Committee of Council on Education

Notes on the text

Treasury Minute

29 August 1833: set out rules regarding the distribution of the 20,000 grant for education

Orders in Council

10 April 1839: created the Committee of the Privy Council on Education

3 June 1839: approved the Committee of Council on Education's report on the distribution of funds for public education

Minutes of the Committee of Council on Education

On this page:

24 September 1839: regulations governing the appropriation of grants

25 August and 21 December 1846: appointment of inspectors; teachers' qualifications and pensions; education of pupil teachers and stipendiary monitors; support for Normal Schools

6 August 1851: grants to certificated teachers in training schools

23 July 1852: grants to assistant teachers in elementary schools

2 April 1853: grants for the support of schools

20 August 1853: Queen's Scholars, apprentices and certificated teachers

2 June 1856: admission of Queen's Scholars and annual examination of students in training colleges

4 May 1859: cancelled Section 9 in the Minute of 20 August 1853

Revised Code 1862

Revised Code: Minutes and Regulations of the Committee of the Privy Council on Education

Instructions to HMI: advice on the administration of the Revised Code


Minutes of the Committee of Council on Education 1839-59

As reprinted in Reports on Elementary Schools 1852-1882 by Matthew Arnold, edited by FS Marvin and published by HMSO in 1908.

Note that the page numbers shown here are from the book, not from the original documents.


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MINUTE BY THE COMMITTEE OF COUNCIL ON EDUCATION, DATED 24TH SEPTEMBER, 1839; EMBODYING THE REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE APPROPRIATION OF GRANTS

Read, An account of the application for pecuniary aid to schools in Great Britain, not including applications for endowment under 1 & 2 Vict., c. 87.

The Lords of the Committee deliberate as to the best manner of effecting the objects contemplated in the vote of the last session; the sum voted is 30,000; the number


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of applications is already 307; the number of scholars to be educated in the proposed schools is 58,302; and the amount applied for is 48,590.

The Lords of the Committee observe, that in a large proportion of the applications now before them, the memorialists have commenced or undertaken the erection of school-houses, in the expectation of receiving pecuniary assistance from Her Majesty's Government, upon conditions similar to those which were required by the Lords of the Treasury; and the Lords of the Committee resolve to be guided by the Regulations contained in the Treasury Minutes, in so far as will be consistent with the terms of Her Majesty's Order in Council of 3rd June, 1839.

The following Regulations will therefore govern the appropriation of the sum intrusted to the superintendence of the Committee for the present year:-

Regulations

1. Every application for a grant to be made in the form of a Memorial, addressed "To the Right Honourable the Lords of the Committee of Council on Education."

2. The Committee will consider the Memorials in order, according to the dates at which they have been or shall be received.

3. The right of inspection will be required by the Committee in all cases; Inspectors, authorised by Her Majesty in Council, will be appointed from time to time to visit schools to be henceforth aided by public money: the Inspectors will not interfere with the religious instruction, or discipline, or management of the school, it being their object to collect facts and information and to report the result of their inspections to the Committee of Council.

4. Before any application for aid shall be entertained, the Committee will require to be satisfied, by reference either to the Inspectors, or to the National or British and


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Foreign School Society, or, if the school be in Scotland, to some competent authority there:-

(1) That the case is deserving of assistance.

(2) That there are no charitable or other funds or endowments which might supersede the necessity of a grant.

(3) That the site of the school-house has been obtained with a good legal tenure; and that, by conveyance to trustees, it has been duly secured for the education of the children of the poor.

(4) That it is reasonable to expect that the school will be efficiently and permanently supported.

5. The Committee will require that every building on behalf of which any application is entertained, shall be of substantial erection, and that in the plans thereof not less than six square feet be provided for each child.

6. All recipients of grants will be required to bind themselves to submit to any audit of their building account, and to furnish any reports of their schools which the Committee of Council may require.

7. The Committee will require that the certificate hereto annexed shall be signed by the applicants, and presented to the Committee, before their Lordships will authorise the payment of any grant which may be made to a school.

8. In all ordinary cases the grants will be made in aid of the erection of school-houses (exclusive of residence for master or assistant) upon the following further conditions:-

(1) That for every 10s. to be granted by the Committee the means of educating one child (at least) shall be provided.

(2) That the amount of private subscription shall be received, expended and accounted for, before their Lordships will authorise the payment of the grant.


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9. In every application for aid to the erection of a school-house in England or Wales, it must be stated whether the school is in connection with the National Society or British and Foreign School Society; and if the said school be not in connection with either of these societies, the Committee will not entertain the case, unless some special circumstances be exhibited to induce their Lordships to treat the case as special.

Committee of Council on Education,
Council Office, Whitehall,
September, 1839.

With reference to the application for a grant of ___ in aid of _________ the Lords of the Committee of Council On Education have directed me to transmit to you the enclosed copy of a certificate, which contains the conditions upon which their Lordships will appropriate the sum intrusted to their superintendence for the present year.

I am further directed to state to you that, adverting to the number of scholars for whom accommodation will be provided in the proposed school and to the Regulations of the Lords of the Treasury, dated 11th July, 1834, their Lordships will be prepared to direct the appropriation of ___ for the school at _________ upon receiving from the promoters of the said school a communication that they will accept the conditions contained in the enclosed certificate, and upon the understanding that the school be completed according to the plan and estimates by further subscription, which their Lordships trust may be raised by additional exertions.

Their Lordships desire to receive an answer to this proposal on or before 1st November next, as, in case it should not be accepted, their Lordships are anxious to make a proposal, upon the same conditions, to other parties who have made similar applications.


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My Lords request that the certificate may be retained for the present.

If this offer should be accepted, their Lordships will give the necessary directions that the sum offered shall be set apart for the school, and that the Paymaster of Civil Services shall pay the amount upon the conditions being fulfilled, and upon the certificates being properly signed and presented to their Lordships.

I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient Servant.

Certificate

We, the undersigned, being the majority of the School Committee or Trustees representing the promoters of the erection of the school-house at _________ hereby certify, for the information of the Right Honourable the Lords of the Committee of Council on Education:-

(1) That the new school-house, in aid of which your Lordships were pleased to grant ___ is completed in a satisfactory and workmanlike manner, being built of the proper dimensions, and in all respects according to the plan and specification proposed to and approved by your Lordships.

(2) That the amount of private subscriptions specified in our Memorials to your Lordships has been received, expended, and accounted for; and there does not remain any debt, charge, or claim of any kind on account of the building, except what will be liquidated by your Lordships' grant, the payment of which is now prayed for.

(3) That the site of the school-house has been obtained with a good legal tenure, and has been duly


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conveyed to trustees, so as to secure the building for the purpose of educating the children of the poor.

(4) That we are ready to submit to any audit of our accounts for building which your Lordships may direct, to make such periodical reports respecting the state of our schools as your Lordships may call for, and to admit your Lordships' Inspectors, according to the annexed Regulation, Marked (A).

(5) That the deed of trust, a copy of which is lodged at the Council Office has been duly enrolled in Chancery (or in Scotland, duly registered) according to law.

In testimony whereof we affix our signatures, and request the payment of the sum appropriated to the school at aforesaid.

Signed and dated

Regulation (A)

The right of inspection will be required by the Committee in all cases. Inspectors authorised by Her Majesty in Council will be appointed from time to time to visit schools to be henceforth aided by public money.

The Inspectors will not interfere with the religious instruction, or discipline, or management of the school, it being their object to collect facts and information, and to report the result of their inspections to the Committee of Council.


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MINUTES BY THE COMMITTEE OF COUNCIL ON EDUCATION, DATED 25TH AUGUST, AND 21ST DECEMBER, 1846: (1) GENERAL; (2) REGULATIONS RESPECTING THE EDUCATION OF PUPIL TEACHERS AND STIPENDIARY MONITORS - SUPPORT OF NORMAL SCHOOLS

Council Chamber, Whitehall, 25th August, 1846.

By the Right Honourable the Lords of the Committee of Council on Education.

GENERAL MINUTE

Their Lordships had under their consideration the sufficiency of the present numbers of Inspectors of Schools for the duties they have to perform, and

Resolved, That it would be highly expedient that all the schools which are under the inspection of the Privy Council should be visited at least once in each year: that the existing number of Inspectors appears to be insufficient, as, notwithstanding their constant assiduity in the discharge of the duties entrusted to them it is found impossible to make arrangements for the inspection of schools oftener than once in two years.

Their Lordships are, however, unwilling to make so considerable an addition at once to the number of Inspectors as would be necessary for an annual visit to each school, but will recommend the appointment of three new Inspectors this year, reserving for consideration hereafter any further appointments which may be required.


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Their Lordships had further under their consideration the Report of the Inspectors of Schools, memorials from certain Boards of Education, and letters from the clergy and others, representing the very early age at which the children acting as assistants to schoolmasters are withdrawn from school to manual labour, and the advantages which would arise if such scholars as might be distinguished by proficiency and good conduct were apprenticed to skilful masters, to be instructed and trained, so as to be prepared to complete their education as schoolmasters in a normal school.

Resolved, That the Lord President cause Regulations to be framed, defining the qualifications of the schoolmaster, the condition of instruction in the school, and the local contributions to be required as conditions on which annual grants of money may be made towards the stipends of apprentices in elementary schools; and further, cause indentures of apprenticeship to be prepared, declaring the duties of the apprentice and the nature of the instruction he is to receive; the periods of examination by the Inspectors of schools, and the circumstances under which the indenture may be dissolved, in order that stipends, increasing in each year of the apprenticeship, may be granted in aid of local contribution.

It was further Resolved, That as the masters having charge of the instruction and training of school apprentices will be selected for their character and skill, and as the education of the apprentices will increase the labour and responsibilities of such masters, it is expedient that the successful performance of these duties be rewarded by annual grants in aid of their stipends, according to the number of apprentices trained by each master.

It was further Resolved, That it is expedient to make provision in certain cases, by a retiring pension, for schoolmasters and mistresses who, after a certain length of service, may appear entitled to such provision.


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That the Lord President cause Regulations to be framed respecting the grants of such retiring pensions.

That it is expedient, for the further encouragement of deserving schoolmasters, that small gratuities be annually distributed, under the authority of the Lord President, to schoolmasters whose zeal and success in teaching may, on the Report of the Inspector, appear to entitle them to such encouragement; and that Regulations be framed with reference to the distribution of such gratuities.

Council Chamber, Whitehall, 21st December, 1846.

By the Right Honourable the Lords of the Committee of Council on Education

REGULATlONS RESPECTING THE EDUCATION OF PUPIL TEACHERS AND STIPENDIARY MONITORS

The Lord President communicated to their Lordships the Regulations which he had caused to be framed to carry in to execution the Minute of the Committee of Council on Education of 25th day of August, 1846, respecting the Apprenticeship of Pupil Teachers.

General Preliminary Conditions

Upon application being made to their Lordships from the trustees or managers of any school under inspection, requesting that one or more of the most proficient scholars be selected to be apprenticed to the master or mistress, the application will be referred to the Inspector, and will be entertained, if he report:-

That the master or mistress of the school is competent to conduct the apprentice through the course of instruction to be required.

That the school is well furnished and well supplied with books and apparatus.


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That it is divided into classes; and that the instruction is skilful, and is graduated according to the age of the children and the time they have been at school, so as to show that equal care has been bestowed on each class.

That the discipline is mild and firm, and conducive to good order.

That there is a fair prospect that the salary of the master and mistress, and the ordinary expenses of the school, will be provided for during the period of apprenticeship.

General Rule. The qualifications to be required of candidates and of pupil teachers in each year of their apprenticeship will be regulated by the following rules, in which the minimum of proficiency to be attained is precisely defined, in order to prevent partiality; but their Lordships reserve to themselves the power to reward superior merit by shortening the term of the apprenticeship; or by awarding the higher stipends of the later years of the apprenticeship to pupil teachers whose attainments enable them to pass the examination of one of the later years at an earlier period.

Pupil Teachers. - Qualifications of Candidates

The following qualifications will be required from candidates for apprenticeship:-

They must be at least thirteen, years of age, and must not be subject to any bodily infirmity likely to impair their usefulness as pupil teachers.

In schools connected with the Church of England, the clergyman and managers, and, in other schools, the managers must certify that the moral character of the candidates and of their families justify an expectation that the instruction and training of the school will be seconded by their own efforts and by


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the example of their parents. If this cannot be certified of the family, the apprentice will be required to board in some approved household.
Candidates will also be required:-
(1) To read with fluency, ease, and expression.

(2) To write in a neat hand, with correct spelling and punctuation, a simple prose narrative slowly read to them.

(3) To write from dictation sums in the first four rules of arithmetic, simple and compound; to work them correctly, and to know the tables of weights and measures.

(4) To point out the parts of speech in a simple sentence.

(5) To have an elementary knowledge of geography.

(6) In schools connected with the Church of England they will be required to repeat the Catechism, and to show that they understand its meaning, and are acquainted with the outline of Scripture history. The parochial clergyman will assist in this part of the examination.

In other schools the state of the religious knowledge will be certified by the managers.

(7) To teach a junior class to the satisfaction of the Inspector.

(8) Girls should also be able to sew neatly and to knit.

Qualifications of Pupil Teachers in each Year of their Apprenticeship

At the end of the first year, pupil teachers will be examined by the Inspector:-

(1) In writing from memory the substance of a more difficult narrative.

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(2) In arithmetic, the rules of "Practice" and "Simple Proportion,"* and in the first rules* of mental arithmetic.

(3) In grammar, in the construction of sentences, and in syntax.

(4) In the geography o.f Great Britain and Palestine.

(5) In the Holy Scriptures and in the Catechism, with illustrations by passages from Holy Writ, in Church of England schools, the parochial clergyman assisting in the examination.

The managers will, in other schools, certify in this and in the succeeding years of the apprenticeship, that they are satisfied with the state of the religious knowledge of the pupil teachers.

(6) In their ability to give a class a reading lesson, and to examine it on the meaning of what has been read.

(7) In the elements of vocal music, in this and in succeeding years, when taught from notes.

(8) In their ability to drill* a class in marching and exercises; and to conduct it through the class movements required for preserving order.

(9) Girls should also be able to instruct the younger scholars in sewing and knitting.

At the end of the second year, pupil teachers will be examined by the Inspector:-

(1) In composition, by writing the *abstract of a lesson, or a school report.

(2) In decimal arithmetic,* and the higher rules of mental arithmetic. Girls will not be required to proceed beyond the rule of "Compound Proportion" in this year.

(3) In syntax and etymology.*


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(4) In the geography of Great Britain, of Europe, the British empire,* and Palestine.

(5) In the Holy Scriptures, Liturgy, and Catechism in Church of England schools, more fully than in the preceding year, the parochial clergyman assisting in the examination.

(6) In their ability to examine a class in reading, in the rudiments of grammar and arithmetic; and, during the examination, to keep the class attentive, in order and in activity without undue noise.

At the end of the third year, pupil teachers will be examined by the Inspector:-
(1) In the composition of the notes of a lesson on a subject selected by the Inspector.

(2) In the elements of mechanics,* or in bookkeeping.

(3) In syntax, etymology, and prosody.*

(4) In the geography of the four* quarters of the globe. Girls in the geography of the British Empire.

(5) In the outlines of English history.

(6) More fully in the Holy Scriptures, Liturgy, and Catechism, in Church of England schools, the parochial clergyman assisting in the examination.

(7) In their skill in managing and examining the second class in grammar, geography and mental arithmetic.

(8) The girls should have acquired greater skill as teachers of sewing, knitting, etc.

At the end of the fourth year, pupil teachers will be examined by the Inspector:-
(1) In the composition of an account of the organisation of the school, and of the methods of instruction used.


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(2) In the first steps in mensuration,* with practical illustrations; and in the elements of land surveying* and levelling.*

(3) In syntax, etymology, and prosody.*

(4) In the *geography of Great Britain as connected with the outlines of English history. Girls in the geography of the four quarters of the globe.

(5) More fully in the Holy Scriptures, Liturgy, and Catechism, in Church of England schools, the parochial clergyman assisting in the examination.

(6) In their skill in managing and examining the first class in grammar, geography, and mental arithmetic, and in giving *a lesson to two or three classes grouped together.

At the end of the fifth year, pupil teachers will be examined by the Inspector:-
(1) In the composition of an essay on some subject connected with the art of teaching.

(2) In the rudiments of algebra,* or the practice of land surveying* and levelling.*

(3) In syntax, etymology, and prosody.

(4.) In the use *of the globes, or in the geography of the British empire* and Europe,* as connected with the outlines of English history. In this year girls may be examined in the historical geography of Great Britain.

(5) More completely in the Holy Scriptures, Liturgy, and Catechism, in Church of England schools, the parochial clergyman assisting in the examination.

(6) In their ability to give a gallery lesson, and to conduct the instruction of the first class in any subject selected by the Inspector.

General Rules. In the subjects marked with an asterisk girls need not be examined, but in every year they will


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be expected to show increased skill as sempstresses, and teachers of sewing, knitting, etc.

In the examinations the Inspectors will, in each year, observe the degree of attention paid by the pupil teachers to a perfect articulation in reading, and to a right modulation of the voice in teaching a class. A knowledge of vocal music and of drawing (especially from models), though not absolutely required, because the means of teaching it may not exist in every school, will be much encouraged. Every pupil teacher will be required to be clean in person and dress.

The number of pupil teachers apprenticed in any school will not exceed one to every twenty-five scholars ordinarily attending.

Certificate. Every pupil teacher who has passed all the foregoing examinations, and has presented the required testimonials in each year, will be entitled to a certificate declaring that he has successfully completed his apprenticeship.

Stipendiary Monitors. The Inspectors may, for some time, find in the rural districts schools, in which all the general conditions required for the apprenticeship of a pupil teacher may be satisfied, but the master or mistress, of which may be unable to conduct an apprentice even through the foregoing course of instruction. Their Lordships being desirous so to adapt their regulations to the condition of such schools, as by their improvement to enable them hereafter to provide for the training of pupil teachers, are disposed for a few years to encourage the managers to retain their monitors, by small stipends, to the age of seventeen, without apprenticeship, but under a form of agreement with the parents, on condition that the master give each monitor extra daily instruction.

For such an arrangement all the general rules and preliminary conditions previously enumerated will be required,


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and the following qualifications for candidates for such stipends:-

Stipendiary Monitors - Qualifications of Candidates

The candidates must be thirteen years of age, and they will be required:-

(1) To read with fluency.
(2) To write a neat hand.
(3) To write from dictation sums in the first four simple rules of arithmetic, and to work them correctly.
(4) To point out the parts of speech in a simple sentence.
(5) In Church of England schools, to repeat the Catechism, and show a knowledge of its meaning, the parochial clergyman assisting in the religious examination.
In other schools the managers will certify that they are satisfied with the state of their religious knowledge.
(6) Girls to sew neatly and to knit.
Qualifications of Stipendiary Monitors in each Year

The stipendiary monitors will be examined at the end of each year of service, and will be required:-

At the end of the first year:-

(1) To read with fluency, ease and expression.
(2) To write in a neat hand, with correct spelling and punctuation, a simple prose narrative, slowly read to them.
(3) To write from dictation sums in the first four compound rules of arithmetic, to work them correctly, and to know the tables of weights and measures.
(4) To point out the parts of speech in a simple sentence, and to give the rules of its construction.

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(5) To have an elementary knowledge of geography.
(6) In Church of England schools, to show a general acquaintance with the Scriptures; the parochial clergyman, in this and the succeeding years, assisting in the religious examination.
In other schools, the managers will certify, in this and succeeding years that the religious knowledge of the stipendiary monitors is satisfactory to them.
(7) In schools where vocal music is taught, he should have commenced instruction from notes, and should give proof of improvement in each succeeding year.
(8) Girls to teach sewing and knitting in this and succeeding years.
At the end of the second year:-
(1) To write from memory, with correct spelling and punctuation, the substance of a simple prose narrative, read carefully to them two or three times.
(2) In arithmetic; to write from dictation sums in Practice, and to work them correctly.
(3) In grammar, to parse more difficult sentences, and give the rules of their construction.
(4) To know the geography of Great Britain and Palestine.
(5) In Church of England schools, to give illustrations of the Catechism from the Bible, and to show a more complete acquaintance with the Scriptures.
(6) To give a class reading-lesson, and examine it on the meaning of what has been read.
(7) Girls to be able to cut out clothes.
At the end of the third year:-
(1) To write from memory the substance of a longer and more difficult prose narrative, and to show greater skill in composition.

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(2) In arithmetic, to write from dictation sums in Simple Proportion and Simple Interest, and to work them correctly.
(3) In grammar, to be able to parse sentences, with a thorough knowledge of the rules of syntax.
(4) To know the geography of Great Britain, Europe, and Palestine, and that of the outlines of the four quarters of the globe,
(5) In Church of England schools, to possess a more extensive knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, and of the Liturgy and Catechism.
(6) To examine a class in the rudiments of grammar, geography, and arithmetic.
At the end of the fourth year:-
(1) To prepare the notes of an oral lesson on a subject selected by the Inspector.
(2) To work correctly sums in decimal arithmetic, and to show an acquaintance with the simple rules of mental arithmetic.
(3) In grammar, to be examined in etymology.
(4) To know the geography of the four quarters of the world, and especially of the British Empire.
(5) To have a general knowledge of the outlines of English history.
(6) In Church of England schools, to show a more perfect knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, Catechism, and Liturgy.
(7) To examine the first or second class in grammar, geography, and arithmetic, and to give it an oral lesson, keeping the class attentive, in order, and in activity without undue noise.

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Certificates of Character and Conduct to be annually required from Pupil Teachers and Stipendiary Monitors

At the close of each year, pupil teachers or stipendiary monitors will be required to present certificates of good conduct from the managers of the school, and of punctuality, diligence, obedience, and attention to their duties from the master or mistress.

In Church of England schools, the parochial clergyman, and in other schools, the managers, will also certify that the pupil teachers or stipendiary monitors have been attentive to their religious duties.

Salaries of Pupil Teachers and Stipendiary Monitors

If these certificates be presented, and if the Inspector certify, at the close of each year, that he is satisfied with the oral examination and the examination papers of the pupil teachers or stipendiary monitors, and if those papers be satisfactory to their Lordships, the following stipends will be paid, irrespectively of any sum that may be received from the school or from any other source:-

For a Pupil TeacherFor a Stipendiary Monitor
At the end of the 1st Year105
At the end of the 2nd Year12 10s7 10s
At the end of the 3rd Year1510
At the end of the 4th Year17 10s12 10s
At the end of the 5th Year200

Remuneration and Duties of Schoolmasters and Mistresses

At the close of each of these years, if the pupil teachers have received a certificate of good character and of satisfactory progress, the master or mistress by whom they have been instructed and trained shall be paid the sum of 5 for one, of 9 for two, of 12 for three pupil teachers, and 3 per annum more for every additional apprentice; and, on the like conditions, 2 10s. for one stipendiary monitor, 4 for two: 6 for three, and 1 10s. in addition in each year for every additional stipendiary monitor.


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In addition to the foregoing subjects of instruction if the pupil teachers be skilfully trained by the master in the culture of a garden, or in some mechanical arts suitable to a school of industry, or the female pupil teachers be instructed by the mistress in cutting out clothes, and in cooking, baking, or washing, as well as in the more usual arts of sewing and knitting, and the Inspector certify that the pupil teachers are thereby in a satisfactory course of training for the management of a school of industry, the master or mistress will receive an additional gratuity, proportioned to the degree of skill and care displayed.

In consideration of the foregoing gratuity, and of the assistance obtained from the pupil teachers and stipendiary monitors in the instruction and management of the school, the master will give them instruction in the prescribed subjects, during one hour and a half at least, during five days in the week, either before or after the usual hours of school-keeping.

The stipends will be liable to be withdrawn by their Lordships on the report of their Inspector, on proof of the continued ill-health of the pupil teachers or stipendiary monitors, or of misconduct, want of punctuality, diligence or skill, or failure in their examination, or in default of the required certificates.

SUPPORT OF NORMAL SCHOOLS

Education of Schoolmasters and Mistresses, and Grants in aid of their Salaries

Exhibition on behalf of successful Pupil Teachers to Normal Schools - Employment of certain of them in the Public Service - Grants in aid of Expenses of Normal Schools, and of the Salaries of Masters and Mistresses educated therein.

The Committee of Council on Education had under their consideration their Lordships' Minutes as to the apprenticeship of pupil teachers in elementary schools.


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It appeared further expedient to their Lordships, that the Lord President should authorize one or more of Her Majesty's Inspectors, together with the Principal of a normal school under inspection, to submit to his Lordship, from among the pupil teachers who had successfully terminated their apprenticeship, a certain number of those who, upon competition in a public examination, to be annually held by such Inspectors and Principal in each Inspector's district, might be found most proficient in their studies and skilful in the art of teaching, and concerning whose character and zeal for the office of teachers the Inspector of the district could give the most favourable report.

That the Committee of Council on Education, on comparison of the testimonials and examination papers of these apprentices, should award for as many as they might think fit, an exhibition of 20 or 25 to one of the normal schools under the inspection of Her Majesty's Inspectors.

That the pupil teachers to whom such exhibitions should be awarded should be thenceforth denominated "Queen's Scholars."

That the exhibition should be liable to be withdrawn if the Principal of the training school should be dissatisfied with the conduct, attainments, or skill of the "Queen's Scholar."

Their Lordships were also of opinion that it might be useful to offer further incentives to exertion and good conduct among the pupil teachers, by opening to such of them as might not display the highest qualifications for the office of schoolmaster, but whose conduct and attainments were satisfactory, an opportunity of obtaining employment in the public service, under such regulations as may be hereafter adopted.

Their Lordships hope that the grant of an exhibition of 20 or 25 to the most proficient pupil teachers, to enable them to enter a normal school, may diminish the


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difficulty experienced by the trustees and managers of such institutions of maintaining them in efficiency. In order still further to reduce the burden of such establishments, their Lordships will award to every normal school subject to inspection a grant for every student trained therein concerning whose character and conduct the Principal shall give a favourable report, and concerning whose attainments, skill in teaching, and general aptitude for the vocation of a schoolmaster, it shall appear to the Lord President, at the close of each of three years of training, from the report of one or more of Her Majesty's Inspectors and from the examination papers, that a certain standard of merit has been attained. Such grants shall be 20 at the close of the first year, 25 at the close of the second; and 30 at the close of the third year's course of instruction. This standard of acquirement shall not be so ordered as to interfere with the studies pursued in any normal school, but shall be adapted to those studies, so, however, as to apply impartially to all such normal schools an equal incentive to exertion, by requiring efficiency in a sufficient number of the studies pursued in them.

Their Lordships will further grant, in aid of the salary of every schoolmaster appointed to a school under their inspection, and who has had one year's training in a normal school under their inspection, 15 or 20 per annum; and in aid of tho salary of every such schoolmaster who has had two years of such training, 20 or 25 per annum; and of every such schoolmaster who has had three years of such training, 25 or 30 per annum; provided he has upon examination obtained the proper certificate of merit in each year on the following conditions:-

(1) That the trustees and managers of the school provide the master with a house rent free, and a further salary, equal at least to twice the amount of this grant.


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(2) That the trustees and managers annually certify that his character, conduct, and attention to his duties are satisfactory.

(3) That the Inspector report that his school is efficient in its organization, discipline, and instruction.

On the same conditions their Lordships will grant, in aid of the salaries of schoolmistresses appointed to schools under their inspection, who obtain similar certificates in a normal school, two-thirds of the sums to be awarded to schoolmasters for each year's certificate of merit.

Retiring Pensions to Schoolmasters and Mistresses for long and efficient Services

That a retiring pension may be granted by the Committee of Council to any schoolmaster or schoolmistress who shall be rendered incapable by age or infirmity of continuing to teach a school efficiently.

Provided that no such pension shall be granted to any schoolmaster or schoolmistress who shall not have conducted a normal or elementary school for fifteen years, during seven at least of which such school shall have been under inspection.

That in all cases of application for pensions a report shall be required from the Inspector, and from the Trustees and Managers of the schools, as to the character and conduct of the applicants, and the manner in which the education of the pupils under their charge has been carried on.

The amount of the pension shall be determined according to such report, but shall in no case exceed two-thirds of the average amount of the salary and emoluments annually received by the applicant during the period that the school has been under inspection.

A minute of the grant of every such pension, and of the grounds on which it has been awarded, shall be published in their Lordships' Minutes.


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MINUTE BY THE COMMITTEE OF COUNCIL ON EDUCATION, DATED 6TH AUGUST, 1851, RELATING TO GRANTS TO CERTIFICATED TEACHERS IN TRAINING SCHOOLS

At the Council Chamber, Whitehall, the 6th day of August, 1851.

By the Lords of the Committee on Education of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council.

Read, Recommendations by the Rev. Professor Moseley, and the Rev. F. C. Cook, Her Majesty's Inspectors of schools in their General Reports upon training schools for the year 1850, to the effect that the grants now made to certificated teachers in Elementary Schools under inspection be extended to Training schools.

Resolved, That, in training schools under a principal and vice-principal or matron and head governess, their Lordships will, on the recommendation of one or more of Her Majesty's Inspectors, as they may in each case see fit to require, grant augmentation of salary to resident assistant teachers, holding respectively one of their Lordships' certificates of merit not lower than the third division of the first class, on the following conditions:-

(1) Their Lordships to be satisfied with the branches of instruction committed to the assistant teacher.

(2) The augmentation to be the same, and to depend on the same conditions of salary and emoluments, as in elementary schools.


[page 297]

(3) An annual certificate from the Inspector or Inspectors that they are satisfied with the general management of the school.

(4) A similar certificate that they are satisfied with the skill of the assistant teacher. This certificate to be verified by reference to the written exercises of the students.

(5) An annual certificate from the principal that he has been satisfied with the assistant teacher's moral character and attention to duty during the past year.





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MINUTE BY THE COMMITTEE OF COUNCIL ON EDUCATION, DATED 23RD JULY, 1852, RELATING TO GRANTS TO ASSISTANT TEACHERS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

At the Council Chamber, Whitehall, the 23rd day of July, 1852.

Minute by the Lords of the Committee on Education by Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council.

Read, Minutes dated 10th December, 1851, and 12th May, 1852, regarding pupil-teachers who have completed their apprenticeship pursuant to the Minutes of 1846.

Resolved, In the case of such pupil-teachers, to recognize their employment as assistants in schools liable to inspection, under the following conditions, viz:-

(1) That in each year of their apprenticeship they shall have acquitted themselves creditably upon examination before Her Majesty's Inspector, and shall have produced unqualified testimonials from the managers and teachers of their schools.

(2) That the master or mistress of the school in which the assistant is employed hold a certificate of merit.

(3) That the school be well furnished, and well supplied with books and apparatus.

(4) That every such assistant shall be taken to be equivalent to two apprenticed pupil-teachers, in reckoning the number of such apprentices to be maintained at the public expense in any school.


[page 299]

(5) That every assistant produce the same annual certificates as are required of apprentices, from the managers and principal teacher of the school, and be favourably reported of by Her Majesty's Inspector as to attainments and practical skill.
When the foregoing conditions are fulfilled, their Lordships will allow an annual stipend of 25 in the case of a male, and 20 in the case of a female, assistant teacher.

Assistant teachers of three years standing and upwards may be examined for certificates of merit, but will not be admissible to receive pecuniary augmentation on account of them, except on fulfilment of the conditions at present in force for such grants.




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MINUTE BY THE COMMITTEE OF COUNCIL ON EDUCATION, DATED 2ND APRIL, 1853, AS TO GRANTS FOR THE SUPPORT OF SCHOOLS

At the Council Chamber, Whitehall, 2nd day of April, 1853;

By the Lords of the Committee on Education of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council.

MINUTE AS TO GRANTS FOR THE SUPPORT OF SCHOOLS IN THE AGRICULTURAL DISTRICTS AND UNINCORPORATED TOWNS (NOT CONTAINING MORE THAN 5,000 INHABITANTS) OF ENGLAND AND WALES.*

Resolved, That any school now admissible, or which shall hereafter be admitted, to grants under the minutes of August and December, 1846, may receive a grant towards the expenses of the preceding year, at the rate per scholar set forth in the following table:-

No. of Scholars.Boys' Schools.Girls' Schools.
Under 506s.5s.
Above 50, but under 1005s.4s.
Above 1004s.3s.

Provided that the rate shall not diminish on account of any increase in the number of scholars, until the increase is such as to make the reduced rate for the higher number balance the unreduced rate for the smaller number, e.g., 100 scholars at 5s. per scholar is equal to 25, but 101

*This Minute was presented to both Houses of Parliament on the 26th of April, 1853.


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scholars at 4s. is equal to 20 4s.; the sum of 25 is therefore to be continued until the number of scholars reaches 126, which at 4s. per scholar is equal to 25 4s., and so on to other quantities.

Provided that no such grant shall be claimable in respect of any year preceding the date at which the visit of one of Her Majesty's Inspectors of Schools shall, according to the regulations now in force, be due to the school in question.

Conditions on which foregoing assistance is offered:-

(1) That the income of the school in the preceding year from endowments, subscriptions, collections, and school-pence shall have amounted to 14s. per scholar in schools for boys, and 12s. per scholar in schools for girls, without including the annual value of the teacher's house or other school-buildings.

(2) That every scholar who has attended, on the average, 4 days per week during 48 weeks, or 192 days in the year, shall be reckoned in the attendance by which the amount of the income and the grant are determined.

(3) That 1d. per week, at least, shall be paid for the education of every scholar by his or her parents, guardians, or friends, and that in no case in which the attendance or school-pence of any scholar are reckoned, shall the charge exceed 4d. per week.

(4) That the school shall be kept by a master or mistress holding a certificate of merit under the Minutes of 1846, and that at least seven-tenths of the whole income, including the grant, shall be applied to the salary of the teacher and assistant teacher. That in schools containing more than 120 children, the managers shall avail themselves of the Minutes of this Committee, to provide from the seven-tenths of the school income, such pupil teachers exceeding the rate


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of one for every forty scholars, or such assistant teachers as this Committee may require.

(5) That the grant applied in aid of the stipend of the master or mistress may be accepted by this Committee, in lieu of the voluntary contributions required in fulfilment of the pecuniary conditions of the grants in augmentation of teachers' salaries, under the Minutes of August and December, 1846.

Subordinate Regulations
(6) That the children employed in factories and printworks, who attend school under any statute, shall be counted as scholars in ascertaining the average attendance, if they fulfil the provisions of the Act, and the school-pence paid on their behalf shall be reckoned in the income of the school.

(7) That such forms of account of the income and expenditure, and such registers of school-attendance and of the payment of school-fees be kept, as this Committee may direct, in a separate minute of details.

(8) That three-fourths of the scholars above seven and under nine years of age; three-fourths of those above nine and under eleven; and three-fourths of those above eleven and under thirteen respectively pass such an examination before Her Majesty's Inspector or Assistant Inspector as shall be set forth in a separate Minute of details.



EXPLANATORY CIRCULAR TO HER MAJESTY'S INSPECTORS

Committee of Council on Education,
Council Office,
20th August, 1853.

SIR,

I am directed to request your attention to the explanations which my Lords have this day authorized me to issue in regard to the foregoing Minute.


[page 303]

With regard to schools already in receipt of annual grants, the Minute will be put in force from 1st January next, without further application on the part of the managers, i.e., as each Report by Her Majesty's Inspector on such a school is received, the Committee of Council will decide, not only upon the stipends, gratuity, or augmentation, but also on the capitation grant to be allowed in respect of the year ending at the date fixed for the annual inspection.

Thus, one Report by the Inspector in each year will suffice; the school will still come only once before my Lords in each year for the whole of its annual payments, and no change will need to be made in the time fixed for visiting the several parts of the districts.

The schools now in receipt of annual grants will form the centres round which the new applications must be grouped.

The new applications will proceed from schools not at present receiving annual grants, and these schools may either be already liable to inspection or may be brought under the notice of my Lords for the first time. In the latter case, my Lords will ascertain by correspondence from this Office (through forms now in use) whether the school in question be prima facie admissible to grants under the Minutes of August and December, 1846.

The cases found to be admissible will be referred to you in the Form No. V., in order that you may fix the date of your visit, and on receipt of your reply a form analogous to No. XII. will be sent to the managers. The first grants will be paid on receipt of your Report for the year ending at the date fixed for your visit in 1854.

It is the peculiar object of the Minute now in question to improve that class of schools which has hitherto failed to obtain a share in the benefits offered by the Minutes of 1846. In reporting upon them you will carefully bear in mind the instructions dated 13th June and 4th October, 1851 (Minutes of 1851-2, pp. 101, 103). It might be their


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Lordships' duty to refuse assistance under the Minute of and April, 1853, no less than under the Minutes of 1846, to a school until it had been placed in more suitable premises, and better supplied with furniture, apparatus, and books. In all cases, however, where defects of this description are not either injurious to the health of the scholars, or necessarily fatal to all improvement and progress, my Lords will be disposed to look for amelioration from the grant of assistance, and from the influence of your inspection, rather than as a condition precedent to such aid. It will be your duty, in reporting for the first time upon a school which, in its material appointments, is below the standard, to consider whether it is in the hands of persons who lack neither the intelligence nor the wish, but only the means, gradually to improve it. The interests of third parties are not compromised as in the case of apprenticing pupil-teachers, by acting at once on the promise of better things.

The duty imposed upon you is not easy to discharge without great attention and judgment. You are required, without permanently lowering the standard at present maintained, to reach a class of schools hitherto unable to fulfil the conditions of public assistance. With these preliminary remarks I have to request your attention to the following directions respecting the conditions on which assistance is offered, taking them in order as they stand in the Minute:-

(1) My Lords have been asked in respect of what boys and girls the required annual income is to be calculated; whether, for instance, in respect of the whole number on the books, or in average attendance, or in respect of those only for whom the capitation grant is claimable?

My Lords have determined to require the condition to be fulfilled in the case of those scholars only for whom the capitation grant is claimable.


[page 305]

It has not escaped the observation of my Lords, that this interpretation will at first render the condition almost nugatory. On the other hand, it is undeniable that to require such an income to be raised in respect to the whole number of scholars would exclude the greater part of the schools which it is the object of the Minute to reach. Their Lordships contemplate that the number for whom the grant is allowed will, at first, bear comparatively a small proportion to the whole number, but that it will gradually increase. As the grant increases, so must the income of the school be proved to keep pace.

In mixed schools the boys and girls will be separately reckoned. My Lords will refuse to make grants to a mixed school under a mistress only, if it is the only school in a village. Such a school is not fit for boys over eight or nine years of age, and my Lords could not, in any public measure, recognize such an age for leaving school.

My Lords will require that in cases where the teacher is not provided with a house, or suitable lodgings, rent-free, the school income shall amount not only to the stipulated sum per scholar, but, over and above that minimum, shall include 10 if the school be under a master, and 6 if it be under a mistress.

(2) Various remonstrances have been addressed to my Lords on the subject of the amount of attendance required; and it has been urged that the condition, as it stands, will confine the aid afforded within limits too narrow to admit of any practical effect.

In this, as in all other Minutes, my Lords aim at improvement. The mere substitution of public for local money is an evil if it does not stimulate improvement in a greater degree than could otherwise be realized. The attendance required to fulfil the conditions of the grant ought to be fixed at a point beyond the common practice. In order, however, not to discourage effort by the means


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taken to provoke it, my Lords will add a column in the prescribed register for absence on certain specified grounds (for the bona fide entry of which the managers will be responsible), and sixteen days per annum may be taken from this column in making up the total number of 192 days,

As a minimum of attendance is essential to the scheme, and as no such limit can be maintained except by rigid adherence to one number, it will follow that no approximation to the minimum can be regarded. This is a point which you will do well to note yourself, and to impress upon others. A grant would be refused for a child who made up 175 days of attendance. The morning and afternoon school constitute respectively half a day's attendance.

3. This condition requires no comment.

4. My Lords trust, that by the operation of the supplementary Minute adopted this day, coupled with the next clause (5) in the Minute now under consideration, there may soon be no difficulty in obtaining certificated teachers. For the present, my Lords will be satisfied if the school be under a registered teacher.

Their Lordships will not insist upon having a registered or certificated teacher as a condition precedent to the first payment of a grant, but to the second and to all following payments. More than twelve months, therefore, will be allowed for teachers to get themselves registered, and for the managers of schools to obtain such teachers.

At the first inspection, if the teacher were not already registered, you would satisfy yourself of his not being prima facie incompetent; and my Lords would accept this assurance until the next annual payment became due, by which time, the teacher in charge, if not certificated, must at least be registered.

My Lords reserve to themselves discretion in regard to the duration of the period within which they will dispense with a certificated teacher in each school receiving aid.


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The financial part of this clause will work as follows in respect to the grants made under the Minutes of 1846 for augmenting salaries. At present the schools where such grants are paid must be supported by voluntary subscriptions (independently of other sources of income) to the same amount as the grant. In future, seven tenths of the annual sum received for capitation fees under the Minute of 2nd April, 1853, may be taken to stand in lieu of so much voluntary subscription. Thus, suppose a certificated master of the lowest class; his augmentation grant is 15, and he cannot at present obtain it in a school where a sum less than 15 is subscribed. In future, however, if a deserving school obtained 10 for capitation fees under the Minute of 2nd April, 1853, the managers might obtain an augmentation grant for their teacher (the other conditions being fulfilled) on subscribing 8.

You will observe that the words of this clause are enabling, not obligatory. My Lords would not be disposed to put it in force without satisfactory evidence that the amount subscribed in each given case was reasonably liberal under the circumstances.

6, 7. The Returns of income and expenditure now made by the managers of schools in the forms with which they are furnished by Her Majesty's Inspectors will suffice for ascertaining the total amount per scholar required to meet a capitation grant. So far as the school fees and the attendance require to be specially considered, a form of school register is hereunto appended. So long, however, as the particulars which my Lords require to have before them are collected, my Lords do not desire to tie every school down to the same register.

The forms appended hereto will require (beyond a doubt) to be from time to time revised; and, in different part of the country, it may be desirable to provide for the collection of different facts. It is well to allow scope for a


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variety of trials, and to approximate to a common register through the results of such experience. In the meantime my Lords wish the attention of Her Majesty's Inspectors to be directed to the subject.

Their Lordships will not overlook the state of the school registers in deciding upon the augmentation grants of certificated teachers.

8. Age is not the principle on which children are classified in a school, nor (unless coupled with the time that they have been under instruction) does it measure the merits of their teachers in regard to their proficiency; but, although this is true, as regards individual schools and individual teachers, nevertheless, it is plain that, in proportion as those scholars who are approaching the age of labour do not become also the most proficient in a school, its influence in producing a well-educated generation is not to be measured by the number of children in average attendance upon it, nor by the standard of its highest class.

It is therefore of great social importance to bring increased attention to bear upon those children in each school who are approaching the age at which their labour becomes valuable, and to make the measure of public assistance depend in some degree upon the connection between such age and proficiency.

It is, of course, out of the question for Her Majesty's Inspectors, in the time that they are able to give to the examination of a school, to break it up from its classification according to proficiency into another according to age, and a third according to length of attendance. All these, however, are aspects under which a good teacher should habituate himself to analyze his school.

For the present, and until the results of further experience can be collected, it is proposed that the master should


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take measures to enable him at any time to call out from the ordinary classes all the children in school above nine years of age, in two divisions, viz., of those under, and those over, eleven years of age respectively. This he may very readily do by keeping a separate list of such children, and habituating them to stand out at some such call as "boys above nine, first [or second] division." When this practice has once been set on foot, it will only be requisite to give notice to each child as he reaches the prescribed age. On the day of your visit, after making the usual call, the master would put back all those boys on whose account no capitation grant is claimed. Having the rest before you, you would record:-

1. In the first division how many were able:-
(a) To read simple narratives with intelligence.
(b) To work from dictation a sum in simple subtraction, multiplication, or division correctly.
(c) To write on a slate from dictation, with correct spelling, a simple sentence twice read to them, first consecutively, and then by one word at a time.
2. In the second division how many were able to:-
(a) Read books of general information fluently.
(b) Work from dictation a sum in one of the four first compound rules of arithmetic correctly.
(c) Write on paper from dictation, in a neat hand and with correct spelling, two or three simple sentences twice read to them, first consecutively, and then by a few words at a time.
(d) Point out the parts of speech in the same sentence (orally).
(e) Answer questions in the tables of weights and measures (orally).
(f) Answer a few elementary questions in geography (orally), and on other subjects of useful information.


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You should be careful to adapt this part of the examination to the particular course of study pursued in the school.
You will not be required to keep or forward the papers of this examination, but will simply enter the results in your Report, the form of which will, in future, contain a suitable space for the entry. You will observe that the examination now proposed to be given is not intended to supersede any part of that included in the general examination of the school.

I have the honour to be, etc.
(Signed) R.R.W. LINGEN.

To Her Majesty's Inspector of Schools, etc.




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MINUTE BY THE COMMITTEE OF COUNCIL ON EDUCATION, DATED 2OTH AUGUST, 1853, RELATlNG TO QUEEN'S SCHOLARS, APPRENTICES AND CERTIFICATED TEACHERS

At the Council Chamber, Whitehall, 20th day of August, 1853.

By the Lords of the Committee on Education of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council

SUPPLEMENTARY MINUTE RELATING TO QUEEN'S SCHOLARS, APPRENTICES, AND CERTIFICATED TEACHERS.

Their Lordships had under consideration so much of the Minute dated 21st December, 1846, as relates to the support of normal schools.

Their Lordships also considered the Minutes and instructions in force for awarding Queen's Scholarships, for issuing certificates of merit, and for augmenting the salaries of the students and other candidates so certified when employed as teachers in schools under inspection.

Their Lordships, having these particulars before them, proceeded to consider certain complaints alleged against the present system, to the effect that:-

(1) Certificates are granted without sufficient guarantees for practical ability in teaching, and such ability is not sufficiently rewarded or encouraged.

(2) The training schools are maintained inadequately, with difficulty; are not fully occupied, nor always with the class of students best adapted for training.


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(3) A large proportion of the pupil-teachers who have completed their term of service do not enter the training schools.

(4) The standard of instruction in the training schools might be raised advantageously with especial reference to the subjects of elementary instruction.

(5) No adequate encouragement is offered to prolong the continuance of students under training beyond a single year.

Resolved - 1. To remove the limitation at present imposed on the admission of Queen's scholars.*

2. To renew Queen's Scholarships for a second year to all Queen's Scholars of one year's standing who pass a satisfactory examination at the end of it.

3. To allow such a further number of Queen's Scholarships to duly qualified candidates as, with the number reserved for the existing Queen's Scholars, shall occupy the whole of the accommodation in each college under inspection reported by the principal to be unoccupied by other students after the following Christmas. Such a Report would be called for about the beginning of November in each year.

Their Lordships will require to be satisfied with the provision made for lodging and training the entire number of students.

4. To promote in training schools the study of the subjects proper to elementary instruction, their Lordships will grant augmentations of salary of 100 annually to such resident lecturers as shall receive, independently of those augmentations, salaries of not less than 150 annually

*Total number of students capable of being accommodated in training schools under inspection: males, 1,143; females, 788.
Total number of Queen's Scholars for year to end Christmas, 1853: males, 204: females, 118.


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(this sum may include an allowance of 50 for board and lodging), provided that each lecturer in respect to whom such an augmentation of salary is granted shall afford evidence satisfactory to their Lordships of his attainments in one, or at the most two, of the branches of knowledge enumerated below, and of skill in adapting them to the purposes of elementary instruction.

(1) In History.
(2) English Literature.
(3) Geography.
(4) Physical Science.
(5) Applied Mathematics.
In judging of the claims of candidates for such augmentations, their Lordships will seek the advice of persons eminent for their attainments in these several branches of knowledge.

Their Lordships will not grant more than one such augmentation of salary in any training school, when the number of students in residence does not exceed thirty, nor more than two where the number does not exceed sixty, nor more than three such augmentations in any case.

5. An exercise in drawing will in future form part of each examination of the students. Their Lordships will seek the assistance of the department of science and art in settling and testing this exercise. In determining certificates considerable weight will be attached to proficiency in this art.

6. The indentures of all pupil-teachers apprenticed after 1st January, 1854, will be made to end at Christmas; if the examinations fall in the first half of the year, then at the fifth Christmas thence ensuing; but if the examinations fall in the second half of the year, then at the sixth Christmas thence ensuing. Thus the indentures of all pupil-teachers admitted in January-June, 1854, will expire at Christmas, 1858, and of all pupil-teachers admitted in JuJy-December, 1854, at Christmas, 1859.


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The annual payments will by this arrangement be continued up to the date fixed for the end of the apprenticeship, so as in all cases to comprehend the time of examination for Queen's scholarships.

As a provisional measure, to meet the case of apprentices admitted before 1st January, 1854, their Lordships will consider recommendations by Her Majesty's Inspectors to continue the rate of payment for the fifth year during the period to elapse between the end of that year and 31st of the following December; such payments to be made as soon as the apprentice shall have presented himself as a candidate for a Queen's scholarship.

In consideration of this provision their Lordships will, after 1st January, 1854, cancel so much of the Minute dated 25th July, 1850, as allows apprentices to compete for Queen's scholarships in the course of the filth year' service.

In schools where the examination falls in the first half of the year, the office of pupil-teacher will be vacant during the period between Christmas and the date fixed for the examination. In such cases the duties may be discharged by the candidate or candidates for the vacancy; and my Lords will allow a sum proportionate to the time and to the number of vacancies for remunerating the services rendered; such sum to be distributed at the discretion of the managers.

In schools where the examination falls in the second half of the year, new pupil-teachers may be appointed, on the Report of Her Majesty's Inspectors, prospectively, to replace those whose apprenticeship will expire at the following Christmas.

7. Their Lordships will allow, without further examination, a Queen's scholarship of 25, to all assistants who shall for three years have acquitted themselves satisfactorily, pursuant to the Minute of 23rd July, 1852.


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Applications for such scholarships must be transmitted to their Lordships' secretary, through the principal of some training school under inspection, who is willing to receive the applicant, from the 1st of the following January, as one of the Queen's scholars then to be allowed.

8. In schools where the average attendance exceeds 100, their Lordships will apply the Minute of 23rd July, 1852, without requiring that an assistant shall be taken to be in lieu of two pupil-teachers. In such schools their Lordships will allow one assistant-teacher, in addition to one pupil-teacher, for every 100 children.

9. In schools under certificated teachers, where apprentices have obtained Queen's scholarships, their Lordships will, on the recommendation of Her Majesty's Inspector, consider the propriety of allowing a larger number of pupil-teachers than in other schools.

10. The examinations of the candidates for Queen's scholarships will be separated from that of the students, being held for three days in the week following that in which the students' examination is to begin. As many qualified students will be nominated (in the order of merit) as answer to the total number of vacancies in all the training schools. The whole number will be comprised in a single list, and each Queen's scholar so nominated will be at liberty to go to any of the training schools under inspection, the authorities of which may consent to receive him. The principal of each training school will be called upon to make a return to their Lordships of the names of his Queen's scholars for the ensuing year within twenty-one days after the date of publishing the list.

11. The students in residence will be classed at the end of each year according to the result of the examinations passed by them, but will not be certificated. No certificate of merit as a teacher will, after the examinations in


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December, 1853, be granted to the student of a training school until he shall have been for two years in charge of the same elementary school, and shall have been twice reported on as the teacher of it by Her Majesty's Inspector. Whether he is to be entitled to a certificate or not, and of what class, is to be determined by the tenor of those Reports, and by the result of his examination previous to quitting the training school. If the first Report be favourable, he will be paid for the first year on the scale of the lowest class. If the second Report be favourable, his augmentation and class of certificate will be fixed for the next five years. After which interval, and so on from time to time, the certificate and augmentation will be open to revision, according to the character of the intermediate Reports. The value of the certificate will not be fixed in the first instance higher than the first division of the third class for any student who shall have resided less than one year and a half (see following section) at a training school under inspection.

12. The grants of 20, 25, and 30, now made to each training school, according to the class obtained by the students in the examination, will, after Christmas, 1B53, be made on account of those students only who shall have completed a second year's residence.

In order, however, to meet the case of those training schools which may not immediately be able to adapt their system to a course of two years, and in which Her Majesty's Inspectors shall report that the theory and practice of teaching are efficiently imparted, according to tile most approved methods, and with all the requisite appliances, their Lordships will, as a provisional measure, grant 10 to the college for every student who, having resided one full year, and being classed in the examination at the end of it, shall continue in residence for six months longer, and during that time shall attend exclusively to such theory


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and practice, provided that Her Majesty's Inspector report favourably of each such student's powers as a teacher.

13. Their Lordships rely upon the foregoing provisions, in extension of the Minutes of 1846, to fill a constantly increasing number of elementary schools with certificated teachers. There must, however, for a considerable period remain a number of teachers disqualified by age for passing the examination for certificates, as well as a number of schools not in a position to obtain certificated teachers, in those parts of the country more particularly which it is the object of the Minute of 2nd April, 1853, to reach. Their Lordships will institute, therefore, a class of registered as distinguished from certificated teachers. An examination will be held (on the same plan as the late Easter examinations for certificates of merit) by Her Majesty's Inspectors, at convenient places throughout the country, at some time to be fixed, in 1854 and in each following year. The examination will last only three days. The candidates will not be classed, but only passed or rejected. The examination will be confined to simple questions in the following subjects:-

(1) The Holy Scriptures, the Catechism, and the Liturgy of the Church of England (in schools connected with the Church of England).
(2) English history.
(3) Geography.
(4) Arithmetic (including vulgar and decimal fractions).
(5) English grammar and composition.
(6) The theory and practice of teaching.
The object of the examination will be to ascertain sound, if humble attainment.

No teacher will be admitted to this examination who has not completed his or her thirty-fifth year.


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Their Lordships will require all uncertificated teachers in schools, taking advantage of the Minute of 2nd April, 1853, or having pupil-teachers apprenticed to them, to attend these examinations.

CIRCULAR LETTER ADDRESSED TO HER MAJESTY'S INSPECTORS OF SCHOOLS RELATIVE TO FOREGOING MINUTE

Committee of Council on Education,
Council Office, Downing Street,
26th November, 1853.

SIR,

With reference to the Supplementary Minute of 20th August, 1853, I am directed to inform you that my Lords have received various representations from the authorities of the training schools under inspection.

These representations embrace many particulars, which will require separate answers, but as all the memorialists, in one form or other, advert to the 12th section of the Minute, it will be the more convenient course to deal with the memorials to this extent collectively.

There are very few who maintain the sufficiency of a single year's training in a normal college, and those who do so dwell chiefly on the effect which the necessity of remaining for a second year will have in diminishing the supply of teachers.

My Lords consider that this objection is over-ruled by other considerations. The Minutes of 1846 contemplate three years as the period of training, and their Lordships do not now regard such a term as excessive. In proportion as the pupil-teachers come to form the body from which the class of schoolmasters and schoolmistresses is to be recruited, it becomes of increased importance to give effect to normal training. These young persons are drawn for the most part from very humble homes; they have learnt the routine of teaching, and a few elementary


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subjects, in the day-schools where they have served their apprenticeship; but the first, and very often the last, point in their career at which they are brought into intimate and domestic contact with persons of superior cultivation, and are obliged to conform to a higher standard of manners and habits, is in the normal college. My Lords, therefore, have fully determined to place some encouragement (both as regards the college and the student) on the side of training, except in the cases herein-after mentioned, for more than a single year.

It is, however, and with tolerable unanimity, contended that the proviso for this purpose in the Minute will entail a pecuniary loss upon the training colleges, in comparison with estimates formed pursuant to the Minutes of 1846 and 1850.

The amount of the Queen's scholarships (it is argued) comes in lieu of the fee which the student must otherwise pay. If the Queen's scholarship were all that the Government offered, a college which had a sufficient number of applications for admittance from paying students would have no pecuniary motive to receive Queen's scholars.

In reply to this argument it must be stated that, as a matter of fact, the full fee is not received from the whole number of paying students. Mr. Moseley, in his last printed Report (Minutes of 1852-3, vol. I, pp. 257-9) states that he found 433 such students resident in thirteen colleges, and the amount received in school fees for the then past year 6,753 13s. 9d. Now this latter sum, when divided among 433 students, gives less than 15 7s. 3d. per student. A Queen's scholar, therefore, who brings 20 or 25 does more than replace such a student. If there be any colleges in which the room not now occupied by Queen's scholars is filled by other students (equally qualified to pass the examination at the end of the year) who pay the nominal fee, such cases may indeed form


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exceptions to the last statement; but they also prove how far the average sum of 15 7s. 3d. is above the actual receipt per student in the majority of normal institutions.

Again, it is urged, that the fee, even if paid in full, do not cover more than half the expense (Minutes of 1850-1, vol. I, p. 33) of training each student; and that to the extent of the other moiety [half], the several training colleges under inspection, are eleemosynary [charitable] institutions. The public grants at the end of each year for the students passing the prescribed examination came in aid of this moiety, and if such grants be henceforth withdrawn from the first year, the colleges will get so much the less aid in defraying that part of the expenditure which is not covered by the fees.

Now, in meeting this objection, it is necessary to lay down that, if the training colleges are in any fair sense to maintain the character of independent institutions, the Government cannot both fill them with Queen's scholars, and also offer a grant (equal in amount to a Queen's scholarship) at the end of each year for every student who passes the prescribed examination. Such a position, taking into account the Minutes of 6th August and 10th December, 1851, as well as the fourth paragraph in the Minute now under consideration, would be tantamount to incurring responsibility for the entire charge of maintaining the normal colleges under inspection.

At one end or the other, therefore, of the scale, some limitation must be imposed. Either the number of Queen' scholars, or the ratio of the grants made at the end of the year must be kept down. Hitherto the limitation has been applied to the number of Queen's scholarships (by the Minute of 25th July, 1850). In relaxing it, my Lords conceived, from the information before them, that they were meeting the wishes of the authorities of the several training schools under inspection, no less than the wants of the pupil-teachers.


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It was certainly far from their Lordships' intention (as declared in the preamble) to diminish the funds available for the purposes of normal training. At the same time, the extension made by the Supplementary Minute, from five-eighths (Minutes of 1850-1, vol. i., p. 83) to three-fourths, as the possible share of the State in the total expenditure, appeared to be as great an augmentation as was warrantable.

With a view to prevent any loss (so far as is consistent with the objects of the Supplementary Minute and with the considerations stated in this letter), the Lord President proposes to allow the usual grants at the end of one year's training for all Students, whether Queen's scholars or not, who, on passing the prescribed examination are: (a) More than twenty-four years of age; (b) more than twenty-two years of age, and in the second class of merit; (c) ex-assistants, pursuant to Sec. 7 in the Supplementary Minute.

His Lordship will further allow twice the ordinary grant at the end of the third year's training, for all students who are in the second class of merit; provided, however, that the Committee of Council be satisfied by the Report of Her Majesty's Inspector, that the course of training in the given college is fairly commensurate with so long a period, and that the establishment is in all respects equal to impart it.

If, with these modifications, the Minute should still appear to the authorities of any college under inspection to be such as they cannot accept without pecuniary loss, the Lord President will allow any such college (notice being given of the wish of the managers to that effect before 1st January, 1854) to abide by the Minute of 25th July, 1850.

I have the honour to be, etc.
(Signed) R.R.W. LINGEN.

To Her Majesty's Inspector of Schools.


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MlNUTE BY THE COMMITTEE OF COUNCIL ON EDUCATION, DATED 2ND JUNE, 1856, REGULATING ADMISSION OF QUEEN'S SCHOLARS AND ANNUAL EXAMINATION OF STUDENTS IN TRAINING COLLEGES

At the Council Chamber, Whitehall, the 2nd day of June, 1856.

By the Lords of the Committee on Education, of Her Majesty's most Honourable Privy Council.

Their Lordships considered:-

(1) The extent of accommodation provided in the several training colleges under inspection.

(2) The possible number of Queen's scholars (Minutes of 25th July, 1850, 20th August, 1853, 14th July, 1855), pursuant to the existing regulations.

(3) The means of inducing a larger number of the pupil-teachers, who annually complete their apprenticeship, to enter the training colleges as Queen's scholars.

There is accommodation in the training colleges under inspection for lodging 1,927 students.* The number of pupil-teachers who will respectively complete their apprenticeships in each of the next five years is 1,018, 1,322, 1,827, 2,208, 2,149.

Queen's scholarships may be held (by renewal) for two years. The number of such scholarships annually vacant, therefore, if the system were in complete operation, would be fully 1,000.

*Exclusively of those students in Scotland (upwards of 300) who lodge out of college.


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Their Lordships resolved:-

(1) To extend the provisional measure (Minute of 20th August, 1853), "whereby pupil-teachers admitted before 1st January, 1854, may continue to receive the rate of payment for the fifth year during the period to elapse between the end of that year and the 31st of the following December", so far as to allow the period in question to be passed either in the pupil-teacher's own school, or at a training college under inspection, provided that the principal of the college (with the consent of the managers of the pupil-teacher's own school) apply to the Committee of Council for the pupil-teacher's admission, and forward a written authority from the parent or guardian of the pupil-teacher to receive, on his or her account, the payment due on 31st December.*
The Committee of Council will not further interfere with the terms of admission, up to 31st December, settled between the principal of the college and the friends of the pupil-teacher.

If the pupil-teacher fail in the examination for a Queen's scholarship, the Committee of Council undertake no responsibility beyond making good the payment due on 31st December.*

Their Lordships further resolved:-

(2) To make it a rule to extend Queen's scholarships to a second year's residence, in all cases where the authorities of the college apply for such extension.

The examinations for admission, and at the end of the year, will continue to determine the class of the scholarship (Minute of 14th July, 1855), as at present.

*In Scotland, 30th June.


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Their Lordships further resolved:-

(3) To modify the system of examination at the end of the first year's residence, so far as to add to the present classes a schedule of students who are to be required to take up the first year's subjects again (viz., at the end of the second year), but without forfeiture of their scholarships, or of the lowest grant to the college in respect of tile past year's training; provided, however:-
(a) That the grant and certificate at the end of the second year be at the rate and of the degree corresponding to the papers.

(b) That students quitting the college, with no higher rank than that of the first year's schedule be regarded in all respects as uncertificated, until they shall have completed another year's residence, and passed the proper examination at the end of it.

The principal shall be at liberty, by notice in writing to the Committee of Council, before 30th June* in each year, to designate any student who may have appeared in the lowest class at the end of the previous (first) year's residence, as proper to be examined again upon the same terms as the students included in the schedule; but such designation on the part of the principal shall not affect the privileges attached to the student's rank in the previous examination.

Their Lordships further resolved:-

(4) To open the examination for Queen's scholarships to all competitors who might be selected and presented by the authorities of the several colleges on their own responsibility, subject to no other condition than that the candidates be more than eighteen years old, and (if pupil-teachers) have not deserted their service.
*In Scotland, 31st December.


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The admission of Queen's scholars will be regulated as follows:-
All the candidates who reach the prescribed standard will be arranged (pursuant to Section X. of the Minute dated 20th August, 1853) in the order of merit, irrespectively of their having been pupil-teachers or not.

From among the candidates thus declared to be admissible, the authorities of each college will be at liberty to select Queen's scholars in any proportion that does not allot more than 10 per cent. of the total accommodation in each establishment to Queen's scholars who have not been pupil-teachers. Before their Lordships allow this rate to be exceeded in any college, they will require to have before them nominal returns of all the candidates selected as Queen's scholars in the different colleges, and their Lordships will judge from these returns what further admissions may be sanctioned from the same class.

(5) In addition to the candidates admitted by competition, Queen's scholarships will continue to be offered to the following persons:-
(a) Assistant teachers of three years' standing. (Minutes of 1854-5, Vol. I., p. 11, Sect. 7.)

(b) Resident students in normal colleges (not having been pupil-teachers) who are more than 20 years old, and who have succeeded in passing the examination (including the schedule) at the end of their first year's residence. (Ibid., p. 32.)

(c) Teachers in charge of schools, and already certificated, but who have not yet resided more than one year in a training college. (Minutes of 1855-6, p. 33, and Parochial Union School Reports of 1855-6, p. 10.)


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(d) Teachers in night schools. (Minutes of 1854-5, p. III.)
(6) Their Lordships considering the increased number of pupil-teachers who will be available as candidates in December 1858,* and thenceforward, reserve to themselves discretion to continue the examination in December 1858* to the class of candidates at present admissible, should their Lordships in the meantime judge it to be advisable to do so, but, in any such event, notice will be given before December 1857.†


CIRCULAR TO HER MAJESTY'S INSPECTORS OF SCHOOLS, EXPLANATORY OF FOREGOING MINUTE, DATED 2ND JUNE, 1856, RELATING TO QUEEN'S SCHOLARS AND STUDENTS IN TRAINING COLLEGES

Education Department,
3rd June, 1856.

SIR,

IN forwarding the enclosed copy of a recent Minute‡ by the Committee of Council, for your information, I am directed by the Lord President to add the following account of its provisions and object:-

1. A considerable number of the pupil-teachers are lost to the training colleges at the end of their apprenticeship, because, during the interval which now occurs between that epoch in their career and the examination for Queen's scholarships, they are easily induced to accept offers of immediate employment. Their Lordships propose to afford to the most promising among them the means of going into immediate residence at a training college. The period which pupil-teachers pass at the college, between

*In Scotland, June 1859.

†In Scotland, June 1858.

‡Minute dated 2nd June, 1856, suprà.


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the end of their apprenticeship and the examination for Queen's scholarships in December, will reckon simply as supernumerary time, and will not be counted in their period of training,

After mature deliberation, their Lordships have determined that it would not be expedient to abandon the present plan of one uniform competitive examination for Queen's scholarships. The prospect of such an examination braces the whole system of apprenticeship; and it is hoped that, by allowing the candidates to come into provisional residence, they may be removed from the temptation, to which they are now exposed, of passing into employment instead of into training.

The principals of normal colleges have not been able to reckon with certainty whether a Queen's scholar of the first year would be continued in the same character for the second year, and this period of doubt has covered nearly the first quarter of each year, i.e., until the revision of the exercises worked at the examination in the preceding December has been completed. By the new Minute, every Queen's scholar of the first year will henceforth become a Queen's scholar of the second year, by the simple fact that his name bas been returned by the principal for continuance.

3. The training colleges have suffered in two ways, by the failure of students to pass the first year's examination satisfactorily. If the student has been rejected, the college has lost the grant for his first year's training; if, being doubtfully qualified, he has nevertheless managed to pass, such a candidate has often been simply a burden and hindrance to the second year's course of study. Henceforth, there will be an intermediate class, at the end of the first year, for those students who, without loss to the college in respect of the past year, may be required to repeat that year's course of study. It will still be possible


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for students to fail altogether in the examination, i.e. not to reach the intermediate class or "schedule." No grant will be allowed on the examination passed by such students; but, if they are already Queen's scholars, and have been recommended by the principal for continuance their scholarships will not be withdrawn by the Committee of Council.

4. As the admission of the pupil-teachers into provisional residence during the current year of training, in the normal colleges, will act soonest upon those colleges which are comparatively empty, and may so far tend to cut off a portion of the supply of pupil-teachers who would otherwise have resorted to colleges now full, their Lordships have thrown open the examination for Queen's scholarships to a new class of competitors, and they anticipate that a considerable supply of candidates may be found among young persons who are now assistants in private schools, among untrained schoolmasters and schoolmistresses desirous of improving their attainments, among Sunday school teachers, and, generally, among all those individuals with a natural aptitude for the work of instruction who become known from time to time to the clergy and other promoters of education, and who, with a little preparatory assistance in their private studies, may readily be made to reach the standard of examination.

By the joint operation of these measures, my Lords confidently anticipate that the vacancies now remaining unfilled (about 300 out of 1,900) in the several normal colleges will find well-qualified occupants.

As the vacancies are far from being equally distributed among the several colleges, my Lords take this opportunity to record their opinion that the emptiness of certain institutions, in comparison with others, is not due to circumstances which imply inferiority; and it may be important to add that, as the examinations are absolutely the same


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everywhere, so, when a student has once passed those examinations, and has entered upon charge of a school the question of the college in which he may have been trained is never again mooted by my Lords in determining his rank or estimation as a certificated master.

I have the honour to be, &c.
(Signed) R.R.W. LINGEN.

To Her Majesty's Inspector of Schools.




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MINUTE BY THE COMMITTEE OF COUNCIL ON EDUCATION, DATED 4TH MAY, 1859; CANCELLING SECTION 9 IN THE MINUTE OF 20TH AUGUST, 1853

THEIR Lordships resolved

5. To cancel Sec. 9 in the Minute of 20th August, 1853, and in no school to allow pupil-teachers to be hereafter apprenticed at the expense of the Parliamentary fund: (a) in a greater proportion than one pupil-teacher for every forty scholars in average attendance during the year preceding the date of inspection nor (b) in a greater proportion than four pupil-teachers to the same master or mistress.



Orders in Council 1839 | Revised Code 1862