.
Waldrum, Mrs. Constance, Edinburgh.
Wilson, Mrs. Maud A., Edinburgh.

APPENDIX II

SPECIALIST TEACHERS

1. SPECIALISTS IN ART

(1) The Present Courses

1. Students who have taken an approved diploma followed by a course of professional training of two terms receive a qualification to teach art, or any branch of art to which the diploma is relative. The diplomas taken by intending teachers are, in order of frequency, drawing and painting, design, architecture; and the duration of the diploma course is four or five years.

(2) Recommendations

2. We agree with the general opinion of our witnesses that the diplomas which are at present accepted should continue to be accepted; and that these provide an adequate technical preparation for the teaching of art up to the highest classes in a senior secondary school. If a special teacher's course should be instituted, we are of opinion that it could profitably include a university course in Fine Art together with some study of the art departments of museums.

3. Under our proposed principle that the technical requirement should be the possession of an approved diploma or an equivalent qualification, it should be possible to admit to training artists, without a diploma, who have had successful experience in any suitable form of art work. Such candidates would normally have to take certain classes at an art college and a university, and the length of the course should be decided in conformity with the individual circumstances.

4. The course of professional training should be extended to the equivalent of one year of full-time study.

2. SPECIALISTS IN MUSIC

(1) The Present Courses

5. The technical requirement is the possession of the diploma (or degree) of a university or other recognised institution, and a list of the degrees and diplomas that are accepted is given in the Prospectus of General Information issued by the National Committee. They are of varying range and standard. Many can be taken without attendance at an institution of musical education, and some can be obtained at such an age that it is possible to qualify as a specialist teacher of music at the age of 18 years and 6 months. All applicants for admission to training must have adequate facility in singing, pianoforte playing and harmony.

6. The course of professional training is taken after obtaining the degree or diploma, and extends to two terms for a qualification in one branch, of music or to three terms for a qualification in two branches. The branches in which the qualification is most commonly granted are class-singing and pianoforte.

(2) The Arrangements for Instruction in Music in Schools

7. Some specialists in music teach only singing; others are employed wholly in giving instruction in instrumental music to individual pupils or to small groups of pupils; others deal with both vocal and instrumental music. The music specialist often supervises the musical work of the primary department, and he is expected to play a leading part in the general musical life of the school, being responsible for the organisation of school choirs and orchestras.

8. While this variety of function necessitates a measure of specialisation in the qualifications of music teachers, we recommend that candidates should have a general musical training and that the specialisation should be only on the instrumental side.


[page 76]

If a school staff did not have a teacher competent to teach a particular instrument the instruction of the pupils concerned could be provided by the part-time employment of private teachers or visiting teachers.

(3) The Normal Courses Recommended

9. It follows from the above recommendation that a course specially designed to meet the needs of teachers is particularly desirable in the case of music. It should be taken by full-time attendance at an approved institution of higher musical education, and the technical part of the preparation should extend to the equivalent of three years of full-time study. The professional training, extending to the equivalent of one year of full-time study, should be taken concurrently; so that the total length of the course of preparation would be four years. We are informed that a course of this type will shortly be available at the Royal Scottish Academy of Music, and we recommend that this should be the normal course taken by candidates for the qualification in music.

10. We recommend that a post-graduate or post-diploma course should also be available. Its normal duration should be one year, and it should be open to graduates in music of Scottish or other approved universities and to holders of certain carefully selected diplomas, some of which may have been obtained without three years' attendance at an institution of higher musical education. Only such degrees and diplomas should be accepted as have a direct relation to school music requirements, and if necessary the course of training should be extended to allow the candidate to supplement his attainments on the technical side.

(4) Special Course for Teachers already qualified to Teach General Subjects in Primary Schools

11. Under the present system, a student who has completed a course of training for the Teacher's General Certificate* and has one of the accepted diplomas in music may obtain the Chapter VI* qualification in music by taking an additional course of one term. All our witnesses were agreed as to the value of this type of teacher, and we recommend that the avenue be left open, subject to the following conditions: (1) that the student has taken the special course in music during the training as a teacher of general subjects in primary schools, (2) that the diplomas to be accepted for this purpose, which need not be of so high a standard as those required for admission to the one-year post-diploma course, be carefully selected by the training authorities, and (3) that the additional course of professional training be extended to one year.

(5) General

12. All candidates for admission to training for the specialist teacher's certificate in music should be required to satisfy the training authorities as to their proficiency in singing, pianoforte playing and harmony, and training institutions should be so staffed that lecturers in music have adequate opportunities to supervise the teaching practice of their specialist students.

3. SPECIALISTS IN AGRICULTURE AND RELATED SUBJECTS

(1) The Present Training Arrangements

13. Up to now the demand for specialist teachers of agriculture has been small, but it is likely to increase considerably.

14. Agricultural courses in schools are sometimes conducted by teachers, without the Teacher's Technical Certificate, who have a Chapter V* qualification in a suitable science subject, such as botany, together with qualifications undler Article 39* in related sciences. Provision is made in the Regulations for a Chapter V qualification in agriculture, the technical requirement for which is an honours degree of the first or second class in agriculture, but the number of students who have taken this qualification is negligible.

15. For the Chapter VI* qualification the technical requirement is the possession of the diploma of a recognised college of agriculture or the degree in agriculture of a Scottish or other approved university, and the qualification granted is in agriculture, or horticulture, or any branch of rural economy to which the diploma or degree is relative. The duration of the course for an ordinary degree of B.Sc. in agriculture of a Scottish university is three years, and the diploma courses in the agricultural colleges extend to two or three years. The course of professional training, which is two terms in length, is always taken after obtaining the degree or diploma.

16. The agricultural colleges offer two-year diploma courses in dairying and poultry-keeping; and a course of three years leading to qualification in both subjects. A few students have taken the Chapter VI* certificate in these subjects, but such instruction as is given in them in day schools is provided mainly by local instructors of the colleges of agriculture.

*See footnote to paragraph 6 of the Report.


[page 77]

(2) Recommendations

17. Our recommendations are based on the view that the teaching of agriculture and related subjects in a narrow technical sense should not find a place in day schools. Agricultural courses should deal largely with the basic sciences, but with a definite bias towards agriculture which would be intensified in the higher forms.

18. Such courses could safely be entrusted to teachers with the specialist teacher's certificate in a suitable science subject and a qualification for the teaching of related sciences to the younger secondary classes, provided that they have a sufficient agricultural background. The latter could be taken for granted if the student has been brought up on a farm: other students could obtain it by periods of work on a farm during vacations.

19. We recommend that an honours or ordinary degree in agriculture of a Scottish or other approved university be accepted as satisfying the technical requirement for the specialist teacher's certificate in agriculture: but if the degree course does not include a period of practical work on a farm this should be taken in addition to the normal university and training courses. The professional training should extend to the equivalent of one year of full-time study.

20. We agree with the opinion of the great majority of our witnesses that the present diploma courses available at the agricultural colleges do not adequately prepare a teacher to teach agriculture up to the highest class in a senior secondary course; they are adapted mainly to the needs of young farmers and are too narrowly vocational in aim. We therefore recommend that they should not be accepted as satisfying the technical requirement for the specialist teacher's certificate, but that the agricultural colleges, in conference with the training authorities and the veterinary colleges, should consider the possibility of the establishment, at one or more centres, of a diploma course specially designed for teachers. The course should be of the concurrent type, and the total duration, including technical preparation, farm experience and professional training, should be not less than four years. It should be of a comprehensive character, including some instruction in all the main related branches, horticulture, forestry, dairying, poultry-keeping and bee-keeping. If highly specialised instruction in any of these related subjects should be necessary it could be provided by the employment of part-time specialists, and provision should be made for teachers to extend their knowledge of these subjects through courses for the further instruction of teachers in service. An alternative suggestion that the diploma course should provide for a measure of specialisation as in domestic subjects did not find favour with our witnesses.

21. All courses leading to the specialist teacher's certificate in agriculture should include some instruction in rural economy as described in paragraph 87 of the Report.

4. SPECIALISTS IN COMMERCIAL SUBJECTS

(1) The Present Training Arrangements

22. The technical requirement for the Teacher's Technical Certificate in commercial subjects is the possession of the diploma of a recognised commercial college or the degree in commerce of a Scottish or other approved university.

23. Degrees in Commerce (B.Com.) are awarded by the University of Edinburgh, and although powers to award degrees exist at Aberdeen and St. Andrews they are not in active operation. Degree courses do not include shorthand and typewriting, and no provision is made for practical office experience. In view of this, the Regulations for the Training of Teachers, as amended, require that a course of professional training shall not normally be begun, unless the candidate has satisfied the training authority of his proficiency in shorthand, typewriting and book-keeping.

24. The only centre with a recognised diploma course is the Glasgow and West of Scotland Commercial College. Intending teachers are advised to take a special diploma course extending over three years, in which shorthand, typewriting, book-keeping and practical office experience are included. A student who has not a pass on the higher grade in commercial subjects or economics in his Senior Leaving Certificate may require four years.

25. The course of professional training, which is of two terms, is almost always taken after obtaining the degree or diploma.

(2) Recommendations

26. We recommend that the technical preparation for the specialist teacher's certificate in commercial subjects should be taken by attendance at a course at a recognised commercial college or at a university. The former course, which should be specially designed to meet the needs of teachers, should be based on the course at present offered at the Glasgow and West of Scotland Commercial College; and it should include shorthand, typewriting, book-keeping and a period of not less than one year of approved business


[page 78]

experience. Consideration should be given to the possibility of broadening the present course on the cultural and economic sides and of arranging that certain classes should be taken at a university. The content and character of the course should be determined by the authorities of the commercial college in consultation with the training authorities. While we realise that there are special difficulties in the case of commercial subjects in that three institutions would be concerned and that a period of office experience would have to be included, we are of opinion that the professional training find technical preparation should be taken concurrently.

27. The degree in commerce of a Scottish or other approved university should also be approved as satisfying the technical requirements. Before entering upon their year of professional training, graduates in commerce should be required to have had a period of not less than one year of approved business experience and to satisfy the training authorities that they have reached a sufficient standard in shorthand, typewriting, book-keeping and commercial practice. We understand that the National Committee (Scotland) for Commercial Certificates propose to institute a special examination for teachers of commercial subjects which would be suitable for this purpose.

5. SPECIALISTS IN DOMESTIC SUBJECTS

(1) The Present Training Arrangements

28. The main subjects included in the three diplomas of a college of domestic science which satisfy the technical requirements are as follows:

Diploma I. Cookery, laundrywork, housewifery and needlework.
Diploma II. Needlework, dressmaking, millinery and home crafts.
Diploma Ill. Cookery, laundrywork, housewifery, needlework, dressmaking.
These diplomas are taken almost wholly by intending teachers and the total duration of the course of technical and professional preparation is three years for Diploma I or Diploma II, and four years for Diploma III. In the Edinburgh College of Domestic Science all courses are of the concurrent type: in other colleges only certain courses are concurrent or partly concurrent.

(2) Recommendations

29. We recommend that the present three types of diploma should continue to be accepted, but we suggest that the domestic science college authorities should reconsider the combinations of subjects for the diplomas in the light of the changing needs of the schools. Diplomas I and II require different aptitudes, which are not always combined in the same student, and the present arrangement is suited to the staffing requirements of Scottish schools. In certain of the smaller secondary schools the amount of work in domestic science may not be sufficient to warrant the appointment of two specialists, but the needs of such schools could be met by the employment of visiting teachers or of teachers with Diploma III.

30. The present courses for the diplomas fall short of modern requirements in two ways. In the first place the professional training should be extended to the full equivalent of one year of full-time study for all students: in the second place all courses should, as we have recommended in paragraph 119 of the Report, provide for the continuance of the student's general education and for the cultivation of some cultural interests that have no direct professional bearing. We therefore recommend that the total length of the course be four years for students taking Diploma I or Diploma II and five years for those taking Diploma III.

5. SPECIALISTS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION

(1) The Present Training Arrangements

31. The preparation for Chapter VI* qualification in physical education is taken at the Scottish School of Physical Education and Hygiene (for Men), Jordanhill, Glasgow, or at the Dunfermline College of Hygiene and Physical Education (for Women). These institutions are under the management of the National Committee. The course, which is of three years' duration and of the concurrent type, leads to a diploma in physical education and to the Teacher's Technical Certificate in physical education. Both institutions also offer a one-year course leading to the same qualifications which is open to men and women who hold the Teacher's General or Special Certificate.*

(2) A Special Problem in the Training of Specialist Teachers of Physical Education

32. Many women specialists in physical education, and a smaller proportion of the men, find that on reaching the age of about 50 years their efficiency has begun to decline and that if they were to carry on with this strenuous work it would be to the detriment of

*See footnote to paragraph 6 of the Report.


[page 79]

their own health and professional satisfaction and to the educational disadvantage of their pupils. Resignation would, however, entail serious financial hardship through loss of salary and reduction or even loss of pension. While it is true that a large number of women teachers of physical education leave the profession on account of marriage and other reasons before reaching the age of 50, the problem is serious.

33. We are informed that it would be extremely difficult to change the Superannuation Scheme in such a way as to allow teachers of physical education to retire with a pension at all earlier age than 60. With the present scale of contributions it has been actuarially estimated that retirement even at 55 would allow only about 72 per cent of the pension payable on the full scale, and this reduction would be additional to that which follows from the fact that the teacher would have five years less pensionable service. To secure payment of an acceptable pension at 55 it would therefore be necessary to increase substantially the scale of contributions. Further difficulties would arise in connection with disablement pensions and with the reciprocity between the Scottish and English Schemes.

34. We are of opinion that the difficulty can be best met by so planning the course of training that the teacher will be able, at the age of about 50, to transfer to some form of service, preferably recognised for the purposes of the Superannuation Scheme, that will not involve so heavy a physical strain. Some teachers will no doubt find posts as supervisors, inspectresses, or organisers in connection with clubs, recreative physical education or training schemes for youth; though authorities may hesitate to appoint to the latter types of post teachers who have lost some of the energy and enthusiasm of youth. Others, perhaps after a short period of further training, may be employed in physiotherapy, remedial work, rehabilitation, occupational therapy, massage and medical gymnastics. With the modification in the course of training which we recommend some will, we hope, be able to transfer to the teaching of other school subjects. When a further period of training is necessary we recommend that the teacher be granted full salary during attendance at the training course.

(3) The Normal Course Recommended

35. We recommend that the normal course of preparation should be a combined course of technical and professional training taken at the Scottish School of Physical Education and Hygiene (for Men) or the Dunfermline College of Hygiene and Physical Education (for Women) (see paragraph 41 below). The course should be extended to four years to provide for - (1) a broadening of the student's general culture, (2) a fuller training in methods appropriate to primary schools and junior colleges, (3) the obtaining of a partial qualification to teach some other subject than physical education. The plans for providing a partial qualification for some other branch of teaching will have to be worked out, but we give a few examples to illustrate the kind of arrangement we have in mind. (1) A student with a diploma in music could take some methods and practice in that subject. (2) In view of the broadening of the course which we have recommended, it should be possible to give a partial qualification for the teaching of general subjects in primary schools. The student would have had a course in English. Attendance at one or more suitably chosen classes at the university could be arranged, together with a short course of primary training for a limited age range and a limited group of subjects. (3) Courses could be planned which would lead to a qualification to teach a limited number of subjects to younger secondary classes. If a university class in a science subject were taken in addition to the courses in anatomy, physiology and hygiene already included in the course, the student would be qualified to assist with some of the science teaching in secondary schools, or with the work of the hygiene, mothercraft and pre-nursing classes. (4) To meet the needs of students who are not interested in ordinary primary or secondary teaching, other directions of specialisation could be arranged to give a partial qualification for one of the lines of work mentioned in the preceding paragraph.

36. We are of opinion that it would not be practicable to allow any student, within the four-year course, to take the full qualification for the teaching of general subjects in primary schools: nor can we recommend that a course leading to this double qualification should be made the normal one. Such an arrangement would not commend itself to the majority of the students, many of whom have little taste for academic studies and will never teach any subject other than physical education. It would therefore have an adverse effect on supply. On the other hand, we feel that it would be an advantage if a five-year course were available for such students as desire to take the double qualification.

37. In the case of specialists in physical education with these partial qualifications there should not be too strict an insistence upon the normal requirements for the teaching of subjects; and they should be allowed to do a certain amount of teaching of the additional subjects all through their careers. Provision should also be made for allowing them to supplement their partial qualifications by attendance at courses for the further instruction of teachers in service or at courses of full-time training.

38. Along these lines it should be possible for a large proportion of the physical education specialists whose energies are declining about the age of 50 to find suitable


[page 80]

niches in the education service during the remaining years of their professional lives. To meet the needs of the growing number of existing teachers in this category we recommend that facilities be provided, through Article 55* classes or by granting leave of absence on full salary to attend full-time courses, by which they will be able to obtain partial qualifications of the types indicated above.

(4) Course for Teachers already Qualified to Teach General Subjects in Primary Schools

39. We were informed that many of those who have taken the present one-year course open to certificated teachers have done extremely good work and risen to posts of responsibility: and this is an avenue into the ranks of specialist teachers of physical education that we should be reluctant to close. On the other hand it is clearly impossible, even when allowance is made for the parts of the training which are common to the two courses, that the technical preparation in the one-year course could be as full as that given in the normal four-year course. This difficulty can be partly met by our previous recommendations that a fuller course of training in this important subject be given in all courses for teachers of general subjects in primary schools and that physical education should be one of the directions of specialisation open to students who take these courses. We therefore recommend that men or women who have specialised in physical education in their course of training as teachers of general subjects in primary schools should be able to obtain the qualification as specialist teacher of physical education by taking an additional course of one year.

(5) Extension of the Provision for the Training of Specialists in Physical Education

40. The statistics given in our previous Report show that the present facilities will not be adequate to meet the future needs of the schools and junior colleges, and we recommend that the training authorities should give early consideration to an extension of the provision both for men and for women.

(6) Location of the Women's College of Physical Education

41. The normal course which we have recommended could be provided only if the college of physical education is close to a training institution, university and other institutions of higher education. Dunfermline is an unsuitable centre from this point of view, and it is open to other serious objections. Facilities for teaching practice, already barely sufficient, will be quite inadequate in the future when the number of students is increased; students are isolated from those preparing for other callings; and inconvenience and loss of time are caused by the necessity of travelling to Edinburgh for certain parts of the training. While we realise that a change would involve serious administrative difficulties, we recommend that the women's college of physical education should be transferred to one of the towns in which the training institutions are situated.

7. SPECIALISTS IN ENGINEERING AND OTHER BRANCHES OF TECHNICAL INDUSTRY

(1) The Present Training Arrangements

42. Under the present Regulations the Teacher's Technical Certificate† may be granted in a branch of applied science or technical industry, the technical requirement being the diploma of a central technical college or institute or the degree in applied science of a Scottish or other approved university. Provision is also made for a Chapter V† qualification in engineering which is open to students who have a university degree with first or second class honours in the subject.

43. The duration of the course of training for the Technical Certificate is two terms, and there is a somewhat anomalous arrangement under which the Technical Certificate and the General Certificate may be obtained in a course of one year and one term, the same length as that for the General Certificate only. The course of training for the Teacher's Special Certificate in engineering is one year.

(2) Recommendations

44. While the demand for teachers with this qualification has hitherto been very small, it may well increase with the development of junior colleges and of technical courses in secondary schools. We therefore recommend that provision be made for a specialist teacher's certificate in engineering or other branch of technical industry and that the technical requirement should be the possession of a suitable diploma of a central technical, college or institute or a suitable ordinary or honours degree in engineering or applied science of a Scottish or other approved university.

45. In addition to the course of professional training, which should extend to one year a period of trade experience should be required. Many of the teachers with this qualification could be employed to teach technical drawing and mechanics even though they have not the full qualification in technical subjects with which we deal in the next section.

*See second footnote to paragraph 96 of the Report.

†See footnote to paragraph 6 of the Report.


[page 81]

8. SPECIALISTS IN TECHNICAL SUBJECTS

(1) The Present Training Arrangements

46. The present Regulations provide for a Chapter Vl* qualification in educational handwork or a craft the basis of which is the diploma in educational handwork of a Provincial Committee for the Training of Teachers, or any other approved diploma or certificate, or sufficient attendance at a recognised course of instruction and satisfactory proof of craftsmanship. In practice, the course is always taken wholly in a training college, and it leads both to a diploma in educational handwork and to the Teacher's Technical Certificate. More than two-thirds of the entrants are youths who have completed an approved apprenticeship; and, generally speaking, such candidates are admitted if they have reached a standard of general education equivalent to that of the Junior Leaving Certificate. The remainder are pupils who have completed a course of study approved for the purpose of the Senior Leaving Certificate but have had no apprenticeship or other trade experience. Failure to obtain the Senior Leaving Certificate does not necessarily involve the rejection of such candidates. The normal duration of the course, which is of the concurrent type, is two years, but it is often extended to three if the candidate has not completed an approved apprenticeship. The main technical subjects included are handwork in wood and metal, technical drawing and mechanics. A small number of students take an additional course of one year leading to the Article 39* qualification in art.

(3) Nomenclature

47. The three subjects, educational handwork, technical drawing and mechanics form a related group which experience has shown to be well suited to the staffing requirements of Scottish schools. We recommend that the group should form one of the subjects in which the specialist teacher's certificate is granted, and that the name applied to it should be "Technical Subjects".

(3) The Need for Specialisation within the Group

48. Having in mind the different aptitudes demanded by the three subjects in this group, the advanced instruction for which the teacher will have to be prepared, and the necessity for including a period of trade experience in many of the courses, we are of opinion that it would not be feasible, in a course of reasonable length, to train candidates up to the full specialist standard in all of the subjects. We therefore recommend that there should be two types of specialist teacher's certificate in technical subjects. The first would qualify the teacher to teach educational handwork up to the highest class in a senior secondary school and technical drawing and mechanics to the younger classes: the second would qualify the teacher to teach technical drawing and mechanics up to the highest class in a senior secondary school and educational handwork to the younger classes. The courses for both types should include training for the teaching of educational handwork in primary schools.

49. We realise that in smaller secondary schools it would often not be possible to have specialists of both types. In such schools the teacher appointed should be one who has specialised in handwork; and assistance with the more advanced work in mechanics and technical drawing would normally be available from teachers on the staff of the science and mathematics departments.

(4) Entrance requirements

50. We recommend that the following categories of students be admitted to training for the specialist teacher's certificate in technical subjects:

(i) Students, without trade experience, who have a Senior Leaving Certificate or the equivalent. While any Leaving Certificate group should be accepted, it is desirable that the certificate should show passes on the higher grade in one or more of the following subjects: (1) technical subjects, (2) mathematics, (3) science; and training authorities should have power to extend the course of training if the Leaving Certificate group is not entirely suitable.

(ii) Students who have completed an approved apprenticeship, provided that they have reached a standard of general education equivalent to that of the present Junior Leaving Certificate. A special entrance examination should be available for such candidates, and the standard of general education required should be revised from time to time in the light of the development of educational facilities and the number of candidates coming forward.

(iii) Students with a National Certificate (Higher), a suitable university degree, or a suitable diploma of a central institution, provided that they have had experience in an approved trade amounting to not less than two years and that they have reached a standard in English equivalent to that of the present Junior Leaving Certificate.

*See footnote to paragraph 6 of the Report.


[page 82]

(5) Courses

(a) Students with Senior Leaving Certificate but without Trade Experience

51. The course of preparation should extend to four years, of which roughly three years should be devoted to technical preparation, including one year of trade experience in approved workshops, and one year to professional training. During the year of trade experience the student should be required to attend evening continuation classes or day trade classes. It should be open to students taking this course to specialise either in educational handwork or in technical drawing and mechanics.

(b) Students who have Completed an Approved Apprenticeship

52. Such students will fall into different categories. For those who have had merely a day school education up to the compulsory age, together with subsequent attendance at day continuation classes, the course should be three years. If, in addition, the student has a National Certificate (Ordinary) or a City and Guilds Final Grade Certificate the course should be two years. It is desirable that most, if not all, of the students in this category should specialise in educational handwork,

(c) Students with National Certificate (Higher), a suitable University Degree, or a suitable Diploma of a Central Institution

53. The course of training should be one year, and should be devoted to professional training, with such supplementation on the craft side as may be found necessary. It should lead to specialisation either in educational handwork or in technical drawing and mechanics.

(6) Co-operation with Technical Colleges

54. While the courses should be planned by the training institutions, those which involve technical preparation should be run in close association with the technical colleges, partly to avoid duplication of courses and equipment and partly to give the students the advantages of participation in the life of these colleges. We recommend that co-operation between the training institutions and the technical colleges in this matter should be the subject of conference between the training authorities and the authorities of the technical colleges.

(7) Conditions of Service

55. It is desirable to attract into this branch of the teaching profession men who have had a considerable amount of industrial experience and who will therefore enter the profession at a relatively late age. Steps should be taken to safeguard the interests of such teachers by suitable placing on salary scales.

(8) Centralisation of the Training of Specialist Teachers of Technical Subjects

56. We have given careful consideration to suggestions that the training of specialists in technical subjects should be centralised either in one of the training centres or in a separate college of handicraft. It was pointed out that the number of students taking this training at some of the centres is relatively small and that, if the training were centralised, it would be possible to have a more adequate standard of staffing and equipment.

57. Centralisation would clearly be impracticable in the early post-war period; for the resources of the existing handwork departments will then be strained to the utmost. Thereafter, we estimate that the total number of students in the handwork departments will be in the neighbourhood of 220, a number which, in our view, would be sufficiently large to justify the retention of fully equipped and staffed departments in each of the four centres. It has also to be borne in mind that the requirements in regard to staff and equipment will be affected if effect is given to our recommendation that full use should be made of the resources of the technical colleges.

58. There are serious objections of a general educational nature to the policy of centralisation. Segregation of teachers of a special type during training should be avoided. The free association of craftsmen, primary teachers and specialists in academic subjects is to the advantage of all. Students of such subjects as handwork, art and music are invaluable in the corporate educational life of a training institution and in college projects; if they were centralised in one college, the life of the others would be seriously impoverished.

59. A policy of centralisation also leads to administrative difficulties. Students feel it to be a hardship that they have to go to a distant city for a training that could be provided in their own. The tendency is to centralise in the larger centres, partly because they are geographically more convenient and partly because they have more adequate facilities for teaching practice for large numbers of students. As a result, the large centres tend to become too large, while the smaller ones are depleted.

60. For these reasons we are unable to recommend that the training of specialist teachers of technical subjects should be centralised.


[page 83]

APPENDIX III

TEACHERS OF HANDICAPPED CHILDREN

1. TEACHERS OF THE BLIND

(1) The Present Training Arrangements

1. Two types of course are offered. The first is provided under Article 32(a) of, the Regulations and is open to blind or partially blind persons. The course, which is provided in connection with a school or institution for blind children, extends to three years in the case of non-graduating women and to one year and one term in the case of graduates. It leads to it qualification as "Certificated Teacher of the Blind", but students who take the course are not entitled to rank as "Certificated Teachers" for ordinary schools. The second type of course, which is provided under Article 51 of the Regulations, is open to teachers who hold the Teacher's General Certificate, and extends to one year. It leads to an endorsement of qualification to act as teachers of blind children. In the meantime all training of teachers of the blind is centralised in Edinburgh.

(2) Supply of Teachers of the Blind

2. As the number of children in Scotland, between the ages of 3 and 18, who require education by blind methods is under two hundred, the total number of teachers required at any one time is unlikely to exceed twenty. There are, however, many children so handicapped visually that education in ordinary schools would be detrimental to their sight or educational development. The number of such children is estimated to be 800-1,000, and if, as seems desirable, they were educated in central residential schools, the total number of teachers of the blind required at any one time would be about eighty.

3. While certain parts of the instruction of blind children may well be undertaken by blind teachers, such teachers are subject to physical limitations which no zeal or skill on their part can fully compensate, and we recommend that there should be a considerable increase in the proportion of seeing teachers of the blind. Great care should also be used in the selection of blind or partially blind candidates for entrance upon training. In no circumstances should the proportion of blind teachers to seeing teachers in a school for blind children exceed 50 per cent.

(3) Recommendations in regard to Courses of Training

4. We recommend that seeing teachers of the blind should take one of the ordinary teacher's diplomas followed by a period of service with normal children. Such teachers should be regarded as qualified to enter upon service in a school for the blind; but during their first two years they should be required to attend two vacation courses, of about three weeks each, in which they would receive instruction in methods of teaching the blind, history of blind education, physical and psychological problems of blind children; handwork, physical training, leisure activities, etc. We were assured by our expert witnesses that the training could be adequately covered in this way and that the arrangement would be more suitable than one under which the teacher had to return for a full-time course of training. On the satisfactory completion of the two vacation courses, the teacher would receive an endorsement of recognition as "Certificated Teacher of the Blind". A similar arrangement could be made in the case of teachers of visually handicapped children.

5. For blind teachers, we recommend that there should be a special course of training of the same length and as far as possible of the same character as that taken by teachers of normal children. It should be arranged in association with an institution for the blind and should lead to the qualification of "Blind Certificated Teacher of the Blind".

6. The training of blind adults is largely in the hands of technical instructors, frequently the foremen of workshops for the blind, and we recommend that they should have some special training for this work. It should be provided in a short course taken in the evenings or in vacations, and the instructors should be required to possess the Craft Instructor's Diploma of the College of Teachers of the Blind.

7. We recommend that the training of teachers of the blind should for the present continue to be centralised in Edinburgh.

2. TEACHERS OF THE DEAF

(1) The Present Training Arrangements

8. Under the present Regulations students may train for the qualification of "Certificated Teacher of the Deaf" without experience of the teaching of normal children. A woman student may take a non-graduate course of three years for the Teacher's General Certificate, and thereafter proceed to the special one-year course offered by the Department of Education of the Deaf of the University of Manchester. A graduate may obtain the Teacher's General Certificate and recognition as "Certificated Teacher of the Deaf" by taking a course of one year and one term, of which one year is spent at the Manchester course and one term in a Scottish training College.


[page 84]

9. Certificated teachers and other teachers who have displayed special aptitude as teachers of the deaf may also obtain recognition as "Certificated Teachers of the Deaf" by taking the one-year course at Manchester. Leave of absence for the year, usually with full or half salary, is granted by the teacher's employing authority. Maintenance allowances are granted by the National Committee for the Training of Teachers in exceptional circumstances.

10. The tuition fee for the Manchester course is met by the National Committee in all the above cases, and the granting of the recognition as "Certificated Teacher of the Deaf" is subject to the successful completion of a two-year period of probationary service in a recognised school for the deaf.

11. Provision is also made whereby persons who have had no reasonable opportunity of qualifying in the above ways, but have served with success in schools or institutions for the deaf approved for the purpose, and are fully competent to have sole and responsible charge of the education of deaf children, may be recognised as "Certificated Teachers of the Deaf".

(2) Supply of Teachers of the Deaf

12. From the point of view of hearing, children are divided into the following grades:

Grade I. Children with normal hearing, together with those whose hearing defect is so slight as not to interfere with their education in ordinary schools;

Grade II (a). Children who can make satisfactory progress in ordinary schools, provided they are given some help, by way of favourable position in class, by the use of individual hearing aids, or by tuition in lip-reading;

Grade II (b). Children who fail to make satisfactory progress in ordinary schools though given all the help advocated for Grade II (a) children; and

Grade III. Children whose hearing is so defective and whose speech and language are so little developed that they require education by methods used for deaf children who are without naturally acquired speech or language.

13. The existing provision relates almost wholly to Grade III children, the number of whom is estimated to be about 700, and the annual demand for teachers is about four. If the Grade II (b) children, estimated to number between 2,000 and 4,000, were provided for in separate schools and taught by qualified teachers of the deaf, an additional eight to sixteen teachers would be required annually. To meet the needs of children in Grade II (a) a reasonable number of teachers qualified in lip-reading should be provided.

(3) Recommendations in regard to Courses of Training

14. For the reasons given in paragraph 131 of the Report, we are unable to recommend the continuance of the arrangement under which training for the teaching of the deaf may be taken as part of, or immediately following, a course for a teacher's certificate. Students desiring to enter this branch of the profession should first take the full course of training for the teaching of general subjects in primary schools or for the specialist teacher's certificate. After a period of service with normal pupils they should qualify as teachers of the deaf by attendance at the one-year course at Manchester University. Teachers should be selected and seconded at full salary, the year should count as service for superannuation purposes, and the tuition fees of approved candidates should be paid by the National Committee for the Training of Teachers or their successors. It should be permissible for the authorities of a school or institution for the deaf to appoint teachers who have not yet undergone the special training, but they should be seconded for attendance at the Manchester course as soon as possible.

15. We recommend that the need for teachers qualified in lip-reading be met, in the meantime, by the provision of sessional or vacation classes for certificated teachers in service.

3. TEACHERS FOR SPECIAL SCHOOLS AND CLASSES

(1) The Present Provision of Special Schools and Classes

16. The education of physically and mentally defective children (exclusive of children in institutions under the administration of the General Board of Control for Scotland) is provided partly in residential schools, partly in special day schools, and partly in special classes in ordinary schools. A considerable proportion of these schools and classes provide both for mentally defective and for physically defective children.

17. The physically defective children include:

(a) Children suffering from temporary loss of health, but likely to regain normal health after being for a limited period in a day or residential school;

[page 85]

(b) Children suffering from some chronic ailment or deformity which is likely to be permanent; and

(c) Children other than the blind and the deaf, suffering from defects of vision, hearing and speech.

(2) The Present Training Arrangements

18. No provision is made for the training of teachers of physically defective children. For teachers of mentally defective children a special course of fourteen weeks is offered at the Glasgow Training Centre. Teachers of 40 years or under who have satisfactorily completed their probationary period are selected for this training by their education authorities. Full salary is paid during attendance, and it has been the practice of the National Committee to remit the fees. The course, which is organised under Article 51 of the Regulations, leads to an endorsement of special qualification as "Teacher of Mentally Defective Children".

(3) Recommendations

19. As the teacher who enters this special field may have to deal both with physically defective children and with mentally defective children, we recommend that the course of training should cover both sides. It should extend to four months, the first three months being devoted to the education of both types and the fourth month to specialisation for one type. Some instruction in the problems of residential schools should be included. The conditions of admission and method of selection of entrants should be those at present applied to teachers of mentally defective children; and, in the meantime, the course should be centralised at the Glasgow Centre.

4. TEACHERS FOR DULL, RETARDED AND PROBLEM CHILDREN

20. Increase in the educational provision for dull, retarded and problem children and, young persons in schools and junior colleges will necessitate a special training for this type of work. It could be provided either by a short full-time course for selected teachers, or by evening or vacation courses, or by both methods.

5. TEACHERS FOR APPROVED SCHOOLS

(1) The Present Position

21. There are twenty-five approved schools in Scotland, sixteen for boys and nine for girls. In four of the schools the pupils of school age attend the ordinary day schools in the area, and in some of the others this arrangement is made for certain selected pupils only. When instruction in general primary subjects is provided within the approved school it is given by certificated teachers who have had no special training for the work. The older pupils are trained in such practical occupations as carpentry, shoemaking, cookery, and gardening by craft instructors with no professional preparation. The majority of the pupils in these approved schools are seriously retarded, often by as much as two years, and a small proportion are near or under the borderline for mental defect.

22. The conditions to which we refer in paragraph 130 of the Report apply specially to teachers in approved schools; in particular there should be more opportunities for promotion to positions in ordinary schools.

(2) Recommendations

23. While we have recommended that all courses for teachers of general subjects in primary schools should include some instruction in methods of handling handicapped children, we are of opinion that additional special training is necessary for teachers of general subjects in approved schools. Such special training should include a fuller preparation in the use of individual work methods and methods for small groups, in the education of dull, retarded, and mentally defective children, in the psychology of such children, and in the technique of mental testing. Supervised teaching practice in approved schools should be included, and there should be some instruction in the conditions and problems of residential institutions. For these teachers the knowledge of social conditions and of educational and welfare agencies to which we have referred in Chapter II is particularly important. In selecting candidates for training, special attention should be paid to qualities of personality.

24. We recommend that the additional training, which should be taken by selected certificated teachers who have had a period of service in ordinary day schools, should be provided by means of (1) a three-month full-time course centralised at one of the training centres, or (2) two vacation classes of three weeks each to be attended in successive years immediately after the teacher has been appointed to an approved school.

25. Instruction in physical education in approved schools should be given by teachers with the specialist teacher's certificate in the subject. The same arrangement could be made in domestic subjects, provided that the teachers are willing to take an appropriate part in the clay to day running of the school. Instruction in art and music will normally


[page 86]

be provided by visiting specialists; and for more advanced instruction in school subjects attendance at outside schools should be arranged. Craft instruction in these schools is best given by first-rate craftsmen who are not certificated teachers, but we recommend that such instructors should take a short evening or vacation course in methods of teaching.

6. PROVISION FOR CHILDREN WITH DEFECTS OF SPEECH

26. Children with defects of speech should first be examined by a fully qualified speech therapist who may be associated with a child guidance clinic. Training for speech therapists is now available, but as such officers are regarded as members of the medical auxiliary service they do not come within the scope of our remit. After examination by the speech therapist certain pupils will no doubt be treated in child guidance clinics, while others may be sent to special schools or classes. Of those who are allowed to remain in the ordinary schools a number may require special exercises over a lengthy period, and if these cannot be carried out by the speech therapist it would be an advantage if, in large schools, there were teacher therapists who could deal with the children individually or in small groups. For the training of teacher therapists we recommend that a special course of two terms be provided for teachers selected and seconded by education authorities on the general conditions already indicated. The course should, in the meantime, be centralised at one of the training centres.

7. CHILD GUIDANCE

27. It is possible that in the future development of the child guidance service, there will be a place for certificated teachers with special training who will give assistance, either in their spare time or as part of their ordinary duties. A three-term course for such teachers has already been held at the Glasgow Centre. We recommend that courses of this kind, whose character and duration should be reconsidered from time to time, should continue to be offered and should lead to an endorsement of qualification for child guidance work.

APPENDIX IV

ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCE

1. PRESENT ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEES

(1) The National Committee for the Training of Teachers

1. The National Committee consists of forty-five members elected by the Education Authorities from amongst the members of their Education Committees, and it is reconstituted after each new election of the Education Authorities. As a rule it meets only once a year, its main business in the past having been (1) to appoint a Chairman who is also Chairman of the Central Executive Committee, (2) to appoint certain members from their own number to serve on the Central Executive Committee, and (3) to receive and consider a report by the Central Executive Committee on the work of the session.

(2) The Central Executive Committee

2. The National Committee acts through a Central Executive Committee which consists of twenty-one members appointed as follows:

(1) The Chairman of the National Committee (ex officio);

(2) The Chairmen of the Provincial Committees and Committees of Management; but if the Chairman of the National Committee should be also the Chairman of a Provincial Committee or Committee of Management, the Vice-Chairman of the Provincial Committee or Committee of Management is (ex officio) a member of the Central Executive Committee;

(3) Ten members appointed from amongst their own number by the National Committee, including at least one from amongst the members of each Provincial Committee;

(4) Two members appointed from amongst their own number by the teachers' representatives on the Provincial Committees;

(5) One member appointed from amongst their own number by the representatives of the Education Committee of the Church of Scotland on the Provincial Committees.

3. Generally speaking, the Central Executive Committee, subject to any rules and instructions made by the National Committee for its guidance, exercises all the powers and duties assigned to the National Committee.


[page 87]

(3) The Provincial Committees

4. The National Committee delegates the management of the four Training Centres to Provincial Committees for the Training of Teachers, on each of which the same interests are represented. The composition of the Glasgow Provincial Committee, which manages the Glasgow Training Centre and also the Scottish School of Physical Education and Hygiene (for Men), is as follows:

(1) Eighteen members, being the members elected to serve upon the National Committee by the Education Authorities in the Glasgow Province;

(2) Four members appointed by the University Court of Glasgow University;

(3) Three members representing the following institutions:

The Royal Technical College,
The Glasgow and West of Scotland College of Domestic Science,
The Glasgow School of Art,
The Glasgow and West of Scotland Commercial College,
The West of Scotland Agricultural College.
The three members are elected jointly by the Chairmen of the Governors of these institutions (or representatives appointed by them) at a meeting convened for the purpose by the Chairman of the Governors of the Royal Technical College;

(4) Four members appointed by the Educational Institute of, Scotland from amongst persons actively engaged in the work of education in schools within the district served by the Glasgow Training Centre;

(5) Five members appointed by the Education Committee of the Church of Scotland;

(6) Any member appointed in terms of section 6 (b) of the Training of Teachers (Constitution of Committees) Amending Minute, 1934. This section provides that where it becomes necessary or expedient to discontinue a denominational training college there may be appointed by the relative church or denominational body one representative to each or any of the Provincial Committees, provided that during the discontinuance there is no other college held and managed in the interest of the church or denominational body concerned, and provided further that at the date of discontinuance there are within the district served by such Provincial Committee not less than ten schools transferred or established under section 18 of the Education (Scotland) Act, 1918, in which the teachers are required to be approved, as regards religious belief and character by the said church or denominational body.

5. The Director of Studies of each Training Centre acts as Executive Officer of the relative Provincial Committee.

(4) The Committees of Management

6. The National Committee delegates the management of the three Training Colleges to Committees of Management. The Committees of Management of the two Roman Catholic Training Colleges consist of:

(1) Five members elected by the Catholic Education Council of Great Britain, of whom one must be a woman teacher actively engaged in the work of education in schools, and nominated by the Association of Catholic Teachers in Scotland;

(2) Three members elected by the Provincial Committee for the Province in which the Catholic College is situated from amongst those of their number who represent Education Authorities;

(3) Two members elected by the National Committee.

7. The Committee of Management of the Dunfermline College of Hygiene and Physical Education (for Women) consists of:
(1) Five members elected by the Carnegie Dunfermline Trust;

(2) Three members elected by the St. Andrews Provincial Committee from amongst those of their number who represent Education Authorities;

(3) Two members elected by the National Committee.

(5) General

8. The Provincial Committees and Committees of Management are re-appointed immediately after each new election of the National Committee.

9. The Secretary of State nominates one or more of the Department's officers to act as assessor or assessors on the National Committee, the Central Executive Committee, the Provincial Committees and the Committees of Management. Such assessors may take part in the proceedings of the committees, but are not entitled to vote.


[page 88]

2. PRESENT FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS

10. The expenditure of the National Committee is met from the following main sources:

(1) Fees paid by students.
These are moderate in amount. For example, the fee for the three-year course for women training for the Teacher's General Certificate* wholly at a training centre or college is 30; that for the four-term Chapter III* course for graduates is 15.

(2) Grants from the Education (Scotland) Fund in respect of students.
Before the war these amounted to 20 in respect of every student in continuous full-time training throughout the session. Not more than four such annual grants are paid in respect of any one student, and proportionate grants are made for students who have been in part-time training or in training for only part of a year. Students for whom the grant is not payable (e.g., students from furth of Scotland who do not intend to teach in schools inspected by the Scottish Education Department) are normally asked to pay an additional fee in lieu of grant.

(3) Grants from the Education (Scotland) Fund in aid of approved capital expenditure.
Such grants amount to 75 per cent of the approved expenditure, which may be in respect of the acquisition of sites or buildings, the erection of buildings, the laying out of grounds, or the improvement of existing buildings, either for the training of teachers or for lodging students in hostels. A grant of 75 per cent of the rent is also paid in respect of temporary premises or playing fields.

(4) Contributions from education authorities proportional to the number of fully qualified teachers in their service at 31st March in each year.

11. Before 1st May the National Committee prepares an estimate of its income and expenditure for the ensuing financial year. From the total expenditure is deducted the income under heads (1), (2) and (3) above, together with that from other minor sources. The residue gives the amount to be raised by contributions from education authorities under head (4). In practice, the allocation is made by dividing the residue by the total number of teachers in service on 31st March, giving a quota per teacher. If the quota is 2, each authority pays a sum of 2 in respect of each qualified teacher in its service on 31st March. During the last ten years the quota has varied from 2 to 4 5s per teacher.

12. The following statement shows the amounts received from the various sources for the year 1938-39, the last year in which the figures were not disturbed by war conditions, and for the year 1943-44, the last year for which completed figures are available.

EXPENDITURE

1938-39173,968
1943-44164,561

INCOME

*See footnote to paragraph 6 of the Report.


[page 89]



APPENDIX V

In the following pages will be found a tabular summary of the more important of the courses recommended in the Report.

The summary shows where the references to the course will be found in the body of the Report, the qualification obtainable at the end of the course, whether a certificate or an entry or endorsement thereon will be received, whether the course is open to men or women or both, the educational qualifications necessary for entry to the course, where be course is to be taken, and its length.

At the end of the summary will be found a note of the short courses recommended in the Report.




[page 90]

[click on the image for a larger version]


[page 91]

[click on the image for a larger version]


[page 92]

[click on the image for a larger version]


[page 93]

[click on the image for a larger version]


[page 94]

[click on the image for a larger version]


[page 95]

[click on the image for a larger version]


[page 96]

[click on the image for a larger version]


[page 97]

[click on the image for a larger version]