Legislation

On this page:

Introduction

Acts of Parliament

Statutory Instruments


Legislation
relating to children, schools and education

Crown copyright material is reproduced under the Open Government Licence for public sector information.



Introduction

This page lists, in chronological order, all the Acts of the UK Parliament relating to children, schools and education passed since 1721, of which 263 (including every relevant Act since 1944) are online.

The list also includes one Act from the reign of Elizabeth I (1571); 13 Acts of the Northern Ireland Parliament passed between 1947 and 1966 (indicated by 'NI'); and one Act of the Scottish Parliament (2000 Scot asp 6).

Listed separately are 33 Statutory Instruments - 12 relating to England and Wales and 21 relating to Northern Ireland. I am indebted to Leslie Curtis who supplied me with copies of the Northern Ireland documents.

The Acts are presented here as originally enacted: ie without later amendments. Page numbers (where they do not begin at 1) are taken from the Law Reports, an annual publication containing all the Acts for a particular year.

Note on the numbering of Acts of Parliament

The United Kingdom was formed by the Act of Union in 1707. It was first known as the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707-1801), then the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801-1927) and, since 1927, as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Until 1963, Sessions of Parliament were numbered according to the year of the monarch's reign. In each Session, the Acts passed were given chapter numbers. For example, the Universities Act 1825 was Chapter 97 for the year 1825, which was the 6th year of George IV's reign. You may therefore see it referred to as: 6 Geo. 4 c. 97 (year - monarch - chapter).

This was a cumbersome system! Sometimes parliamentary sessions included parts of two years of a monarch's reign, as in the case of Victoria. Thus the Poor Law (Schools) Act 1848 is 11 & 12 Vict. c. 82. And in a handful of cases a session even included parts of the reigns of two monarchs - for example the Endowed Schools (Ireland) Act 1830 is referred to 11 Geo 4 & 1 Will. 4 c. 56.

Since 1963 a much simpler system has operated. Acts are now referred to simply by their calendar year and chapter number. For example, the Children and Young Persons Act 1969 is 1969 c. 54.

Formatting

The formatting of Acts of Parliament changed in the late 1990s. Previously, the headings of sections and the references to other Acts were printed in small type in the margin.

Now, headings are printed in bold type and references to other Acts are shown in brackets, both in the body of the text.

This arrangement is much clearer, especially on a computer screen, so I have reformatted all the Acts and Statutory Instruments on this modern system.

Statutory Instruments

Statutory Instruments (SIs) are a form of legislation which allow the provisions of an Act of Parliament to be subsequently brought into force or altered without Parliament having to pass a new Act. They are sometimes referred to as secondary, delegated or subordinate legislation.



Acts of Parliament

Elizabeth I

1571 Oxford and Cambridge Act (13 Eliz 1. c. 29): provided for the incorporation of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, giving or confirming a range of privileges.

George I

1721 Sevenoaks Grammar School and Charity Act (8 Geo. 1 c. 31)

George II

1743 Universities (Wine Licences) Act (17 Geo. 2 c. 40)

1746 University of St Andrews Act (20 Geo. 2 c. 32)

George III

1768 Gresham College etc Act (8 Geo. 3 c. 32)

1771 Morden College Kent Act (11 Geo. 3 c. 10)

1774 Macclesfield Grammar School Act (14 Geo. 3 c. 51)

1776 Natural-born Children of Aliens Act (16 Geo. 3 c. 52)

1777 Rugby School and Alms-houses Act (17 Geo. 3 c. 71)

1778 Henley Grammar School Act (18 Geo. 3 c. 41)

1780 Poor Apprentices Act (20 Geo. 3 c. 36)

1788 Chimney Sweepers Act (28 Geo. 3. c. 48): the first of six Acts regulating the work of chimney sweepers. It set the minimum age at which boys could be employed to climb and clean chimneys at 8 years. (See also the Acts of 1834, 1840, 1864, 1875 and 1894.)

1788 Bolton Grammar School Act (28 Geo. 3 c. 81)

1802 Factory Act (43 Geo. 3 c. 73): this Act was the first to attempt to improve conditions for factory workers and to provide some basic education for young workers. It was largely ineffectual because it failed to make provision for an adequate inspection regime.

1803 Parochial Schools (Scotland) Act (43 Geo. 3 c. 54): sought to improve the provision of education in Scotland and laid down rules concerning the employment and payment of teachers.

1805 Purchase of Advowsons by Colleges Act (45 Geo. 3 c. 101)

1808 Londonderry School Act (48 Geo. 3 c. 77)

1810 School Sites (Ireland) Act (50 Geo. 3 c. 33)

1813 Endowed Schools Act (53 Geo. 3 c. 107)

1814 Child Stealing Act (54 Geo. 3 c. 101)

1816 Transfer of Stock of Hertford College Act (56 Geo. 3 c.95)

1816 Lands of Hertford College Act (56 Geo. 3 c.136)

George IV

1822 Endowed Schools Act (3 Geo. 4 c. 79)

1824 St David's College Act (5 Geo. 4 c. 101)

1825 Universities Act (6 Geo. 4 c. 97): authorised the Chancellors of Oxford and Cambridge to appoint Constables to help maintain 'peace and good order' in the university precincts and sought to deal with prostitution, which was a particular problem in Oxford.

1825 Deserted Children (Ireland) Act (6 Geo. 4 c. 102)

1827 Deserted Children (Ireland) Act (9 Geo. 4 c. 36)

1828 Deserted Children (Ireland) Act (9 Geo. 4 c. 87)

1830 Endowed Schools (Ireland) Act (11 Geo. 4 &1 Will. 4 c. 56)

William IV

1833 Factories Act (3 & 4 Will. 4 c. 103): laid down new rules regarding the employment of children and young persons and required attendance at school for younger children working in factories. It was an improvement on the 1802 Factory Act in that it created an inspectorate, but it allocated no funds for the education it required.

1834 Chimney Sweepers Act (4 & 5 Will. 4 c. 35): the second of six Acts regulating the work of chimney sweepers. Repealed the 1788 Act and set the minimum age for climbing chimneys at 10 years. (See also the Acts of 1788, 1840, 1864, 1875 and 1894).

1834 Poor Law (Amendment) Act (4 & 5 Will. 4 c. 76): proposed that all relief for the poor should be given in workhouses, and that pauper children should receive education on a daily basis. However, many poor-law guardians were hostile to the idea of educating pauper children so the Act was limited in its effect.

1836 Sites for Schoolrooms Act (6 & 7 Will. 4 c. 70)

Victoria

1838 Haileybury College Act (1 & 2 Vict. c. 22)

1838 Highland Schools Act (1 & 2 Vict. c. 87)

1839 Bastard Children Act (2 & 3 Vict. c. 85)

1840 Grammar Schools Act (3 & 4 Vict. c. 77): allowed some schools to spend endowment funds on modern and commercial subjects, but only on the death of the master.

1840 Chimney Sweepers Regulation Act (3 & 4 Vict. c. 85): the third of six Acts regulating the work of chimney sweepers. Allowed 16 year olds to be apprentices, but no one under 21 was to climb chimneys. (See also the Acts of 1788, 1834, 1864, 1875 and 1894).

1841 School Sites Act (4 & 5 Vict. c. 38): the first of five School Sites Acts passed between 1841 and 1852 which facilitated the purchase of land for school buildings and allowed for 'Parliamentary Grants for the Education of the Poor'.

1842 Exchange, Crown and Eton College Act (5 & 6 Vict. c. 78)

1844 Teachers of Schools (Ireland) Act (7 & 8 Vict. c. 8)

1844 School Sites Act (7 & 8 Vict. c. 37): the second of five School Sites Acts passed between 1841 and 1852 which facilitated the purchase of land for school buildings and allowed for 'Parliamentary Grants for the Education of the Poor'.

1845 Maynooth College Act (8 & 9 Vict. c. 25)

1845 Parish Schoolmasters (Scotland) Act (8 & 9 Vict. c. 40)

1845 Queen's College (Ireland) Act (8 & 9 Vict. c. 66)

1848 Poor Law (Schools) Act (11 & 12 Vict. c. 82)

1849 School Sites Act (12 & 13 Vict. c. 49): the third of five School Sites Acts passed between 1841 and 1852 which facilitated the purchase of land for school buildings and allowed for 'Parliamentary Grants for the Education of the Poor'.

1850 School Districts Act (13 & 14 Vict. c. 11)

1851 School Sites Act (14 & 15 Vict. c. 24): the fourth of five School Sites Acts passed between 1841 and 1852 which facilitated the purchase of land for school buildings and allowed for 'Parliamentary Grants for the Education of the Poor'.

1852 School Sites Act (15 & 16 Vict. c. 49): the fifth of five School Sites Acts passed between 1841 and 1852 which facilitated the purchase of land for school buildings and allowed for 'Parliamentary Grants for the Education of the Poor'.

1853 Christ College of Brecknock Act (16 & 17 Vict. c. 82)

1854 Reformatory and Industrial Schools (Scotland) Act (17 & 18 Vict. c. 74): empowered Sheriffs or Magistrates to require the attendance of vagrant children at reformatory schools, industrial schools, or other similar institutions in Scotland.

1854 Oxford University Act (17 & 18 Vict. c. 81): implemented some of the recommendations of the 1850 Royal Commission. It provided for the appointment of Commissioners to investigate the government of the university, and for the establishment of a Hebdomadal Council

1854 Youthful Offenders Act (17 & 18 Vict. c. 86): empowered magistrates and justices to send offenders under sixteen who had served a minimum of fourteen days in prison to reformatory schools for between two and five years. It was not until the 1890s that the reformatory school became a complete substitute for prison for young offenders.

1854 Parochial Schoolmaster (Scotland) Act (17 & 18 Vict. c. 98)

1854 Literary and Scientific Institutions Act (17 & 18 Vict. c. 112): the five School Sites Acts passed between 1841 and 1852 facilitated the purchase of land for school buildings; this Act did the same for 'Institutions for the Promotion of Literature and Science and the Fine Arts', and laid down rules for the regulation of such institutions.

1855 Education of Pauper Children Act (18 & 19 Vict. c. 34)

1855 Haileybury College Act (18 & 19 Vict. c. 53)

1855 Endowed Schools Inquiries (Ireland) Act (18 & 19 Vict. c. 59)

1855 Trinity College Dublin Act (18 & 19 Vict. c. 82)

1855 School Grants Act (18 & 19 Vict. c. 131): laid down stricter conditions relating to Parliamentary grants for education.

1856 Reformatory Schools (Scotland) Act (19 & 20 Vict. c. 28)

1856 Oxford University Act (19 & 20 Vict. c. 31): extended some of the provisions of the 1854 Oxford University Act.

1856 Moulton Endowed School Act (19 & 20 Vict. c. 53)

1856 Cambridge University Act (19 & 20 Vict. c. 88): implemented some of the recommendations of the 1850 Royal Commission. It provided for the appointment of Commissioners to investigate the government of the university, and for the establishment of the Council of the Senate.

1856 Oxford Colleges etc Estates Act (19 & 20 Vict. c. 95)

1856 Reformatory etc Schools Act (19 & 20 Vict. c. 109)

1856 Education Department Act (19 & 20 Vict. c. 116): this single-paragraph Act created the post of Vice-President of the Committee of Council on Education.

1857 Oxford University Act (20 & 21 Vict. c. 25): The 1854 Oxford University Act had provided for the appointment of Commissioners to inquire into the government of the university, and their powers had been extended by the 1856 Oxford University Act. This Act extended them further until 1 July 1858.

1857 Industrial Schools Act (20 & 21 Vict. c. 48)

1857 Reformatory Schools (England) Act (20 & 21 Vict. c. 55)

1857 Parochial Schoolmasters (Scotland) Act (20 & 21 Vict. c. 59)

1857 Dulwich College Act (20 & 21 Vict. c. 84)

1858 Universities and College Estates Act (21 & 22 Vict. c. 44)

1858 Universities (Scotland) Act (21 & 22 Vict. c. 83)

1858 Reformatory Schools (Ireland) Act (21 & 22 Vict. c. 103)

1859 Universities of Oxford and Cambridge Act (22 & 23 Vict. c. 19): abolished the requirement that the mayor, aldermen and citizens of Oxford and Cambridge should swear oaths in relation to the universities.

1860 Endowed Schools Act (23 & 24 Vict. c. 11)

1860 Universities and College Estates Act Extension (23 & 24 Vict. c. 59)

1860 Oxford University Act (23 & 24 Vict. c. 91): this brief Act made clear that Craven Scholarships, mention of which had been omitted from the 1854 Oxford University Act, were to be deemed to be university emoluments within the meaning of that Act.

1860 Maynooth College Act (23 & 24 Vict. c. 104)

1860 Industrial Schools Act (23 & 24 Vict. c. 108)

1861 Parochial and Burgh Schoolmasters (Scotland) Act (24 & 25 Vict. c. 107)

1861 Industrial Schools Act (24 & 25 Vict. c. 113)

1861 Industrial Schools (Scotland) Act (24 & 25 Vict. c. 132)

1862 Industrial Schools 1861 Acts Continuance Act (25 & 26 Vict. c. 10)

1862 Oxford University Act (25 & 26 Vict. c. 26): extended the University's power to make statutes regarding professorships.

1862 Poor Law (Certified Schools) Act (25 & 26 Vict. c. 43)

1864 Chimney Sweepers Regulation Act (27 & 28 Vict. c. 37): the fourth of six Acts regulating the work of chimney sweepers. Allowed 10 year olds to be employed, but no one under 16 was to be present when chimneys were being swept. (See also the Acts of 1788, 1834, 1840, 1875 and 1894).

1864 Coventry Grammar School Act (27 & 28 Vict. c. 41)

1864 Public Schools Act (27 & 28 Vict. c. 92)

1865 Oxford University (Vinerian Foundation) Act (28 & 29 Vict. c. 55): this brief Act empowered the university to make statutes relating to the Vinerian Foundation, with certain provisos.

1866 Reformatory Schools Act (29 & 30 Vict. c. 117)

1866 Industrial Schools Act (29 & 30 Vict. c. 118)

1867 Metropolitan Poor Act (30 & 31 Vict. c. 6)

1868 Industrial Schools (Ireland) Act (31 & 32 Vict. c. 25)

1868 Endowed Schools Act (31 & 32 Vict. c. 32): this brief Act prepared the ground for the 1869 Endowed Schools Act.

1868 Irish Reformatory Schools Act (31 & 32 Vict. c. 59)

1868 Public Schools Act (31 & 32 Vict. c. 118): laid down new rules for the management of Eton, Winchester, Westminster, Charterhouse, Harrow, Rugby and Shrewsbury, as recommended by the Royal Commission on the Public Schools (the 1864 Clarendon Report).

1869 University of Oxford Act (32 & 33 Vict. c. 20)

1869 Orphan and Deserted Children (Ireland) Act (32 & 33 Vict. c. 25)

1869 Endowed Schools Act (32 & 33 Vict. c. 56): the provisions of this Act applied to all schools 'wholly or partly maintained by means of any endowment' but not to the seven schools named in the 1868 Public Schools Act. It created the Endowed Schools Commission and gave its members considerable powers and duties, including the creation of new schemes of government for the schools, as recommended by the Schools Inquiry Commission (the 1868 Taunton Report).

1869 Public Schools Act (32 & 33 Vict. c. 58)

1870 Elementary Education Act (33 & 34 Vict. c. 75): in this fundamentally important Act (the 'Forster Act'), the government finally accepted responsibility for the education of the nation's children. It was, however, only the start of a process which would take more than twenty years to complete. It made provision for the elementary education of all children aged 5-13, and established school boards to oversee and complete the network of schools and to bring them all under some form of supervision.

1870 Public School Act (33 & 34 Vict. c. 84)

1871 Public Parks, Schools, and Museums Act (34 & 35 Vict. c. 13)

1871 Universities Tests Act (34 & 35 Vict. c. 26): abolished the requirement that those taking lay degrees or holding lay offices at Oxford, Cambridge or Durham should make a declaration of religious belief.

1871 Public Schools Act (34 & 35 Vict. c. 60)

1871 College Charter Act (33 & 34 Vict. c. 63): a brief Act which required that charters for the foundation of colleges or universities were to be laid before Parliament.

1871 Elementary Education (Election) Act (34 & 35 Vict. c. 94)

1872 Reformatory and Industrial Schools Acts Amendment Act (35 & 36 Vict. c. 21)

1872 Elementary Education Act Amendment Act (35 & 36 Vict. c. 27)

1872 Public Schools Act (35 & 36 Vict. c. 54)

1872 Elementary Education (Elections) Act (35 & 36 Vict. c. 59)

1872 Education (Scotland) Act (35 & 36 Vict. c. 62): the Scottish version of the 1870 Education Act. It provided for the establishment of a Board of Education for Scotland and for local school boards to maintain both elementary and secondary schools, set out arrangements for the appointment and employment of teachers, and made elementary education compulsory.

1873 Endowed Schools (Time of Address) Act (36 & 37 Vict. c. 7)

1873 Public Schools (Shrewsbury and Harrow Schools Property) Act (36 & 37 Vict. c. 41)

1873 Highland Schools Act (36 & 37 Vict. c. 53)

1873 Public Schools (Eton College Property) Act (36 & 37 Vict. c. 62)

1873 Agricultural Children Act (36 & 37 Vict. c. 67): this Act aimed to improve school attendance: children under eight were not to be employed, and those aged eight and nine had to have a certificate showing that they had attended school on at least 250 occasions in the previous year. It was largely ineffectual because the fines it imposed were derisory.

1873 Elementary Education Act (36 & 37 Vict. c. 86): made various amendments, mostly of an administrative nature, to the provisions of the 1870 Elementary Education Act.

1873 Endowed Schools Act (36 & 37 Vict. c. 87): made various amendments, mostly of a technical nature, to the provisions of the 1869 Endowed Schools Act.

1874 Public Works Loan (School Loans) Act (37 & 38 Vict. c. 9)

1874 Elementary Education (Wenlock) Act (37 & 38 Vict. c. 39)

1874 Hertford College Act (37 & 38 Vict. c. 55)

1874 Infants Relief Act (37 & 38 Vict. c. 62): a brief Act which made contracts entered into by infants unenforceable.

1874 Foyle College Act (37 & 38 Vict. c. 79)

1874 Endowed Schools Act (37 & 38 Vict. c. 87): abolished the Endowed Schools Commission and transferred its functions to the Charity Commission.

1874 Elementary Education (Orders) Act (37 & 38 Vict. c. 90)

1875 Endowed Schools (Vested Interests) Act Continuance Act (38 & 39 Vict. c. 29)

1875 Intestate Widows and Children (Scotland) Act (38 & 39 Vict. c. 41)

1875 Chimney Sweepers Act (38 & 39 Vict. c. 70): the fifth of six Acts regulating the work of chimney sweepers. Required all chimney sweepers to obtain a certificate of authorisation from the local chief officer of police. (See also the Acts of 1788, 1834, 1840, 1864 and 1894.)

1875 National School Teachers Residences (Ireland) Act (38 & 39 Vict. c. 82)

1875 National School Teachers (Ireland) Act (38 & 39 Vict. c. 96)

1876 Pauper Children (Ireland) Act (39 & 40 Vict. c. 38)

1876 Elementary Education Act (39 & 40 Vict. c. 79): tightened the rules on school attendance and child employment, created a system of certificates to give free education in certain cases, and made various other administrative provisions.

1877 Board of Education (Scotland) Act (40 & 41 Vict. c. 38)

1878 Factory and Workshop Act (41 & 42 Vict. c. 16): consolidated and amended previous Acts to provide better and safer conditions of work, especially for young people and women.

1878 Intermediate Education (Ireland) Act (41 & 42 Vict. c. 66)

1878 Education (Scotland) Act (41 & 42 Vict. c. 78)

1879 Children's Dangerous Performances Act (42 & 43 Vict. c. 34)

1879 Elementary Education (Industrial Schools) Act (42 & 43 Vict. c. 48): a brief Act extending the powers of school boards in relation to the establishment and extension of industrial schools.

1879 Summary Jurisdiction Act (42 & 43 Vict. c. 49): Sections 10, 11 and 12 of this Act provided that child offenders (aged 7 and over) and juvenile offenders could be tried by magistrates, rather than appear before a jury, unless their parents objected.

1879 University Education (Ireland) Act (42 & 43 Vict. c. 65)

1879 Endowed School Acts Continuance Act (42 & 43 Vict. c. 66)

1879 National School Teachers (Ireland) Act (42 & 43 Vict. c. 74)

1880 Universities of Oxford and Cambridge (Limited Tenures) Act (43 & 44 Vict. c. 11)

1880 Industrial Schools Act Amendment Act (43 & 44 Vict. c. 15)

1880 Elementary Education Act (43 & 44 Vict. c. 23): the 'Mundella Act' obliged local authorities to make byelaws requiring school attendance.

1880 Universities and College Estates Amendment Act (43 & 44 Vict. c. 46)

1881 Leases for Schools (Ireland) Act (44 & 45 Vict. c. 65)

1882 Public Schools (Scotland) Teachers Act (45 & 46 Vict. c. 18)

1882 Intermediate Education (Ireland) Act (45 & 46 Vict. c. 69

1882 Education (Scotland) Act 1883 (46 & 47 Vict. c. 56

1884 Summary Jurisdiction over Children (Ireland) Act (47 & 48 Vict. c. 19)

1884 Loans for Schools and Training Colleges (Ireland) Act (47 & 48 Vict. c. 22)

1884 Reformatory and Industrial Schools (Manx Children) Act (47 & 48 Vict. c. 40)

1884 National School Teachers Amendment (Ireland) Act (47 & 48 Vict. c. 45)

1884 Canal Boats Act (47 & 48 Vict. c. 75)

1885 Industrial Schools (Ireland) Act (48 & 49 Vict. c. 19)

1885 School Boards Act (48 & 49 Vict. c. 38)

1885 Educational Endowments (Ireland) Act (48 & 49 Vict. c. 78)

1886 Intoxicating Liquors (Sale to Children) Act (49 & 50 Vict. c. 56)

1887 Technical Schools (Scotland) Act (50 & 51 Vict. c. 64): empowered school boards in Scotland to set up technical schools, and laid down the conditions under which they were to be conducted. In practice, few such schools were opened.

1888 Local Government Act (51 & 52 Vict. c. 41): created the county councils and county borough councils which, following the 1902 Education Act, became the local education authorities (LEAs) for their areas.

1888 Victoria University Act (51 & 52 Vict. c. 45): gave graduates of Victoria University (Manchester) the same employment rights as those of Oxford, Cambridge and London.

1889 Prince of Wales's Children Act (52 & 53 Vict. c. 35)

1889 Welsh Intermediate Education Act (52 & 53 Vict. c. 40): required each county in Wales to establish a Joint Education Committee whose duty was to prepare a scheme for intermediate and technical education in their areas.

1889 Prevention of Cruelty to, and Protection of, Children Act (52 & 53 Vict. c. 44): imposed penalties for the ill-treatment or neglect of children, prohibited their use as beggars or entertainers in streets or licensed premises, and set out arrangements for the care of such ill-used children.

1889 Technical Instruction Act (52 & 53 Vict. c. 76): empowered county and county borough councils to make grants to secondary schools and to provide scholarships.

1890 Education Code (1890) Act (53 & 54 Vict. c. 22)

1890 Education of Blind and Deaf-Mute Children (Scotland) Act (53 & 54 Vict. c. 43): required school boards in Scotland to pay for the education of blind and deaf-mute children if their parents were unable to do so, and empowered the boards, with the consent of the Scotch Education Department, to establish or contribute to the costs of schools for such children.

1891 Custody of Children Act (54 & 55 Vict. c. 3): a brief Act which laid down new rules relating to parents' rights in relation to the custody of their children.

1891 Army Schools Act (54 & 55 Vict. c. 16): a brief Act extending to army schools the benefits of endowments relating to elementary schools.

1891 Reformatory and Industrial Schools Act (54 & 55 Vict. c. 23)

1891 Elementary Education Act (54 & 55 Vict. c. 56): effectively introduced free elementary education for all by requiring central government to pay a 'fee grant' of ten shillings (50p) for each child between the ages of 3 and 15 and by prohibiting the charging of fees in elementary schools.

1891 Schools for Science and Art Act (54 & 55 Vict. c. 61): a brief Act which permitted schools and other institutions for science and art to be transferred to the care of local authorities.

1892 Betting and Loans (Infants) Act (55 & 56 Vict. c. 4): made it illegal to incite children to bet or borrow money.

1892 Technical and Industrial Institutions Act (55 & 56 Vict. c. 29): facilitated the acquisition of land by the governors of technical and industrial institutions.

1892 Boards of Management of Poor Law District Schools (Ireland) Act (55 & 56 Vict. c. 41)

1892 Irish Education Act (55 & 56 Vict. c. 42)

1892 Education and Local Taxation Account (Scotland) Act (55 & 56 Vict. c. 51)

1892 Technical Instruction Amendment (Scotland) Act (55 & 56 Vict. c. 63): clarified and amended the powers of local authorities in Scotland to provide technical instruction.

1893 Day Industrial Schools (Scotland) Act (56 & 57 Vict. c. 12)

1893 Reformatory Schools (Scotland) Act (56 & 57 Vict. c. 15)

1893 Irish Education Act (56 & 57 Vict. c. 41)

1893 Elementary Education (Blind and Deaf Children) Act (56 & 57 Vict. c. 42): obliged parents of blind or deaf children to ensure that they received appropriate elementary education, and required school authorities to make better provision for them.

1893 Reformatory Schools Act (56 & 57 Vict. c. 48)

1893 Elementary Education (School Attendance) Act (56 & 57 Vict. c. 51)

1894 Prevention of Cruelty to Children (Amendment) Act (57 & 58 Vict. c. 27)

1894 Industrial Schools Acts Amendment Act (57 & 58 Vict. c. 33)

1894 Prevention of Cruelty to Children Act (57 & 58 Vict. c. 41)

1894 Cheltenham College Act (57 & 58 Vict. c. ciii): provided for a new governing body for the College and set out its powers and duties.

1894 Chimney Sweepers Act (57 & 58 Vict. c. 51): the last of six Acts regulating the work of chimney sweepers. Prohibited chimney sweepers from 'cold calling' (as it is known today) to sell their services. (See also the Acts of 1788, 1834, 1840, 1864 and 1875.)

1895 Reformatory and Industrial Schools (Channel Islands Children) Act (58 & 59 Vict. c. 17)

1897 Voluntary Schools Act (60 & 61 Vict. c. 5): provided voluntary elementary schools with annual Exchequer grants of up to five shillings (25p) per child and exempted the schools from paying rates.

1897 Elementary Education Act (60 & 61 Vict. c. 16): amended Section 97 of the 1870 Elementary Education Act to allow for a small increase in expenditure per child.

1897 School Board Conference Act (60 & 61 Vict. c. 32)

1897 Education (Scotland) Act (60 & 61 Vict. c. 62)

1898 Pauper Children (Ireland) Act (61 & 62 Vict. c. 30)

1898 Libraries Offences Act (61 & 62 Vict. c. 53): a brief Act providing for penalties of up to 2 for anyone behaving badly in a public library.

1898 Universities and College Estates Act (61 & 62 Vict. c. 55)

1898 Elementary School Teachers (Superannuation) Act (61 & 62 Vict. c. 57): set out arrangements for paying pensions and incapacity benefits to certificated teachers in elementary schools.

1898 University of London Act (61 & 62 Vict. c. 62)

1899 Reformatory Schools Act (62 & 63 Vict. c. 12)

1899 Elementary Education (School Attendance) Act 1893 Amendment Act (62 & 63 Vict. c. 13)

1899 Elementary Education (Defective and Epileptic Children) Act (62 & 63 Vict. c. 32): empowered school authorities to ascertain the number of 'defective' or epileptic children in their areas, and to make appropriate educational provision for them; it required the parents of such children to ensure that they received appropriate elementary education; and it set the upper age limit for the compulsory education of such children at 16.

1899 Board of Education Act (62 & 63 Vict. c. 33): established the Board of Education (replacing the Education Department) and set out its powers and duties. It also provided for a Consultative Committee to frame regulations for a register of teachers and to advise the Board on educational matters.

1900 Mines (Prohibition of Child Labour Underground) Act (62 & 63 Vict. Sess. 2 c. 21)

1900 Elementary School Teachers Superannuation (Isle of Man) Act (62 & 63 Vict. Sess. 2 c. 38)

1900 Elementary School Teachers Superannuation (Jersey) Act (62 & 63 Vict. Sess. 2 c. 40)

1900 Intermediate Education (Ireland) Act (63 & 64 Vict. Sess. 2 c. 43)

1900 Elementary Education Act (63 & 64 Vict. Sess. 2 c. 53): amended previous Acts in relation to expenses and attendance byelaws.

Edward VII

1901 Education Act (1 Edw. 7 c. 11): the 1899 Cockerton Judgement prevented school boards from funding 'higher tops' (advanced classes) and higher grade schools. This brief Act permitted them to continue doing so for one further year.

1902 University of Wales Act (2 Edw. 7 c. 14): a brief Act which gave graduates of the University of Wales the same employment rights as those of Oxford, Cambridge, London and Victoria University (Manchester).

1902 Education Act (2 Edw. 7 c. 42): the 'Balfour Act' established local education authorities (LEAs) to replace the school boards, and created a system of secondary education integrating higher grade elementary schools and fee-paying secondary schools.

1903 Education (Provision of Working Balances) Act (3 Edw. 7 c. 10)

1903 Elementary Education Amendment Act (3 Edw. 7 c. 13): a brief Act amending Section 2 (6) of the 1899 Elementary Education (Defective and Epileptic Children) Act.

1903 Poor Law (Dissolution of School Districts and Adjustments) Act (3 Edw. 7 c. 19)

1903 Education (London) Act (3 Edw. 7 c. 24): extended to London the provisions of the 1902 Education Act.

1903 Employment of Children Act (3 Edw. 7 c. 45): empowered local authorities to make byelaws prohibiting or restricting the employment of children and young persons below the age of 16.

1904 University of Liverpool Act (4 Edw. 7 c. 11): a brief Act which gave graduates of the University of Liverpool the same employment rights as those of Oxford, Cambridge, London and Victoria University (Manchester).

1904 Leeds University Act (4 Edw. 7 c. 12): a brief Act which gave graduates of Leeds University the same employment rights as those of Oxford, Cambridge, London and Victoria University (Manchester).

1904 Prevention of Cruelty to Children Act (4 Edw. 7 c. 15)

1904 Education (Local Authority Default) Act (4 Edw. 7 c. 18)

1906 Education of Defective Children (Scotland) Act (6 Edw. 7 c. 10)

1906 Education (Provision of Meals) Act (6 Edw. 7 c. 57): empowered local education authorities to provide buildings and fittings for 'school canteen committees', and, with the consent of the Board of Education, to subsidise the cost of meals in cases where parents were unable to pay. These powers were extended in the 1914 Education (Provision of Meals) Act.

1907 Education (Administrative Provisions) Act (7 Edw. 7 c. 43): extended the powers of local education authorities in relation to the acquisition of sites for schools, scholarships for secondary education (the 'free place' system), the provision of holiday activities, and medical inspections of elementary school children.

1908 Endowed Schools (Masters) Act (8 Edw. 7 c. 39)

1908 Education (Scotland) Act (8 Edw. 7 c. 63)

1908 Children Act (8 Edw. 7 c. 67)

1909 Local Education Authorities (Medical Treatment) Act (9 Edw. 7 c. 13)

1909 Education (Administrative Provisions) Act (9 Edw. 7 c. 29)

Edward VII/George V

1910 Duke of York's School (Chapel) Act (10 Edw. 7 & 1 Geo 5 c. 16)

1910 Children Act 1908 Amendment Act (10 Edw. 7 & 1 Geo 5 c. 25)

1910 Education (Choice of Employment) Act (10 Edw. 7 & 1 Geo 5 c. 37)

George V

1911 Education (Administrative Provisions) Act (1 & 2 Geo. 5 c. 32)

1912 Elementary School Teachers (Superannuation) Act (2 & 3 Geo. 5 c. 12)

1913 Children (Employment Abroad) Act (3 & 4 Geo. 5 c. 7): made it illegal to take a child abroad to perform for profit, and required a licence to be obtained in the case of a young person.

1913 Education (Scotland) Act (3 & 4 Geo. 5 c. 12)

1913 Education (Scotland) (Glasgow Electoral Divisions) Act (3 & 4 Geo. 5 c. 13)

1913 Mental Deficiency Act (3 & 4 Geo. 5 c. 28): set out arrangements for dealing with those considered to be 'mentally defective'. Local education authorities were to identify 'defective' children aged 7 to 16 in their areas.

1913 Intermediate Education (Ireland) Act (3 & 4 Geo. 5 c. 29): a brief Act which prohibited the holding of public examinations for pupils aged under 14; empowered the Intermediate Education Board for Ireland to conduct annual inspections of intermediate schools; and extended the powers of the Board in relation to superannuation.

1914 Sheffield University Act (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 4): a brief Act which gave graduates of the University of Sheffield the same employment rights as those of Oxford, Cambridge, London, Victoria (Manchester), Liverpool and Leeds.

1914 Education (Provision of Meals) Act (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 20): extended the powers of local education authorities to provide meals for undernourished elementary school children.

1914 Education (Scotland) (Provision of Meals) Act (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 35)

1914 Intermediate Education (Ireland) Act (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 41)

1914 Elementary Education (Defective and Epileptic Children) Act (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 45): the 1899 Elementary Education (Defective and Epileptic Children) Act had empowered school authorities to make appropriate provision for 'defective' children. This Act made it a duty in respect of children aged 7 and over.

1914 Elementary School Teachers (War Service Superannuation) Act (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 66)

1914 Education (Scotland) (War Service Superannuation) Act (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 67)

1915 Universities and Colleges (Emergency Powers) Act (5 & 6 Geo. 5 c. 22)

1915 Education (Small Population Grants) Act (5 & 6 Geo. 5 c. 95)

1916 Education (Provision of Meals) (Ireland) Act (6 & 7 Geo. 5 c. 10)

1916 Elementary Education (Fee Grant) Act (6 & 7 Geo. 5 c. 35)

1917 Education (Provision of Meals) (Ireland) Act (7 & 8 Geo. 5 c. 53)

1918 Maternity and Child Welfare Act (8 & 9 Geo. 5 c. 29)

1918 Education Act (8 & 9 Geo. 5 c. 39): the wide-ranging 'Fisher Act' extended education provision in line with the recommendations of the 1917 Lewis Report.

1918 Education (Scotland) Act (8 & 9 Geo. 5 c. 48)

1918 School Teachers' (Superannuation) Act (8 & 9 Geo. 5 c. 55): made amendments to previous Acts relating to the superannuation of teachers, principally those of 1898 and the 1912.

1919 Public Health (Medical Treatment of Children) (Ireland) Act (9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 16)

1919 Education (Scotland) (Superannuation) Act (9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 17)

1919 Ministry of Health Act (9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 21): provided for the creation of the Ministry of Health and for the transfer to it of some of the powers of the Board of Education.

1919 Education (Compliance with Conditions of Grants) Act (9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 41)

1920 Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children Act (10 & 11 Geo. 5 c. 65): incorporated into UK law the provisions of the Conventions agreed by the International Labour Organisation of the League of Nations in 1919 and 1920.

1921 Children Act (11 & 12 Geo. 5 c. 4)

1921 Education Act (11 & 12 Geo. 5 c. 51): consolidated all previous laws relating to education including the provision of the 1918 Education Act for the school leaving age to be raised to 14.

1922 Universities (Scotland) Act (12 & 13 Geo. 5 c. 31): extended the powers of the Courts of Scottish universities in relation to the superannuation of principals and professors, and gave lecturers and readers the right to participate in the government of the universities.

1922 School Teachers (Superannuation) Act (12 & 13 Geo. 5 c. 48)

1923 Universities of Oxford and Cambridge Act (13 & 14 Geo. 5 c. 33): provided for the appointment of Commissioners to make statutes for the two universities.

1923 Education (Institution Children) Act (13 & 14 Geo. 5 c. 38)

1924 School Teachers (Superannuation) Act (14 & 15 Geo. 5 c. 12)

1924 Education (Scotland) (Superannuation) Act (14 & 15 Geo. 5 c. 13)

1925 Universities and College Estates Act (15 & 16 Geo. 5 c. 24): consolidated all the provisions of previous Acts relating to the ownership, procurement and sale of land by the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Durham, and to Eton and Winchester colleges.

1925 Education (Scotland) (Superannuation) Act (15 & 16 Geo. 5 c. 55)

1925 Education (Scotland) Act (15 & 16 Geo. 5 c. 89)

1926 Adoption of Children Act (16 & 17 Geo. 5 c. 29)

1926 University of London Act (16 & 17 Geo. 5 c. 46): provided for the appointment of Commissioners to make new statutes for the University.

1928 Education (Scotland) Act (18 & 19 Geo. 5 c. 28)

1928 Educational Endowments (Scotland) Act (18 & 19 Geo. 5 c. 30)

1929 Local Government Act (19 & 20 Geo. 5 c. 17): provided for the reorganisation of local government services, including education, in England and Wales.

1929 Local Government (Scotland) Act (19 & 20 Geo. 5 c. 25): provided for the reorganisation of local government services, including education, in Scotland.

1930 Children (Employment Abroad) Act (20 & 21 Geo. 5 c. 21)

1930 Illegitimate Children (Scotland) Act (20 & 21 Geo. 5 c. 33)

1930 Education (Scotland) Act (20 & 21 Geo. 5 c. 36)

1930 Adoption of Children (Scotland) Act (20 & 21 Geo. 5 c. 37)

1931 Educational Endowments (Scotland) Act (21 & 22 Geo. 5 c. 5)

1931 Adoption of Children (Scotland) Act (21 & 22 Geo. 5 c. 37)

1932 Universities (Scotland) Act (22 & 23 Geo. 5 c. 26): extended the powers of the Courts of Scottish universities in relation to appointments to theological chairs and the making of ordinances, and removed certain historic religious restrictions.

1932 Children and Young Persons Act (22 & 23 Geo. 5 c. 47)

1933 Children and Young Persons Act (23 & 24 Geo. 5 c. 12): consolidated previous legislation relating to the welfare and employment of young people and the treatment of young offenders.

1933 Education (Necessity of Schools) Act (23 & 24 Geo. 5 c. 29)

1934 Adoption of Children (Workmen's Compensation) Act (24 & 25 Geo. 5 c. 34)

1935 Educational Endowments (Scotland) Act (25 & 26 Geo. 5 c. 5)

George V/Edward VIII

1936 Education Act (26 Geo. 5 & 1 Edw. 8 c. 41): provided for the leaving age to be raised to 15 in September 1939 (though this was postponed because of the outbreak of war) and encouraged the churches to provide secondary schools by offering building grants of up to 75 per cent for new 'Special Agreement' schools.

1936 Education (Scotland) Act (26 Geo. 5 & 1 Edw. 8 c. 42)

Edward VIII/George VI

1937 Education (Deaf Children) Act (1 Edw. 8 & 1 Geo. 6 c. 25): a brief Act which amended section 51(2) of the 1921 Education Act to lower the school starting age for deaf children.

1937 Children and Young Persons (Scotland) Act (1 Edw. 8 & 1 Geo. 6 c. 37): the Scottish version of the 1933 Children and Young Persons Act made provisions relating to the care, well-being and employment of children and young persons, and set out arrangements for the treatment of juvenile offenders.

1937 Physical Training and Recreation Act (1 Edw. 8 & 1 Geo. 6 c. 46): provided for the establishment of two National Advisory Councils for Physical Training and Recreation (one for England, one for Wales) and a National College of Physical Training. It extended the powers of local authorities relating to the provision of facilities for sports and leisure activities.

1937 Factories Act (1 Edw. 8 & 1 Geo. 6 c. 67): a wide-ranging and detailed Act which consolidated all previous legislation relating to working conditions in factories and other industrial premises.

George VI

1938 Children and Young Persons Act (1 & 2 Geo. 6 c. 40)

1938 Chimney Sweepers Acts (Repeal) Act (1 & 2 Geo. 6 c. 58): repealed the remaining Chimney Sweepers Acts.

1939 Custody of Children (Scotland) Act (2 & 3 Geo. 6 c. 4)

1939 Adoption of Children (Regulation) Act (2 & 3 Geo. 6 c. 27)

1939 Senior Public Elementary Schools (Liverpool) Act (2 & 3 Geo. 6 c. 60)

1939 Education (Scotland) (War Service Superannuation) Act (2 & 3 Geo. 6 c. 96): passed at the outbreak of World War II, this Act allowed war service to count towards Scottish teachers' superannuation schemes.

1939 Universities and Colleges (Emergency Provisions) Act (2 & 3 Geo. 6 c. 106)

1939 Education (Emergency) (Scotland) Act (2 & 3 Geo. 6 c. 112)

1941 Public and Other Schools (War Conditions) Act (4 & 5 Geo. 6 c. 20)

1941 Temporary Migration of Children (Guardianship) Act (4 & 5 Geo. 6 c. 23)

1942 Education (Scotland) Act (5 & 6 Geo. 6 c. 5)

1943 Universities and Colleges (Trusts) Act (6 & 7 Geo. 6 c. 9): permitted the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, and St. Mary's College, Winchester, to make trust schemes.

1944 Guardianship (Refugee Children) Act (7 & 8 Geo. 6 c. 8)

1944 Education Act (7 & 8 Geo. 6 c. 31): one of the most important of all UK education acts, the 'Butler Act' set the structure of the post-war system of state education in England and Wales.

1945 Education (Scotland) Act (8 & 9 Geo. 6 c. 37): the Scottish version of the 1944 Education Act.

1946 Education Act (22 May): made miscellaneous amendments to the 1944 Education Act.

1946 Education (Scotland) Act (9 & 10 Geo. 6 c. 72): made further provisions building on the 1945 Education (Scotland) Act.

1947 Education (Exemptions) (Scotland) Act (10 & 11 Geo. 6 c. 36): this brief Act made temporary provision for children to miss school in order to help with harvesting the potato crop.

1947 Local Government (Scotland) Act (10 & 11 Geo. 6 c. 43): a major Act consolidating all previous legislation relating to local government in Scotland.

1947 Education Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1947 c. 3): a major Act of the Northern Ireland Parliament setting out arrangements for the post-war education system (the Northern Ireland version of the 1944 Education Act).

1948 Local Government Act (11 & 12 Geo. 6 c. 26): amended previous laws relating to local government, including education authorities. Mainly concerned with financial matters - Exchequer grants, rateable values, travelling expenses etc.

1948 Education (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act (11 & 12 Geo. 6 c. 40): amended previous legislation relating to 'children incapable of receiving education' and the minimum age of employment.

1948 Children Act (11 & 12 Geo. 6 c. 43): made provision for the care and welfare of children without parents or whose parents were considered unfit or unable to take care of them.

1948 Employment and Training Act (11 & 12 Geo. 6 c. 46): established the Youth Employment Service.

1948 Nurseries and Child-Minders Regulation Act (11 & 12 Geo. 6 c. 53): required the registration of nurseries and child-minders by local health authorities and set out arrangements for their regulation and inspection.

1949 Education (Scotland) Act (12 & 13 Geo. 6 c. 19): made miscellaneous amendments to the 1946 Education (Scotland) Act.

1949 Adoption of Children Act (12, 13 & 14 Geo. 6 c. 98): made amendments to the 1926 Adoption of Children Act and several other Acts.

1950 Education (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1950 c. 1): this Act of the Northern Ireland Parliament (not the UK Parliament in Westminster) made miscellaneous amendments to the 1947 Education Act (Northern Ireland).

1950 Education (Extension of Benefits) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1950 c. 20): this brief Act of the Northern Ireland Parliament (not the UK Parliament in Westminster) amended the 1947 Education Act (Northern Ireland) to extend certain benefits to pupils undergoing further education.

1951 Education (Amendment) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1951 c. 10): this Act of the Northern Ireland Parliament (not the UK Parliament in Westminster) made miscellaneous amendments to the 1947 Education Act (Northern Ireland).

George VI/Elizabeth II

1952 Children and Young Persons (Amendment) Act (15 & 16 Geo. 6 & 1 Eliz. 2 c. 50): made amendments to the 1933 Children and Young Persons Act and the 1948 Criminal Justice Act.

Elizabeth II

1952 Education (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1952 c. 17): this Act of the Northern Ireland Parliament (not the UK Parliament in Westminster) made miscellaneous amendments to the 1947 Education Act (Northern Ireland).

1953 Education (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act (1 & 2 Eliz. 2 c. 33): required LEAs to provide free dental treatment for children and amended the provisions of the 1944 Education Act relating to school attendance orders etc.

1953 University of St Andrews Act (1 & 2 Eliz. 2 c. 40): provided for the re-organisation of University education in St. Andrews and Dundee.

1953 School Crossing Patrols Act (1 & 2 Eliz. 2 c. 45): allowed school crossing patrols to control traffic.

1953 Education (Amendment) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1953 c. 11): this brief Act of the Northern Ireland Parliament (not the UK Parliament in Westminster) made amendments to the 1947 Education Act (Northern Ireland) and repealed the 1904 Prevention of Cruelty to Children Act.

1955 Children And Young Persons (Harmful Publications) Act (3 & 4 Eliz. 2 c. 28): banned the publication and sale of what were commonly known as 'horror comics'.

1956 Children and Young Persons Act (4 & 5 Eliz. 2 c. 24): made amendments to the 1933 Children and Young Persons Act and the 1937 Children and Young Persons (Scotland) Act relating to escapes from approved schools and remand homes.

1956 Teachers (Superannuation) Act (4 & 5 Eliz. 2 c. 53): amended previous legislation relating to teachers' pensions in England and Wales and in Scotland.

1956 Education (Scotland) Act (4 & 5 Eliz. 2 c. 75): made various amendments to the 1946 Education (Scotland) Act.

1956 Educational Endowments (Confirmation of Schemes) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1956 c. 15): a brief Act of the Northern Ireland Parliament (not the UK Parliament in Westminster) which confirmed, with modifications, certain educational endowments schemes.

1956 Education (Amendment) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1956 c. 24): this Act of the Northern Ireland Parliament (not the UK Parliament in Westminster) made amendments to the 1947 Education Act (Northern Ireland) and the 1948 Mental Health Act (Northern Ireland) regarding education functions.

1958 Matrimonial Proceedings (Children) Act (6 & 7 Eliz. 2 c. 40): sought to protect the interests of children in divorce cases.

1958 Local Government Act (6 & 7 Eliz. 2 c. 55): mainly concerned with administrative and financial matters; allowed county district councils to apply to the Minister of Education for 'excepted district' status.

1958 Children Act (6 & 7 Eliz. 2 c. 65): made new provisions for the protection of children living away from their parents and amended the law relating to adoption.

1958 Education (Amendment) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1958 c. 28): this Act of the Northern Ireland Parliament (not the UK Parliament in Westminster) made amendments to the 1947 Education Act (Northern Ireland).

1959 Education Act (7 & 8 Eliz. 2 c. 60): empowered the Minister of Education to make grants of up to 75 per cent for the building and maintenance of aided and special agreement schools (previously the limit had been 50 per cent).

1959 Mental Health Act (7 & 8 Eliz. 2 c. 72): a major Act updating previous legislation relating to the treatment of those suffering from mental incapacity; included a revised version of section 57 of the 1944 Education Act.

1960 Indecency with Children Act (8 & 9 Eliz. 2 c. 33): increased the maximum prison sentences for sexual offences against children.

1960 Education (Amendment) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1960 c. 9): this Act of the Northern Ireland Parliament (not the UK Parliament in Westminster) made miscellaneous amendments to previous legislation.

1962 Education Act (10 & 11 Eliz. 2 c. 12): required local education authorities to provide students on first degree or teacher training courses with grants, and revised the law on school leaving dates.

1962 Health Visiting and Social Work (Training) Act (10 & 11 Eliz. 2 c. 33): established two Councils to oversee training for health visitors and social workers.

1962 Education (Scotland) Act (10 & 11 Eliz. 2 c. 47): a major Act consolidating all previous legislation relating to education in Scotland.

1962 Education (Amendment) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1962 c. 11): a brief Act of the Northern Ireland Parliament (not the UK Parliament in Westminster) amending the 1947 Education Act (Northern Ireland).

1963 Remuneration of Teachers Act (1963 c. 20): a brief Act giving the Minister powers relating to the remuneration of teachers.

1963 Education (Scotland) Act (1963 c. 21): provisions relating to examinations and teachers' salaries and pensions.

1963 London Government Act (1963 c. 33): reorganised local government in London. It provided for the establishment of the Greater London Council (GLC) and the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA).

1963 Children and Young Persons Act (1963 c. 37): amended the the 1933 Children and Young Persons Act ('the principal Act') and the 1937 Children and Young Persons (Scotland) Act ('the principal Scottish Act').

1963 Education (Amendment) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1963 c. 27): this Act of the Northern Ireland Parliament (not the UK Parliament in Westminster) made miscellaneous amendments to previous legislation.

1964 Industrial Training Act (1964 c. 16): provided for the establishment of industrial training boards and the Central Training Council.

1964 Universities and College Estates Act (1964 c. 51): amended previous legislation relating to property held by or on behalf of universities and colleges.

1964 Public Libraries and Museums Act (1964 c. 75): placed the public library service provided by local authorities in England and Wales under the superintendence of the Secretary of State, and made provisions for regulating and improving the provision and maintenance of libraries, museums and art galleries.

1964 Education Act (1964 c. 82): this Act (promoted by Minister of Education Edward Boyle and hence known as the 'Boyle Act') allowed the creation of middle schools.

1965 Remuneration of Teachers Act (1965 c. 3): set out new provisions for determining the remuneration of teachers.

1965 Education (Scotland) Act (1965 c. 7): amended the 1963 Education (Scotland) Act.

1965 Teaching Council (Scotland) Act (1965 c. 19): provided for the establishment of the General Teaching Council for Scotland, and set out its powers and duties.

1966 Universities (Scotland) Act (1966 c. 13): amended previous legislation relating to the Universities of St. Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh, and prepared the way for the foundation of the University of Dundee.

1966 Local Government Act (1966 c. 42): includes references to education in section 14 (abolition of grants for school meals and milk) and in Schedule 1 paragraph 13(4) (adjustment of various grants for schools and colleges). Section 11 empowered the Secretary of State to make grants to local authorities which had 'substantial numbers of immigrants'.

1966 Education (Amendment) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1966 c. 18): this Act of the Northern Ireland Parliament (not the UK Parliament in Westminster) made miscellaneous amendments to previous legislation.

1967 Education Act (1967 c. 3): gave the Secretary of State greater powers in relation to grants and loans for aided and special agreement schools etc.

1968 Teachers Superannuation (Scotland) Act (1968 c. 12): amended previous legislation relating to superannuation and other benefits for Scottish teachers and their dependants.

1968 Education Act (1968 c. 17): amended previous legislation relating to procedures for making changes in the character, size or situation of county and voluntary schools.

1968 Education (No. 2) Act (1968 c. 37): made further provision for the government of colleges of education, other further education institutions and special schools maintained by local education authorities.

1969 Education (Scotland) Act (1969 c. 49): amended previous legislation relating to education in Scotland, particularly the 1962 Education (Scotland) Act.

1969 Children and Young Persons Act (1969 c. 54): amended previous legislation relating to the treatment of young offenders and children in care or in foster homes. It extended the powers and responsibilities of local authorities.

1970 Education (School Milk) Act (1970 c. 14): extended the provision of free school milk to junior pupils in middle schools.

1970 Education (Handicapped Children) Act (1970 c. 52): discontinued the classification of handicapped children as unsuitable for education at school, and transferred responsibility for the education of severely handicapped children from health authorities to local education authorities.

1971 Teaching Council (Scotland) Act (1971 c. 2): allowed membership fees for the General Teaching Council for Scotland to be deducted from teachers' salaries.

1971 Education (Scotland) Act (1971 c. 42): amended the law relating to free education and the charging of fees in Scotland.

1971 Education (Milk) Act (1971 c. 74): abolished provision of free school milk for 8- to 11-year olds (and led to the jibe 'Thatcher, Thatcher, milk snatcher').

1972 Children Act (1972 c. 44): ensured that the minimum age at which children could be employed would not be affected by any further change in the school leaving age.

1972 Local Government Act (1972 c. 70): this major Act restructured and reorganised local government in England and Wales.

1973 Education Act (1973 c. 16): amended previous legislation relating to certain educational trusts and local education authority awards to higher education students.

1973 Education (Work Experience) Act (1973 c. 23): enabled local education authorities to arrange for children under school-leaving age to have work experience as part of their education.

1973 Employment of Children Act (1973 c. 24): amended the 1933 Children and Young Persons Act and the 1937 Children and Young Persons (Scotland) Act to place further restrictions on the employment of children.

1973 National Health Service Reorganisation Act (1973 c. 32): transferred responsibility for the school health service in England and Wales from local education authorities to new Area Health Authorities (though LEAs were still responsible for dental and medical inspections): the change was effected in April 1974. A similar change took place in Scotland.

1973 Employment and Training Act (1973 c. 50): amended the 1964 Industrial Training Act; provided for the establishment of the Manpower Services Commission, the Employment Service Agency, and the Training Services Agency; and required local education authorities to provide careers advice for pupils.

1973 Education (Scotland) Act (1973 c. 59): increased the powers of the Secretary of State in relation to the employment of teachers.

1974 Local Government Act (1974 c. 7): wide-ranging Act including some provisions relating to education.

1974 Education (Mentally Handicapped Children) (Scotland) Act (1974 c. 27): required Scottish education authorities to provide for the education of mentally handicapped children.

1975 Education Act (1975 c. 2): amended the law relating to local education authority grants, awards to students at adult education colleges, and increased central government funding for aided and special agreement schools.

1975 Child Benefit Act (1975 c. 61): replaced family allowances with child benefit.

1975 Sex Discrimination Act (1975 c. 65): aimed to promote equality of opportunity between men and women, and provided for the establishment of the Equal Opportunities Commission. Education is dealt with in sections 22-28.

1975 Children Act (1975 c. 72): amended previous legislation relating to the welfare of children: dealt with adoption, children in custody and care, and fostered children; and set out the duties and responsibilities of local authorities, parents and guardians.

1976 Education (School-leaving Dates) Act (1976 c. 5): amended section 9 of the 1962 Education Act relating to the summer school leaving date.

1976 Education (Scotland) Act (1976 c. 20): miscellaneous provisions relating to school starting and leaving dates, supply of milk etc.

1976 Race Relations Act (1976 c. 74): updated the law on racial discrimination and provided for the establishment of the Commission for Racial Equality, replacing the Race Relations Board and the Community Relations Commission, which were abolished. It amended the 1975 Sex Discrimination Act to bring it into line with this Act. Education is dealt with in sections 17-19.

1976 Education Act (1976 c. 81): gave the Secretary of State the power to ask local education authorities to plan for non-selective (ie comprehensive) secondary education. It was repealed by Margaret Thatcher's Conservative government in 1979.

1978 Education (Northern Ireland) Act (1978 c. 13): facilitated the establishment in Northern Ireland of integrated schools for pupils of different religious affiliations.

1978 Protection of Children Act (1978 c. 37): made illegal the making and distribution of indecent photographs of children.

1979 Education Act (1979 c. 49): allowed local education authorities to retain selective secondary schools by repealing sections 1-3 of the 1976 Education Act.

1980 Child Care Act (1980 c. 5): consolidated previous legislation relating to the care of children by local authorities or voluntary organisations.

1980 Foster Children Act (1980 c. 6): consolidated previous legislation relating to the fostering of children in England and Wales (for Scotland, see the 1984 Foster Children (Scotland) Act).

1980 Education Act (1980 c. 20): instituted the assisted places scheme (public money for children to go to private schools), gave parents greater powers on governing bodies and over admissions, and removed LEAs' obligation to provide school milk and meals.

1980 Education (Scotland) Act (1980 c. 44): a wide-ranging Act which consolidated previous legislation and gave effect to recommendations of the Scottish Law Commission.

1980 Local Government, Planning and Land Act (1980 c. 65): a wide-ranging Act which amended previous legislation relating to various aspects of local government, including changes to the Rate Support Grant.

1981 Employment and Training Act (1981 c. 57): amended the 1964 Industrial Training Act and abolished the Employment Service Agency and the Training Services Agency.

1981 Education (Scotland) Act (1981 c. 58): extended to Scotland the Thatcher government's assisted places scheme (introduced in England by the 1980 Education Act); amended the 1965 Teaching Council (Scotland) Act; and transferred the power of appointing the Principals of the Universities of St Andrews, Glasgow and Aberdeen to the respective University Courts.

1981 Education Act (1981 c. 60): gave effect to some of the proposals of the 1978 Warnock Report Special Educational Needs.

1982 Industrial Training Act (1982 c. 10): consolidated previous legislation relating to industrial training boards.

1982 Children's Homes Act (1982 c. 20): provided for the registration, inspection and conduct of homes for children in local authority care.

1983 Education (Fees and Awards) Act (1983 c. 40): empowered the Secretary of State to require universities and further education establishments to charge foreign students higher fees.

1984 Education (Amendment) (Scotland) Act (1984 c. 6): gave the Secretary of State power to control the use of dangerous materials or apparatus in Scottish schools.

1984 Education (Grants and Awards) Act (12 April): allowed the Secretary of State to direct that up to 0.5 per cent of the budget for local education authorities should be spent on government-specified projects through Education Support Grants (ESGs).

1984 Rates Act (1984 c. 33): set limits on local authority expenditure by 'rate-capping'.

1984 Child Abduction Act (1984 c. 37): amended previous legislation relating to the abduction of children by parents or others.

1984 Foster Children (Scotland) Act (1984 c. 56): consolidated previous legislation relating to the fostering of children in Scotland (the Scottish version of the 1980 Foster Children Act).

1985 Further Education Act (1985 c. 47): empowered local education authorities to supply goods and services through further education establishments, and repealed section 28(b) of the 1975 Sex Discrimination Act in relation to teachers of physical education.

1985 Child Abduction and Custody Act (1985 c. 60): enabled the United Kingdom to ratify The Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction (the Hague Convention), and the European Convention on Recognition and Enforcement of Decisions concerning Custody of Children.

1986 Education (Amendment) Act (1986 c. 1): amended the 1984 Education (Grants and Awards) Act to double the limit on funding for education support grants to 1 per cent of local authority budgets, and removed payment for lunch duties from the 1965 Remuneration of Teachers Act.

1986 Law Reform (Parent and Child) (Scotland) Act (1986 c. 9): amended previous legislation relating to the rights of children born out of wedlock.

1986 Local Government Act (1986 c. 10): prohibited local authorities from publishing party-political material.

1986 Children and Young Persons (Amendment) Act (1986 c. 28): amended the law relating to children and young people in care.

1986 Education Act (1986 c. 40): empowered the Secretary of State to make grants to the Fellowship of Engineering and the Further Education Unit and amended the provisions of the 1980 Local Government, Planning and Land Act relating to the pooling of expenditure by local authorities.

1986 Education (No. 2) Act (1986 c. 61): required local education authorities to formulate and publish their curriculum policies, and governors to publish annual reports and hold parents' meetings; laid down rules on pupil admissions, political indoctrination and sex education; abolished corporal punishment; and ended the Secretary of State's duty to make annual reports to Parliament.

1987 Teachers' Pay and Conditions Act (1987 c. 1): abolished the negotiating procedures set up by the 1965 Remuneration of Teachers Act - from now until 1991 the Secretary of State imposed teachers' pay and conditions.

1988 Local Government Act (1988 c. 9): sought to force local authorities to put out to tender work (such as cleaning and maintenance) which had previously been undertaken by their own workforces; included the notoriously homophobic Section 28 (which was repealed by New Labour in November 2003).

1988 Employment Act (1988 c. 19): mainly concerned with imposing restrictions on the practices of trades unions. There is nothing specifically about education, but Part II deals with training for employment. The Manpower Services Commission was renamed the Training Commission.

1988 Education Reform Act (1988 c. 40): arguably the most important education act since 1944. Its major provisions concerned the curriculum (the National Curriculum, religious education and collective worship, establishment of curriculum and assessment councils); the admission of pupils to county and voluntary schools; local management of schools (LMS); grant-maintained (GM) schools; city technology colleges (CTCs); changes in further and higher education; and the abolition of the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA).

1988 School Boards (Scotland) Act (1988 c. 47): required education authorities in Scotland to establish a School Board for each school in their area.

1989 Employment Act (1989 c. 38): the main purpose of this Act was to amend the 1975 Sex Discrimination Act in order to comply with Directive No. 76/207/EEC, which called for equal treatment for men and women regarding access to employment, vocational training and promotion, and working conditions.

1989 Self-Governing Schools etc (Scotland) Act (1989 c. 39): made provision for Scottish schools to opt out of local authority control. In the event, hardly any did so.

1989 Children Act (1989 c. 41): a wide-ranging Act which reformed the law relating to local authority services, children's homes, fostering, child minding and adoption.

1990 Education (Student Loans) Act (1990 c. 6): introduced 'top-up' loans for higher education students and so began the diminution of student grants.

1991 School Teachers' Pay and Conditions Act (1991 c. 49): provided for the establishment of a teachers' pay review body but allowed the Secretary of State to ignore its recommendations.

1992 Further and Higher Education Act (1992 c. 13): removed more than 500 further education and sixth form colleges from local education authority (LEA) control and established Further Education Funding Councils (FEFCs); allowed polytechnics to apply for university status; unified the funding of higher education under the Higher Education Funding Councils (HEFCs); introduced competition for funding between institutions; abolished the Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA).

1992 Further and Higher Education (Scotland) Act (1992 c. 37): (the Scottish version of the 1992 Further and Higher Education Act) set out new arrangements for the funding and management of colleges in Scotland.

1992 Education (Schools) Act (1992 c. 38): provided for the creation of a new (privatised) system of school inspection in England and Wales.

1993 Education Act (1993 c. 35): a huge and wide-ranging Act which sought to make it easier for schools to become grant-maintained, laid down rules for pupil exclusions and for 'failing' schools, replaced the National Curriculum Council (NCC) and the School Examinations and Assessment Council (SEAC) with the School Curriculum and Assessment Authority (SCAA), and defined special educational needs.

1994 University of London Act (1994 c. 16): made new provision for the making of statutes for the University.

1994 Education Act (1994 c. 30): provided for the establishment of the Teacher Training Authority (TTA) and made new regulations relating to student unions.

1995 Children (Scotland) Act (1995 c. 36): reformed Scottish law relating to adoption, relationships between children and their parents or guardians, children's homes and local authority responsibilities.

1996 Education (Student Loans) Act (1996 c. 9): allowed the Secretary of State to subsidise private sector student loans.

1996 Education (Scotland) Act (1996 c. 43): provided for the establishment of the (SQA), replacing the the Scottish Examination Board and the Scottish Vocational Education Council; and enabled grants to be paid to providers of nursery education.

1996 Nursery Education and Grant-Maintained Schools Act (1996 c. 50): provided for the making of grants for nursery education and permitted grant-maintained schools to borrow money.

1996 Education Act (1996 c. 56): a huge Act consolidating previous legislation from the 1944 Education Act onwards.

1996 School Inspections Act (1996 c. 57): consolidated previous legislation on school inspections.

1997 Education Act (1997 c. 44): this was the Conservatives' last education act before Labour returned to power. It extended the assisted places scheme to primary schools, laid down new rules for the restraint, detention and exclusion of pupils, and replaced the National Council for Vocational Qualifications (NCVQ) and the School Curriculum and Assessment Authority (SCAA) with the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA). It was seen by many as evidence that the government was more concerned about the poor behaviour of school pupils than with the disreputable activities of some of its own MPs.

1997 Education (Schools) Act (1997 c. 59): the first education act of Tony Blair's New Labour government abolished the assisted places scheme (which had been created by Margaret Thatcher's Conservative government in section 17 of the 1980 Education Act).

1998 Education (Student Loans) Act (1998 c. 1): amended the 1990 Education (Student Loans) Act to allow public sector student loans to be transferred to the private sector.

1998 Teaching and Higher Education Act (1998 c. 30): a wide-ranging Act which included provision for the establishment of General Teaching Councils for England and Wales; arrangements for the registration and training of teachers; and provisions relating to students in higher and further education and the funding of higher education.

1998 School Standards and Framework Act (1998 c. 31): the first major education act of Tony Blair's New Labour government was a wide-ranging Act which, among other things, encouraged selection by specialisation, changed the names of types of schools, limited infant class sizes, and established Education Action Zones.

1999 Protection of Children Act (1999 c. 14): provided for a list to be kept of persons considered unsuitable to work with children and those suffering from mental impairment.

2000 Care Standards Act (2000 c. 14): a wide-ranging Act which established the National Care Standards Commission, the General Social Care Council, the Care Council for Wales, and the office of the Children's Commissioner for Wales.

2000 Carers and Disabled Children Act (2000 c. 16): required local authorities to assess the needs of carers and to provide services to support them.

2000 Learning and Skills Act (2000 c. 21): provided for the establishment of the Learning and Skills Council for England, the National Council for Education and Training for Wales, and the Adult Learning Inspectorate. It abolished the Further Education Funding Councils, required the Secretary of State's approval for external qualifications, and allowed city technology colleges to be renamed city academies.

2000 Children (Leaving Care) Act (2000 c. 35): amended the 1989 Children Act to give local authorities further responsibilities in respect of children leaving care.

2000 Standards in Scotland's Schools etc Act (2000 Scot asp 6): this wide-ranging Act was one of the first of the devolved Scottish Parliament, established in May 1999.

2001 Special Educational Needs and Disability Act (2001 c. 10): amended Part 4 of the 1996 Education Act and made further provision against discrimination on grounds of disability in schools and in further and higher education institutions.

2001 Children's Commissioner for Wales Act (2001 c. 18): amended the 2000 Care Standards Act to make further provisions relating to the role of the Children's Commissioner for Wales.

2002 Education Act (2002 c. 32): wide-ranging Act which implemented the proposals in the 2001 White Paper Schools: achieving success.

2004 Higher Education Act (2004 c. 8): provided for the establishment of the Arts and Humanities Research Council and for the appointment of a Director of Fair Access to Higher Education; set out arrangements for dealing with students' complaints about higher education institutions; and made provisions relating to grants and loans to students in higher and further education.

2004 Children Act (2004 c. 31): based on the 2003 Green Paper Every Child Matters, which sought to take a holistic view of the welfare of children, this Act provided for the establishment of Children's Commissioners for England and Wales; and made provisions regarding the services provided for children and young people by local authorities and others.

2005 Education Act (2005 c. 18): made provisions regarding school inspections and organisation, and the training of the school workforce. Section 74 provided for the Teacher Training Agency (established by the 1994 Education Act) to be renamed the Training and Development Agency for Schools (TDA).

2006 Equality Act (2006 c. 3): established the Commission for Equality and Human Rights with implications for schools.

2006 Childcare Act (2006 c. 21): set out new arrangements for the provision, regulation and inspection of childcare in England and Wales.

2006 Education and Inspections Act (2006 c. 40): a very controversial Act consisting mainly of amendments to the 1998 School Standards and Framework Act and the 2002 Education Act.

2007 Further Education and Training Act (2007 c. 25): set out new arrangements relating to further education and the Learning and Skills Council for England.

2008 Sale of Student Loans Act (2008 c. 10): allowed the government to sell student loans to private companies.

2008 Special Educational Needs (Information) Act (2008 c. 11): amended the 1996 Education Act in relation to the provision and publication of information about children with special educational needs.

2008 Children and Young Persons Act (2008 c. 23): made new provisions about the delivery of local authority social work services for children and young persons; the functions of local authorities and others in relation to children and young persons, including the enforcement of care standards in children's homes; and the independent review of determinations relating to adoption.

2008 Education and Skills Act (2008 c. 25): replaced the school leaving age of 16 with an education leaving age of 18 and made a variety of provisions relating to the education or training of young adults.

2009 Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act (2009 c. 22): created a statutory framework for apprenticeships, and established the Young People's Learning Agency for England (YPLA), the office of Chief Executive of Skills Funding, the Office of Qualifications and Examinations Regulation (Ofqual) and the School Support Staff Negotiating Body (SSSNB).

2010 Child Poverty Act (2010 c. 9): set targets relating to the eradication of child poverty and provided for the establishment of the Child Poverty Commission.

2010 Equality Act (2010 c. 15): the last major Act of Gordon Brown's New Labour administration. It replaced nine previous Acts and almost a hundred sets of regulations which had been issued over several decades. Many of its provisions had implications for schools.

2010 Children, Schools and Families Act (2010 c. 26): amended previous legislation relating to provision for children with disabilities or special educational needs, governing bodies' powers, and Local Safeguarding Children Boards; and made provision about the publication of information relating to family proceedings. It was less wide-ranging than had been intended because of the impending general election.

2010 Academies Act (2010 c. 32): Conservative Secretary of State Michael Gove's first Act provided for rapid expansion in the number of academies.

2011 Education Act (2011 c. 21): arguably one of the most retrogressive education acts of all time. It dismantled many of the structures and arrangements put in place by the New Labour governments of Tony Blair and Gordon Brown, including the the General Teaching Council for England, the Training and Development Agency for Schools, the School Support Staff Negotiating Body, the Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency and the Young People's Learning Agency for England. It ended the diploma entitlement for 16 to 18 year olds and abandoned Labour's aim of making 18 the upper age limit for participation in education.

2014 Children and Families Act (2014 c. 6): wide-ranging Act covering adoption, family justice, special educational needs and disabilities, childcare, welfare of children, the Children's Commissioner, statutory rights to leave and pay, time off work and ante-natal care, and flexible working rights.

2016 Education and Adoption Act (2016 c. 6): demonstrated the government's continuing obsession with 'failing' schools. It amended previous legislation relating to 'coasting' schools and other schools 'causing concern'.

2017 Children and Social Work Act (2017 c. 16): made provisions about looked-after children, the welfare of children, and the regulation of social workers. The implications for schools and local education authorities are dealt with in sections 4-7.

2017 Technical and Further Education Act (2017 c. 19): there is little about education in this Act: it is almost entirely concerned with the procedures to be followed when a further education institution becomes insolvent. Gone are the days when education was seen as a public service ...

2017 Higher Education and Research Act (2017 c. 29): provided for the establishment of the Office for Students (OfS) and United Kingdom Research and Innovation (UKRI) and abolished the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) and the office of Director of Fair Access to Higher Education (DFA).



Statutory Instruments

1959 School Grant Amending Regulations No. 9 (Statutory Instrument 1959/397): replaced previous school grant regulations.

1972 Education and Libraries (Northern Ireland) Order (1972 No. 1263 NI 12): this Statutory Instrument made new arrangements for education and public libraries in Northern Ireland. It provided for the establishment of five education and library boards in place of the previous eight local education authorities and sixteen library authorities.

1972 Standards for School Premises Regulations (1972 No. 2051): this Statutory Instrument consolidated and amended previous regulations prescribing the standards to which the premises of schools maintained by local education authorities were to conform. It also substituted metric units for the imperial measures used in previous regulations.

1975 Handicapped Pupils (Certificate) (Amendment) Regulations (1975 No. 328): this brief Statutory Instrument amended the form of the certificate issued by a medical officer of a local education authority showing whether a child was suffering from any disability of mind or body.

1976 Education (Northern Ireland) Order (1976 No. 58 NI 2): this Statutory Instrument made various miscellaneous amendments to the1972 Education and Libraries (Northern Ireland) Order.

1978 Education (Northern Ireland) Order (1978 No. 1040 NI 10): this Statutory Instrument made miscellaneous amendments to the 1972 Education and Libraries (Northern Ireland) Order and the 1968 Ulster College Act (Northern Ireland).

1980 Education (Northern Ireland) Order (1980 No. 1958 NI 16): this Statutory Instrument granted Education and Library Boards discretion in the provision of nursery education, removed certain supervisory powers of the Department of Education, and made various miscellaneous amendments to previous enactments.

1981 Education (School Premises) Regulations (1981 No. 909): this Statutory Instrument revoked the Standards for School Premises Regulations 1972 and made fresh provision as to the standards to which the premises of schools maintained by local education authorities were to conform.

1983 Education (Special Educational Needs) Regulations (1983 No. 29): this Statutory Instrument made regulations relating to the assessment of special educational needs and to statements of such needs under the 1981 Education Act.

1984 Education (Northern Ireland) Order (1984 No. 1156 NI 6): this Statutory Instrument dealt with the management of grant-aided schools, provision for children with special educational needs, and various other matters. It provided for the establishment of the Northern Ireland Schools Examinations Council, replacing the GCE and CSE Examinations Boards, which were abolished.

1986 Education and Libraries (Northern Ireland) Order (1986 No. 594 NI 3): this Statutory Instrument set out arrangements for the provision of education and library services in Northern Ireland. It consolidated the 1972 Education and Libraries (Northern Ireland) Order and the provisions amending that Order (as listed above).

1987 Education (Northern Ireland) Order (1987 No. 167 NI 2) (draft version): this Statutory Instrument made misellaneous provisions, including the transfer of responsibility for the education of mentally handicapped children to education and library boards

1987 Education (Corporal Punishment) (Northern Ireland) Order (1987 No. 461 NI 6): this Statutory Instrument prohibited the use of corporal punishment in grant-aided schools in Northern Ireland.

1987 Education (School Teachers' Pay and Conditions of Employment) Order (S.I. 1987/650): made under section 3 of the 1987 Teachers' Pay and Conditions Act, this Statutory Instrument set out the pay and conditions of employment of school teachers in England and Wales.

1989 Education Reform (Northern Ireland) Order (1989 No. 2406 (N.I. 20)): this wide-ranging Statutory Instrument may be seen as the Northern Ireland version of the 1988 Education Reform Act, though there are significant differences.

1990 Education (Student Loans) (Northern Ireland) Order (1990 No. 1506 NI 11): this Statutory Instrument authorised the Northern Ireland Education Department to make arrangements for enabling higher education students to receive loans towards their maintenance corresponding to those of the 1990 Education (Student Loans) Act.

1991 Education (School Teacher Appraisal) Regulations (1991 No. 1511): this Statutory Instrument required local education authorities (in respect of maintained schools) and governing bodies (of grant-maintained schools) to secure that the performance of teachers was regularly appraised.

1993 Education and Libraries (Northern Ireland) Order (1993 No. 2810 NI 12): this Statutory Instrument required education and library boards to undertake certain activities only if they could do so competitively; provided for the amalgamation of further education institutions; amended the 1986 Education and Libraries (Northern Ireland) Order and the 1989 Education Reform (Northern Ireland) Order; and provided for the establishment of the Northern Ireland Council for the Curriculum, Examinations and Assessment.

1996 Education (Northern Ireland) Order (1996 No. 274 NI 1): this Statutory Instrument is mainly about children with special educational needs: Part II makes new provision for their education. Part III contains miscellaneous amendments to previous legislation relating to independent schools, inspection of schools, the curriculum etc.

1996 Education (Student Loans) (Northern Ireland) Order (1996 No. 1918 NI 15): this brief Statutory Instrument enabled the payment of subsidies to private sector financial institutions which provided loans to students in higher education.

1997 Education (Northern Ireland) Order (1997 No. 866 NI 5): this Statutory Instrument made provisions relating to grants for pre-school education, the admission of children to grant-aided schools, and several miscellaneous matters.

1997 Further Education (Northern Ireland) Order (1997 No. 1772 NI 15): this Statutory Instrument provided for the transfer of responsibility for the management of institutions of further education from education and library boards to incorporated governing bodies for each institution, and set out the functions of the Department, boards and governing bodies in relation to further education.

1998 Education (Student Loans) (Northern Ireland) Order (1998 No. 258 NI 1): this Statutory Instrument facilitated the sale of public sector student loans to financial institutions and prevented certain loan terms from being changed once a loan had been made.

1998 Education (Northern Ireland) Order (1998 No. 1759 NI 13): a wide-ranging Statutory Instrument which included provisions relating to discipline in grant-aided schools, the assessment and performance of pupils and schools, the provision and funding of pre-school education, the establishment of the General Teaching Council for Northern Ireland, the funding of schools, and the functions of the NI Council for the Curriculum, Examinations and Assessment.

1998 Education (Student Support) (Northern Ireland) Order (1998 No. 1760 NI 14): this Statutory Instrument enabled the Department of Education to provide financial support by way of grant or loan to students on higher or further education courses.

1999 Education (School Premises) Regulations (1999 No. 2): this Statutory Instrument revoked and re-enacted with modifications the Education (School Premises) Regulations 1996. The Regulations applied to schools maintained by local education authorities (including pupil referral units) and, until 1st September 1999, to grant-maintained and grant-maintained special schools in England and Wales.

2002 Education (Middle School) (England) Regulations: a brief Statutory Instrument which specified whether middle schools would be classified as either primary or secondary schools; came into force 1 September 2002.

2003 Education and Libraries (Northern Ireland) Order (2003 No. 424 NI 12): this Statutory Instrument set out new arrangements for the funding of grant-aided schools and Education and Library Boards.

2005 Higher Education (Northern Ireland) Order (2005 No. 1116 NI 5): this Statutory Instrument made provision about fees payable by students in higher education and about grants and loans to students under the student support scheme.

2005 Colleges of Education (Northern Ireland) Order (2005 No. 1963 NI 13): this Statutory Instrument provided for the transfer of responsibility for the management of Stranmillis University College to a new governing body, and amended previous legislation regarding the functions of the Department and the Department of Education in relation to colleges of education.

2006 Education (Northern Ireland) Order (2006 No. 1915 NI 11): the bulk of this Statutory Instrument dealt with the curriculum for grant-aided schools. It also included miscellaneous provisions including, for example, the suspension and expulsion of pupils.

2012 Admissions Regulations (2012 No. 8): this Statutory Instrument consolidated and amended previous regulations relating to the admission of pupils to schools.

2012 Admission Appeals Regulations (2012 No. 9): this Statutory Instrument replaced previous regulations relating to the School Admission Appeals Code.

2012 Admissions (Infant class sizes) Regulations (2012 No. 10): this Statutory Instrument amended previous regulations relating to the limit on class sizes for infant classes.

2013 Education (National Curriculum) (Attainment Targets and Programmes of Study) (England) Order (draft): this Statutory Instrument set out new regulations relating to National Curriculum attainment targets and programmes of study.