Index to Acts of Parliament


Acts of Parliament
relating to children, schools and education

Crown copyright material is reproduced under the Open Government Licence for public sector information.



This page lists 473 Acts of the UK Parliament relating to children, schools and education passed since 1721. Of these, 255 (including every relevant Act since 1944) are online - these are shown as links.

The list also includes one Act of the Scottish Parliament (2000 Scot asp 6); and 13 Acts of the Northern Ireland Parliament passed between 1947 and 1966 (indicated by 'NI').

Finally, at the foot of the page, is a list of 21 Statutory Orders relating to Northern Ireland, covering the period from 1972 to 2006. I am indebted to Leslie Curtis who supplied pdf files of these Northern Ireland documents.

The Acts are shown here as originally enacted: i.e. without later amendments. Page numbers are usually taken from the annual Law Reports.

I am currently in the process of creating text versions of the Acts and hope to finish this by the end of 2020. Those that have not yet been done are presented as pdf files.

Note on the numbering of Acts of Parliament

The United Kingdom was formed by the Act of Union in 1707. It was first known as the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707-1801), then the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801-1927) and, since 1927, as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Until 1963, Sessions of Parliament were numbered according to the year of the monarch's reign. In each Session, the Acts passed were given chapter numbers. For example, the Universities Act 1825 was Chapter 97 for the year 1825, which was the 6th year of George IV's reign. You may therefore see it referred to as: 6 Geo. 4 c. 97 (year - monarch - chapter).

This was a cumbersome system! Sometimes parliamentary sessions included parts of two years of a monarch's reign, as in the case of Victoria. Thus the Poor Law (Schools) Act 1848 is 11 & 12 Vict c. 82. And in a handful of cases a session even included parts of the reigns of two monarchs - for example the Endowed Schools (Ireland) Act 1830 is referred to 11 Geo 4 & 1 Will. 4 c. 56.

Since 1963 a much simpler system has operated. Acts are now referred to simply by their calendar year and chapter number. For example, the Children and Young Persons Act 1969 is 1969 c. 54.



Acts of Parliament
relating to children, schools and education

George I

1721 Sevenoaks Grammar School and Charity Act (8 Geo. 1 c. 31)

George II

1743 Universities (Wine Licences) Act (17 Geo. 2 c. 40)

1746 University of St Andrews Act (20 Geo. 2 c. 32)

George III

1768 Gresham College etc Act (8 Geo. 3 c. 32)

1771 Morden College Kent Act (11 Geo. 3 c. 10)

1774 Macclesfield Grammar School Act (14 Geo. 3 c. 51)

1776 Natural-born Children of Aliens Act (16 Geo. 3 c. 52)

1777 Rugby School and Alms-houses Act (17 Geo. 3 c. 71)

1778 Henley Grammar School Act (18 Geo. 3 c. 41)

1780 Poor Apprentices Act (20 Geo. 3 c. 36)

1788 Chimney Sweepers Act (28 Geo. 3. c. 48): the first of six Acts regulating the work of chimney sweepers. Set the minimum age at which boys could be employed to climb and clean chimneys at 8 years. (See also the Acts of 1834, 1840, 1864, 1875 and 1894.)

1788 Bolton Grammar School Act (28 Geo. 3 c. 81)

1802 Factory Act (43 Geo. 3 c. 73): the first to require factory owners to provide some education. Ineffective.

1803 Parochial Schools (Scotland) Act (43 Geo. 3 c. 54)

1805 Purchase of Advowsons by Colleges Act (45 Geo. 3 c. 101)

1808 Londonderry School Act (48 Geo. 3 c. 77)

1810 School Sites (Ireland) Act (50 Geo. 3 c. 33)

1813 Endowed Schools Act (53 Geo. 3 c. 107)

1814 Child Stealing Act (54 Geo. 3 c. 101)

1816 Transfer of Stock of Hertford College Act (56 Geo. 3 c.95)

1816 Lands of Hertford College Act (56 Geo. 3 c.136)

George IV

1822 Endowed Schools Act (3 Geo. 4 c. 79)

1824 St David's College Act (5 Geo. 4 c. 101)

1825 Universities Act (6 Geo. 4 c. 97): behaviour of Oxbridge students.

1825 Deserted Children (Ireland) Act (6 Geo. 4 c. 102)

1827 Deserted Children (Ireland) Act (9 Geo. 4 c. 36)

1828 Deserted Children (Ireland) Act (9 Geo. 4 c. 87)

1830 Endowed Schools (Ireland) Act (11 Geo. 4 &1 Will. 4 c. 56)

William IV

1833 Factories Act (3 & 4 Will. 4 c. 103): the first Act to create an inspectorate, but it allocated no funds for the education it required.

1834 Chimney Sweepers Act (4 & 5 Will. 4 c. 35): the second of six Acts regulating the work of chimney sweepers. Repealed the 1788 Act and set the minimum age for climbing chimneys at 10 years. (See also the Acts of 1788, 1840, 1864, 1875 and 1894).

1834 Poor Law (Amendment) Act (4 & 5 Will. 4 c. 76): established a Board of Poor Law Commissioners to oversee the provision of relief to the poor.

1836 Sites for Schoolrooms Act (6 & 7 Will. 4 c. 70)

Victoria

1838 Haileybury College Act (1 & 2 Vict c. 22)

1838 Highland Schools Act (1 & 2 Vict c. 87)

1839 Bastard Children Act (2 & 3 Vict c. 85)

1840 Grammar Schools Act (3 & 4 Vict c. 77): allowed some schools to spend endowment funds on modern and commercial subjects, but only on the death of the master.

1840 Chimney Sweepers Regulation Act (3 & 4 Vict c. 85): the third of six Acts regulating the work of chimney sweepers. Allowed 16 year olds to be apprentices, but no one under 21 was to climb chimneys. (See also the Acts of 1788, 1834, 1864, 1875 and 1894).

1841 School Sites Act (4 & 5 Vict c. 38): the five School Sites Acts passed between 1841 and 1852 facilitated the purchase of land for school buildings and allowed for 'Parliamentary Grants for the Education of the Poor'.

1842 Exchange, Crown and Eton College Act (5 & 6 Vict c. 78)

1844 Teachers of Schools (Ireland) Act (7 & 8 Vict c. 8)

1844 School Sites Act (7 & 8 Vict c. 37)

1845 Maynooth College Act (8 & 9 Vict c. 25)

1845 Parish Schoolmasters (Scotland) Act (8 & 9 Vict c. 40)

1845 Queen's College (Ireland) Act (8 & 9 Vict c. 66)

1848 Poor Law (Schools) Act (11 & 12 Vict c. 82)

1849 School Sites Act (12 & 13 Vict c. 49)

1850 School Districts Act (13 & 14 Vict c. 11)

1851 School Sites Act (14 & 15 Vict c. 24)

1852 School Sites Act (15 & 16 Vict c. 49)

1853 Christ College of Brecknock Act (16 & 17 Vict c. 82)

1854 Reformatory and Industrial Schools (Scotland) Act (17 & 18 Vict c. 74): required attendance of vagrant children.

1854 Oxford University Act (17 & 18 Vict c. 81): implemented some of the recommendations of the 1850 Royal Commission.

1854 Youthful Offenders Act (17 & 18 Vict c. 86): provided for offenders under sixteen who had served a minimum of fourteen days in prison to be sent to reformatory schools.

1854 Parochial Schoolmaster (Scotland) Act (17 & 18 Vict c. 98)

1854 Literary and Scientific Institutions Act (17 & 18 Vict c. 112): facilitated the establishment of institutions for the promotion of literature, science and the arts.

1855 Education of Pauper Children Act (18 & 19 Vict c. 34)

1855 Haileybury College Act (18 & 19 Vict c. 53)

1855 Endowed Schools Inquiries (Ireland) Act (18 & 19 Vict c. 59)

1855 Trinity College Dublin Act (18 & 19 Vict c. 82)

1855 School Grants Act (18 & 19 Vict c. 131): laid down stricter conditions relating to Parliamentary grants for education.

1856 Reformatory Schools (Scotland) Act (19 & 20 Vict c. 28)

1856 Oxford University Act (19 & 20 Vict c. 31): extended some of the provisions of the 1854 Oxford University Act.

1856 Moulton Endowed School Act (19 & 20 Vict c. 53)

1856 Cambridge University Act (19 & 20 Vict c. 88): implemented some of the recommendations of the 1850 Royal Commission.

1856 Oxford Colleges etc Estates Act (19 & 20 Vict c. 95)

1856 Reformatory etc Schools Act (19 & 20 Vict c. 109)

1856 Education Department Act (19 & 20 Vict c. 116): single-paragraph Act which created the post of Vice-President of the Committee of Council on Education.

1857 Oxford University Act (20 & 21 Vict c. 25): extended the powers of the Commissioners for Oxford University and St Mary's College Winchester.

1857 Industrial Schools Act (20 & 21 Vict c. 48)

1857 Reformatory Schools (England) Act (20 & 21 Vict c. 55)

1857 Parochial Schoolmasters (Scotland) Act (20 & 21 Vict c. 59)

1857 Dulwich College Act (20 & 21 Vict c. 84)

1858 Universities and College Estates Act (21 & 22 Vict c. 44)

1858 Universities (Scotland) Act (21 & 22 Vict c. 83)

1858 Reformatory Schools (Ireland) Act (21 & 22 Vict c. 103)

1859 Universities of Oxford and Cambridge Act (22 & 23 Vict c. 19): abolished the requirement that the mayor, aldermen and citizens of Oxford and Cambridge should swear oaths in relation to the universities.

1860 Endowed Schools Act (23 & 24 Vict c. 11)

1860 Universities and College Estates Act Extension (23 & 24 Vict c. 59)

1860 Oxford University Act (23 & 24 Vict c. 91): matters relating to Craven scholarships and testamentary documents.

1860 Maynooth College Act (23 & 24 Vict c. 104)

1860 Industrial Schools Act (23 & 24 Vict c. 108)

1861 Parochial and Burgh Schoolmasters (Scotland) Act (24 & 25 Vict c. 107)

1861 Industrial Schools Act (24 & 25 Vict c. 113)

1861 Industrial Schools (Scotland) Act (24 & 25 Vict c. 132)

1862 Industrial Schools 1861 Acts Continuance Act (25 & 26 Vict c. 10)

1862 Oxford University Act (25 & 26 Vict c. 26): extended the University's power to make statutes regarding professorships.

1862 Poor Law (Certified Schools) Act (25 & 26 Vict c. 43)

1864 Chimney Sweepers Regulation Act (27 & 28 Vict c. 37): the fourth of six Acts regulating the work of chimney sweepers. Allowed 10 year olds to be employed, but no one under 16 was to be present when chimneys were being swept. (See also the Acts of 1788, 1834, 1840, 1875 and 1894).

1864 Coventry Garmmar School Act (27 & 28 Vict c. 41)

1864 Public Schools Act (27 & 28 Vict c. 92)

1865 Oxford University (Vinerian Foundation) Act (28 & 29 Vict c. 55): empowered the university to make statutes relating to the Vinerian Foundation, with certain provisos.

1866 Reformatory Schools Act (29 & 30 Vict c. 117)

1866 Industrial Schools Act (29 & 30 Vict c. 118)

1867 Metropolitan Poor Act (30 & 31 Vict c. 6)

1868 Industrial Schools (Ireland) Act (31 & 32 Vict c. 25)

1868 Endowed Schools Act (31 & 32 Vict c. 32): a brief Act preparing the ground for the 1869 Endowed Schools Act.

1868 Irish Reformatory Schools Act (31 & 32 Vict c. 59)

1868 Public Schools Act (31 & 32 Vict c. 118): laid down new rules for the management of Eton, Winchester, Westminster, Charterhouse, Harrow, Rugby and Shrewsbury, as recommended by the 1864 Clarendon Report.

1869 University of Oxford Act (32 & 33 Vict c. 20)

1869 Orphan and Desrted Children (Ireland) Act (32 & 33 Vict c. 25)

1869 Endowed Schools Act (32 & 33 Vict c. 56): created the Endowed Schools Commission and gave its members considerable powers and duties, including the creation of new schemes of government for the schools, as recommended by the 1868 Taunton Report.

1869 Public Schools Act (32 & 33 Vict c. 58)

1870 Elementary Education Act (33 & 34 Vict c. 75): the 'Forster Act' introduced compulsory universal education for children aged 5-13 but left enforcement of attendance to school boards.

1870 Public School Act (33 & 34 Vict c. 84)

1871 Public Parks, Schools, and Museums Act (34 & 35 Vict c. 13)

1871 Universities Tests Act (34 & 35 Vict c. 26): abolished the requirement that those taking lay degrees or holding Iay offices at Oxford, Cambridge or Durham should make a declaration of religious belief.

1871 Public Schools Act (34 & 35 Vict c. 60)

1871 College Charter Act (33 & 34 Vict c. 63): a brief Act which required that charters for the foundation of colleges or universities were to be laid before Parliament.

1871 Elementary Education (Election) Act (34 & 35 Vict c. 94)

1872 Reformatory and Industrial Schools Acts Amendment Act (35 & 36 Vict c. 21)

1872 Elementary Education Act Amendment Act (35 & 36 Vict c. 27)

1872 Public Schools Act (35 & 36 Vict c. 54)

1872 Elementary Education (Elections) Act (35 & 36 Vict c. 59)

1872 Education (Scotland) Act (35 & 36 Vict c. 62): the Scottish version of the 1870 Education Act. It provided for the establishment of a Board of Education for Scotland and for local school boards to maintain both elementary and secondary schools, set out arrangements for the appointment and employment of teachers, and made elementary education compulsory.

1873 Endowed Schools (Time of Address) Act (36 & 37 Vict c. 7)

1873 Public Schools (Shrewsbury and Harrow Schools Property) Act (36 & 37 Vict c. 41)

1873 Highland Schools Act (36 & 37 Vict c. 53)

1873 Public Schools (Eton College Property) Act (36 & 37 Vict c. 62)

1873 Agricultural Children Act (36 & 37 Vict c. 67): aimed to improve school attendance, but it was largely ineffectual because the fines it imposed were derisory.

1873 Elementary Education Act (36 & 37 Vict c. 86): made various amendments, mostly of an administrative nature, to the provisions of the 1870 Elementary Education Act.

1873 Endowed Schools Act (36 & 37 Vict c. 87): made various amendments, mostly of a technical nature, to the provisions of the 1869 Endowed Schools Act.

1874 Public Works Loan (School Loans) Act (37 & 38 Vict c. 9)

1874 Elementary Education (Wenlock) Act (37 & 38 Vict c. 39)

1874 Hertford College Act (37 & 38 Vict c. 55)

1874 Infants Relief Act (37 & 38 Vict c. 62): a brief Act which made contracts entered into by infants unenforceable.

1874 Foyle College Act (37 & 38 Vict c. 79)

1874 Endowed Schools Act (37 & 38 Vict c. 87): abolished the Endowed Schools Commission and transferred its functions to the Charity Commission.

1874 Elementary Education (Orders) Act (37 & 38 Vict c. 90)

1875 Endowed Schools (Vested Interests) Act Continuance Act (38 & 39 Vict c. 29)

1875 Intestate Widows and Children (Scotland) Act (38 & 39 Vict c. 41)

1875 Chimney Sweepers Act (38 & 39 Vict c. 70): the fifth of six Acts regulating the work of chimney sweepers. Required all chimney sweepers to obtain a certificate of authorisation from the local chief officer of police. (See also the Acts of 1788, 1834, 1840, 1864 and 1894.)

1875 National School Teachers Residences (Ireland) Act (38 & 39 Vict c. 82)

1875 National School Teachers (Ireland) Act (38 & 39 Vict c. 96)

1876 Pauper Children (Ireland) Act (39 & 40 Vict c. 38)

1876 Elementary Education Act (39 & 40 Vict c. 79): tightened the rules on school attendance and child employment, created a system of certificates to give free education in certain cases, and made various other administrative provisions.

1877 Board of Education (Scotland) Act (40 & 41 Vict c. 38)

1878 Factory and Workshop Act (41 & 42 Vict c. 16): consolidated and amended previous Acts to provide better and safer conditions of work, especially for young people and women.

1878 Intermediate Education (Ireland) Act (41 & 42 Vict c. 66)

1878 Education (Scotland) Act (41 & 42 Vict c. 78)

1879 Children's Dangerous Performances Act (42 & 43 Vict c. 34)

1879 Elementary Education (Industrial Schools) Act (42 & 43 Vict c. 48): a brief Act extending the powers of school boards in relation to the establishment and extension of industrial schools.

1879 Summary Jurisdiction Act (42 & 43 Vict c. 49): child offenders (aged 7 and over) could be tried by magistrates, rather than appear before a jury, unless their parents objected.

1879 University Education (Ireland) Act (42 & 43 Vict c. 65)

1879 Endowed School Acts Continuance Act (42 & 43 Vict c. 66)

1879 National School Teachers (Ireland) Act (42 & 43 Vict c. 74)

1880 Universities of Oxford and Cambridge (Limited Tenures) Act (43 & 44 Vict c. 11)

1880 Industrial Schools Act Amendment Act (43 & 44 Vict c. 15)

1880 Elementary Education Act (43 & 44 Vict c. 23): the 'Mundella Act' obliged local authorities to make byelaws requiring school attendance.

1880 Universities and College Estates Amendment Act (43 & 44 Vict c. 46)

1881 Leases for Schools (Ireland) Act (44 & 45 Vict c. 65)

1882 Public Schools (Scotland) Teachers Act (45 & 46 Vict c. 18)

1882 Intermediate Education (Ireland) Act (45 & 46 Vict c. 69

1882 Education (Scotland) Act 1883 (46 & 47 Vict c. 56

1884 Summary Jurisdiction over Children (Ireland) Act (47 & 48 Vict c. 19)

1884 Loans for Schools and Training Colleges (Ireland) Act (47 & 48 Vict c. 22)

1884 Reformatory and Industrial Schools (Manx Children) Act (47 & 48 Vict c. 40)

1884 National School Teachers Amendment (Ireland) Act (47 & 48 Vict c. 45)

1884 Canal Boats Act (47 & 48 Vict c. 75)

1885 Industrial Schools (Ireland) Act (48 & 49 Vict c. 19)

1885 School Boards Act (48 & 49 Vict c. 38)

1885 Educational Endowments (Ireland) Act (48 & 49 Vict c. 78)

1886 Intoxicating Liquors (Sale to Children) Act (49 & 50 Vict c. 56)

1887 Technical Schools (Scotland) Act (50 & 51 Vict c. 64): empowered school boards in Scotland to set up technical schools, and laid down the conditions under which they were to be conducted. In practice, few such schools were opened.

1888 Local Government Act (51 & 52 Vict c. 41): created the county councils and county borough councils which (following the 1902 Education Act) became the local education authorities (LEAs) for their areas.

1888 Victoria University Act (51 & 52 Vict c. 45): gave graduates of Victoria University (Manchester) the same employment rights as those of Oxford, Cambridge and London.

1889 Prince of Wales's Children Act (52 & 53 Vict c. 35)

1889 Welsh Intermediate Education Act (52 & 53 Vict c. 40): required each county in Wales to establish a Joint Education Committee whose duty was to prepare a scheme for intermediate and technical education in their areas.

1889 Prevention of Cruelty to, and Protection of, Children Act (52 & 53 Vict c. 44): imposed penalties for the ill-treatment or neglect of children, prohibited their use as beggars or entertainers in streets or licensed premises, and set out arrangements for the care of such ill-used children.

1889 Technical Instruction Act (52 & 53 Vict c. 76): empowered county and county borough councils to make grants to secondary schools and to provide scholarships.

1890 Education Code (1890) Act (53 & 54 Vict c. 22)

1890 Education of Blind and Deaf-Mute Children (Scotland) Act (53 & 54 Vict. c. 43): required school boards in Scotland to pay for the education of blind and deaf-mute children if their parents were unable to do so, and empowered the boards, with the consent of the Scotch Education Department, to establish or contribute to the costs of schools for such children.

1891 Custody of Children Act (54 & 55 Vict c. 3): a brief Act which laid down new rules relating to parents' rights in relation to the custody of their children.

1891 Army Schools Act (54 & 55 Vict c. 16): a brief Act extending to army schools the benefits of endowments relating to elementary schools.

1891 Reformatory and Industrial Schools Act (54 & 55 Vict c. 23)

1891 Elementary Education Act (54 & 55 Vict c. 56): effectively introduced free elementary education for all by requiring central government to pay a 'fee grant' of ten shillings (50p) for each child between the ages of 3 and 15 and by prohibiting the charging of fees in elementary schools.

1891 Schools for Science and Art Act (54 & 55 Vict c. 61): a brief Act which permitted schools and other institutions for science and art to be transferred to the care of local authorities.

1892 Betting and Loans (Infants) Act (55 & 56 Vict c. 4): made it illegal to incite children to bet or borrow money.

1892 Technical and Industrial Institutions Act (55 & 56 Vict c. 29): facilitated the acquisition of land by the governors of technical and industrial institutions.

1892 Boards of Management of Poor Law District Schools (Ireland) Act (55 & 56 Vict c. 41)

1892 Irish Education Act (55 & 56 Vict c. 42)

1892 Education and Local Taxation Account (Scotland) Act (55 & 56 Vict c. 51)

1892 Technical Instruction Amendment (Scotland) Act (55 & 56 Vict c. 63): clarified and amended the powers of local authorities in Scotland to provide technical instruction.

1893 Day Industrial Schools (Scotland) Act (56 & 57 Vict c. 12)

1893 Reformatory Schools (Scotland) Act (56 & 57 Vict c. 15)

1893 Irish Education Act (56 & 57 Vict c. 41)

1893 Elementary Education (Blind and Deaf Children) Act (56 & 57 Vict c. 42): obliged parents of blind or deaf children to ensure that they received appropriate elementary education, and required school authorities to make better provision for them.

1893 Reformatory Schools Act (56 & 57 Vict c. 48)

1893 Elementary Education (School Attendance) Act (56 & 57 Vict c. 51)

1894 Prevention of Cruelty to Children (Amendment) Act (57 & 58 Vict c. 27)

1894 Industrial Schools Acts Amendment Act (57 & 58 Vict c. 33)

1894 Prevention of Cruelty to Children Act (57 & 58 Vict c. 41)

1894 Cheltenham College Act (57 & 58 Vict c. ciii): provided for a new governing body for the College and set out its powers and duties.

1894 Chimney Sweepers Act (57 & 58 Vict c. 51): the last of six Acts regulating the work of chimney sweepers. Prohibited chimney sweepers from 'cold calling' (as it is known today) to sell their services. (See also the Acts of 1788, 1834, 1840, 1864 and 1875.)

1895 Reformatory and Industrial Schools (Channel Islands Children) Act (58 & 59 Vict c. 17)

1897 Voluntary Schools Act (60 & 61 Vict c. 5): provided voluntary elementary schools with annual Exchequer grants of up to five shillings (25p) per child and exempted the schools from paying rates.

1897 Elementary Education Act (60 & 61 Vict c. 16): amended Section 97 of the 1870 Elementary Education Act to allow for a small increase in expenditure per child.

1897 School Board Conference Act (60 & 61 Vict c. 32)

1897 Education (Scotland) Act (60 & 61 Vict c. 62)

1898 Pauper Children (Ireland) Act (61 & 62 Vict c. 30)

1898 Libraries Offences Act (61 & 62 Vict c. 53): a brief Act providing for penalties of up to 2 for anyone behaving badly in a public library.

1898 Universities and College Estates Act (61 & 62 Vict c. 55)

1898 Elementary School Teachers (Superannuation) Act (61 & 62 Vict c. 57): set out arrangements for paying pensions and incapacity benefits to certificated teachers in elementary schools.

1898 University of London Act (61 & 62 Vict c. 62)

1899 Reformatory Schools Act (62 & 63 Vict c. 12)

1899 Elementary Education (School Attendance) Act 1893 Amendment Act (62 & 63 Vict c. 13)

1899 Elementary Education (Defective and Epileptic Children) Act (62 & 63 Vict c. 32): empowered school authorities to ascertain the number of 'defective' or epileptic children in their areas, and to make appropriate educational provision for them; it required the parents of such children to ensure that they received appropriate elementary education; and it set the upper age limit for the compulsory education of such children at 16.

1899 Board of Education Act (62 & 63 Vict c. 33): established the Board of Education and provided for a Consultative Committee.

1900 Mines (Prohibition of Child Labour Underground) Act (62 & 63 Vict Sess. 2 c. 21)

1900 Elementary School Teachers Superannuation (Isle of Man) Act (62 & 63 Vict Sess. 2 c. 38)

1900 Elementary School Teachers Superannuation (Jersey) Act (62 & 63 Vict Sess. 2 c. 40)

1900 Intermediate Education (Ireland) Act (63 & 64 Vict Sess. 2 c. 43)

1900 Elementary Education Act (63 & 64 Vict Sess. 2 c. 53): amended previous Acts in relation to expenses and attendance byelaws.

Edward VII

1902 University of Wales Act (2 Edw. 7 c. 14): extended employment rights to graduates of the University of Wales.

1902 Education Act (2 Edw. 7 c. 42): the 'Balfour Act' established local education authorities (LEAs) to replace the school boards, and created a system of secondary education integrating higher grade elementary schools and fee-paying secondary schools.

1903 Education (Provision of Working Balances) Act (3 Edw. 7 c. 10)

1903 Elementary Education Amendment Act (3 Edw. 7 c. 13): a brief Act amending Section 2 (6) of the 1899 Elementary Education (Defective and Epileptic Children) Act.

1903 Poor Law (Dissolution of School Districts and Adjustments) Act (3 Edw. 7 c. 19)

1903 Education (London) Act (3 Edw. 7 c. 24): extended to London the provisions of the 1902 Education Act (see above).

1903 Employment of Children Act (3 Edw. 7 c. 45): empowered local authorities to make byelaws prohibiting or restricting the employment of children and young persons below the age of 16.

1904 University of Liverpool Act (4 Edw. 7 c. 11): extended employment rights to graduates of the University of Liverpool.

1904 Leeds University Act (4 Edw. 7 c. 12): extended employment rights to graduates of the University of Leeds.

1904 Prevention of Cruelty to Children Act (4 Edw. 7 c. 15)

1904 Education (Local Authority Default) Act (4 Edw. 7 c. 18)

1906 Education of Defective Children (Scotland) Act (6 Edw. 7 c. 10)

1906 Education (Provision of Meals) Act (6 Edw. 7 c. 57): empowered local education authorities to provide buildings and fittings for 'school canteen committees', and, with the consent of the Board of Education, to subsidise the cost of meals in cases where parents were unable to pay. (See also 1914).

1907 Education (Administrative Provisions) Act (7 Edw. 7 c. 43): extended the powers of local education authorities in relation to the acquisition of sites for schools, scholarships for secondary education (the 'free place' system), the provision of holiday activities, and medical inspections of elementary school children.

1908 Endowed Schools (Masters) Act (8 Edw. 7 c. 39)

1908 Education (Scotland) Act (8 Edw. 7 c. 63)

1908 Children Act (8 Edw. 7 c. 67)

1909 Local Education Authorities (Medical Treatment) Act (9 Edw. 7 c. 13)

1909 Education (Administrative Provisions) Act (9 Edw. 7 c. 29)

1910 Duke of York's School (Chapel) Act (10 Edw. 7 & 1 Geo 5 c. 16)

1910 Children Act 1908 Amendment Act (10 Edw. 7 & 1 Geo 5 c. 25)

1910 Education (Choice of Employment) Act (10 Edw. 7 & 1 Geo 5 c. 37)

George V

1911 Education (Administrative Provisions) Act (1 & 2 Geo. 5 c. 32)

1912 Elementary School Teachers (Superannuation) Act (2 & 3 Geo. 5 c. 12)

1913 Children (Employment Abroad) Act (3 & 4 Geo. 5 c. 7): made it illegal to take a child abroad to perform for profit, and required a licence to be obtained in the case of a young person.

1913 Education (Scotland) Act (3 & 4 Geo. 5 c. 12)

1913 Education (Scotland) (Glasgow Electoral Divisions) Act (3 & 4 Geo. 5 c. 13)

1913 Mental Deficiency Act (3 & 4 Geo. 5 c. 28): set out arrangements for dealing with those considered to be 'mentally defective'. Local education authorities were to identify 'defective' children aged 7 to 16 in their areas.

1913 Intermediate Education (Ireland) Act (3 & 4 Geo. 5 c. 29): a brief Act prohibiting the holding of public examinations for pupils aged under 14; empowering the Intermediate Education Board for Ireland to conduct annual inspections of intermediate schools; and extending the powers of the Board in relation to superannuation.

1914 Sheffield University Act (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 4): extended employment rights to graduates of the University of Sheffield.

1914 Education (Provision of Meals) Act (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 20): extended the powers of local education authorities to provide meals for undernourished elementary school children.

1914 Education (Scotland) (Provision of Meals) Act (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 35)

1914 Intermediate Education (Ireland) Act (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 41)

1914 Elementary Education (Defective and Epileptic Children) Act (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 45): required local education authorities to make provision for 'defective' children.

1914 Elementary School Teachers (War Service Superannuation) Act (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 66)

1914 Education (Scotland) (War Service Superannuation) Act (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 67)

1915 Universities and Colleges (Emergency Powers) Act (5 & 6 Geo. 5 c. 22)

1915 Education (Small Population Grants) Act (5 & 6 Geo. 5 c. 95)

1916 Education (Provision of Meals) (Ireland) Act (6 & 7 Geo. 5 c. 10)

1916 Elementary Education (Fee Grant) Act (6 & 7 Geo. 5 c. 35)

1917 Education (Provision of Meals) (Ireland) Act (7 & 8 Geo. 5 c. 53)

1918 Maternity and Child Welfare Act (8 & 9 Geo. 5 c. 29)

1918 Education Act (8 & 9 Geo. 5 c. 39): the wide-ranging 'Fisher Act' extended education provision in line with recommendations of 1917 Lewis Report.

1918 Education (Scotland) Act (8 & 9 Geo. 5 c. 48)

1918 School Teachers' (Superannuation) Act (8 & 9 Geo. 5 c. 55): amended the Elementary School Teachers' (Superannuation) Acts 1898-1912.

1919 Public Health (Medical Treatment of Children) (Ireland) Act (9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 16)

1919 Education (Scotland) (Superannuation) Act (9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 17)

1919 Ministry of Health Act (9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 21): created the Ministry of Health and transferred to it some of the powers of the Board of Education.

1919 Education (Compliance with Conditions of Grants) Act (9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 41)

1920 Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children Act (10 & 11 Geo. 5 c. 65): incorporated into UK law the provisions of the Conventions agreed by the International Labour Organisation of the League of Nations in 1919 and 1920.

1921 Children Act (11 & 12 Geo. 5 c. 4)

1921 Education Act (11 & 12 Geo. 5 c. 51): consolidated all previous laws relating to education including the 1918 Education Act's provision for the school leaving age to be raised to 14.

1922 Universities (Scotland) Act (12 & 13 Geo. 5 c. 31): extended the powers of the Courts of Scottish universities in relation to the superannuation of principals and professors, and gave lecturers and readers the right to participate in the government of the universities.

1922 School Teachers (Superannuation) Act (12 & 13 Geo. 5 c. 48)

1923 Universities of Oxford and Cambridge Act (13 & 14 Geo. 5 c. 33): provided for the appointment of Commissioners to make statutes for the two universities.

1923 Education (Institution Children) Act (13 & 14 Geo. 5 c. 38)

1924 School Teachers (Superannuation) Act (14 & 15 Geo. 5 c. 12)

1924 Education (Scotland) (Superannuation) Act (14 & 15 Geo. 5 c. 13)

1925 Universities and College Estates Act (15 & 16 Geo. 5 c. 24): consolidated all the provisions of previous Acts relating to the ownership, procurement and sale of land by the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Durham, and to Eton and Winchester colleges.

1925 Education (Scotland) (Superannuation) Act (15 & 16 Geo. 5 c. 55)

1925 Education (Scotland) Act (15 & 16 Geo. 5 c. 89)

1926 Adoption of Children Act (16 & 17 Geo. 5 c. 29)

1926 University of London Act (16 & 17 Geo. 5 c. 46): provided for the appointment of Commissioners to make new statutes for the University.

1928 Education (Scotland) Act (18 & 19 Geo. 5 c. 28)

1928 Educational Endowments (Scotland) Act (18 & 19 Geo. 5 c. 30)

1929 Local Government Act (19 & 20 Geo. 5 c. 17): provided for the reorganisation of local government services in England and Wales: education is mentioned briefly.

1929 Local Government (Scotland) Act (19 & 20 Geo. 5 c. 25): provided for the reorganisation of local government services in Scotland, including education.

1930 Children (Employment Abroad) Act (20 & 21 Geo. 5 c. 21)

1930 Illegitimate Children (Scotland) Act (20 & 21 Geo. 5 c. 33)

1930 Education (Scotland) Act (20 & 21 Geo. 5 c. 36)

1930 Adoption of Children (Scotland) Act (20 & 21 Geo. 5 c. 37)

1931 Educational Endowments (Scotland) Act (21 & 22 Geo. 5 c. 5)

1931 Adoption of Children (Scotland) Act (21 & 22 Geo. 5 c. 37)

1932 Universities (Scotland) Act (22 & 23 Geo. 5 c. 26): extended the powers of the Courts of Scottish universities.

1932 Children and Young Persons Act (22 & 23 Geo. 5 c. 47)

1933 Children and Young Persons Act (23 & 24 Geo. 5 c. 12): consolidated previous legislation relating to the welfare and employment of young people and the treatment of young offenders.

1933 Education (Necessity of Schools) Act (23 & 24 Geo. 5 c. 29)

1934 Adoption of Children (Workmen's Compensation) Act (24 & 25 Geo. 5 c. 34)

1935 Educational Endowments (Scotland) Act (25 & 26 Geo. 5 c. 5)

1936 Education Act (26 Geo. 5 & 1 Edw. 8 c. 41): provided for the leaving age to be raised to 15 in September 1939 (postponed because of the outbreak of war) and encouraged the churches to provide secondary schools by offering building grants of up to 75 per cent for new 'Special Agreement' schools.

1936 Education (Scotland) Act (26 Geo. 5 & 1 Edw. 8 c. 42)

George VI

1937 Education (Deaf Children) Act (1 Edw. 8 & 1 Geo. 6 c. 25): lowered the school starting age for deaf children.

1937 Children and Young Persons (Scotland) Act (1 Edw. 8 & 1 Geo. 6 c. 37): made provisions relating to the care, well-being and employment of children and young persons, and set out arrangements for the treatment of juvenile offenders.

1937 Physical Training and Recreation Act (1 Edw. 8 & 1 Geo. 6 c. 46): provided for National Advisory Councils and a National College of Physical Training.

1937 Factories Act (1 Edw. 8 & 1 Geo. 6 c. 67): a wide-ranging and detailed Act which consolidated all previous legislation relating to working conditions in factories and other industrial premises.

1938 Children and Young Persons Act (1 & 2 Geo. 6 c. 40)

1938 Chimney Sweepers Acts (Repeal) Act (1 & 2 Geo. 6 c. 58): repealed the remaining Chimney Sweepers Acts.

1939 Custody of Children (Scotland) Act (2 & 3 Geo. 6 c. 4)

1939 Adoption of Children (Regulation) Act (2 & 3 Geo. 6 c. 27)

1939 Senior Public Elementary Schools (Liverpool) Act (2 & 3 Geo. 6 c. 60)

1939 Education (Scotland) (War Service Superannuation) Act (2 & 3 Geo. 6 c. 96): teachers' war service to be reckoned for superannuation.

1939 Universities and Colleges (Emergency Provisions) Act (2 & 3 Geo. 6 c. 106)

1939 Education (Emergency) (Scotland) Act (2 & 3 Geo. 6 c. 112)

1941 Public and Other Schools (War Conditions) Act (4 & 5 Geo. 6 c. 20)

1941 Temporary Migration of Children (Guardianship) Act (4 & 5 Geo. 6 c. 23)

1942 Education (Scotland) Act (5 & 6 Geo. 6 c. 5)

1943 Universities and Colleges (Trusts) Act (6 & 7 Geo. 6 c. 9): provisions regarding trust property at Oxford, Cambridge and St Mary's College Winchester.

1944 Guardianship (Refugee Children) Act (7 & 8 Geo. 6 c. 8)

1944 Education Act (7 & 8 Geo. 6 c. 31): one of the most important of all UK education acts, the 'Butler Act' set the structure of the post-war system of state education in England and Wales.

1945 Education (Scotland) Act (8 & 9 Geo. 6 c. 37): the Scottish version of the 1944 Act.

1946 Education Act (22 May): made miscellaneous amendments to the 1944 Education Act.

1946 Education (Scotland) Act (9 & 10 Geo. 6 c. 72): further enactments building on the Education (Scotland) Act 1945.

1947 Education (Exemptions) (Scotland) Act (10 & 11 Geo. 6 c. 36): made temporary provision for children to miss school to help with harvesting the potato crop.

1947 Local Government (Scotland) Act (10 & 11 Geo. 6 c. 43): consolidated all previous legislation relating to local government in Scotland.

1947 Education Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1947 c. 3): a major Act of the Northern Ireland Parliament setting out arrangements for the education system.

1948 Local Government Act (11 & 12 Geo. 6 c. 26): amended previous laws relating to local government, including education authorities. Mainly concerned with financial matters - Exchequer grants, rateable values, travelling expenses etc.

1948 Education (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act (11 & 12 Geo. 6 c. 40): made amendments to the 1944 and 1946 Education Acts, the Endowed Schools Acts, and the 1913 Mental Deficiency Act.

1948 Children Act (11 & 12 Geo. 6 c. 43): made provision for the care and welfare of children without parents or whose parents were unfit or unable to take care of them.

1948 Employment and Training Act (11 & 12 Geo. 6 c. 46): established the Youth Employment Service.

1948 Nurseries and Child-Minders Regulation Act (11 & 12 Geo. 6 c. 53): required the registration of nurseries and child-minders by local health authorities and set out arrangements for their regulation and inspection.

1949 Education (Scotland) Act (12 & 13 Geo. 6 c. 19): made various amendments to the Education (Scotland) Act, 1946.

1949 Adoption of Children Act (12, 13 & 14 Geo. 6 c. 98): made amendments to the 1926 Adoption of Children Act and several other Acts.

1950 Education (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1950 c. 1)

1950 Education (Extension of Benefits) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1950 c. 20)

1951 Education (Amendment) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1951 c. 10)

1952 Children and Young Persons (Amendment) Act (15 & 16 Geo. 6 & 1 Eliz. 2 c. 50): made amendments to the 1933 Children and Young Persons Act and the 1948 Criminal Justice Act.

Elizabeth II

1952 Education (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1952 c. 17)

1953 Education (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act (1 & 2 Eliz. 2 c. 33): required LEAs to provide free dental treatment for children and amended the provisions of the 1944 Education Act relating to school attendance orders etc.

1953 University of St Andrews Act (1 & 2 Eliz. 2 c. 40): provided for the re-organisation of University education in St. Andrews and Dundee.

1953 School Crossing Patrols Act (1 & 2 Eliz. 2 c. 45): allowed school crossing patrols to control traffic.

1953 Education (Amendment) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1953 c. 11)

1955 Children And Young Persons (Harmful Publications) Act (3 & 4 Eliz. 2 c. 28): banned the publication and sale of what were commonly known as 'horror comics'.

1956 Children and Young Persons Act (4 & 5 Eliz. 2 c. 24): dealt with escapes from approved schools and remand homes etc.

1956 Teachers (Superannuation) Act (4 & 5 Eliz. 2 c. 53): amended previous legislation relating to teachers' pensions in England and Wales and in Scotland.

1956 Education (Scotland) Act (4 & 5 Eliz. 2 c. 75): made various amendments to the Education (Scotland) Act, 1946.

1956 Educational Endowments (Confirmation of Schemes) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1956 c. 15)

1956 Education (Amendment) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1956 c. 24)

1958 Matrimonial Proceedings (Children) Act (6 & 7 Eliz. 2 c. 40): sought to protect the interests of children in divorce cases.

1958 Local Government Act (6 & 7 Eliz. 2 c. 55): mainly concerned with administrative and financial matters; allowed county district councils to apply to the Minister of Education for 'excepted district' status.

1958 Children Act (6 & 7 Eliz. 2 c. 65): made new provisions for the protection of children living away from their parents and amended the law relating to adoption.

1958 Education (Amendment) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1958 c. 28)

1959 School Grant Amending Regulations No. 9 (Statutory Instrument 1959/397): replaced previous school grant regulations.

1959 Education Act (7 & 8 Eliz. 2 c. 60): empowered the Minister of Education to make grants of up to 75 per cent for the building and maintenance of aided and special agreement schools (previously the limit had been 50 per cent).

1959 Mental Health Act (7 & 8 Eliz. 2 c. 72): a major Act updating previous legislation relating to the treatment of those suffering from mental incapacity; included a revised version of Section 57 of the 1944 Education Act.

1960 Indecency with Children Act (8 & 9 Eliz. 2 c. 33): increased the maximum prison sentences for sexual offences against children.

1960 Education (Amendment) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1960 c. 9)

1962 Education Act (10 & 11 Eliz. 2 c. 12): required local education authorities to provide students on first degree or teacher training courses with grants, and revised the law on school leaving dates.

1962 Health Visiting and Social Work (Training) Act (10 & 11 Eliz. 2 c. 33): established two Councils to oversee training for health visitors and social workers.

1962 Education (Scotland) Act (10 & 11 Eliz. 2 c. 47): major Act consolidating all previous legislation relating to education in Scotland.

1962 Education (Amendment) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1962 c. 11)

1963 Remuneration of Teachers Act (1963 c. 20): gave the Minister powers relating to the remuneration of teachers.

1963 Education (Scotland) Act (1963 c. 21): provisions relating to examinations and teachers' salaries and pensions.

1963 London Government Act (1963 c. 33): reorganised local government in London. It provided for the establishment of the Greater London Council (GLC) and the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA).

1963 Children and Young Persons Act (1963 c. 37): amended the the 1933 Children and Young Persons Act ('the principal Act') and the 1937 Children and Young Persons (Scotland) Act ('the principal Scottish Act').

1963 Education (Amendment) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1963 c. 27)

1964 Industrial Training Act (1964 c. 16): made further provision for industrial and commercial training.

1964 Universities and College Estates Act (1964 c. 51): amended the law relating to university and college property.

1964 Public Libraries and Museums Act (1964 c. 75): made provision for improvements in the public library service.

1964 Education Act (1964 c. 82): the 'Boyle Act' allowed the creation of middle schools.

1965 Remuneration of Teachers Act (1965 c. 3): set out new provisions for determining the remuneration of teachers.

1965 Education (Scotland) Act (1965 c. 7): amended the Education (Scotland) Act 1963.

1965 Teaching Council (Scotland) Act (1965 c. 19): provided for the establishment of a General Teaching Council for Scotland.

1966 Universities (Scotland) Act (1966 c. 13): provided for the reconstitution of the universities of St Andrew's, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh and for the foundation of the University of Dundee.

1966 Local Government Act (1966 c. 42): includes references to education in section 14 (abolition of grants for school meals and milk) and in Schedule 1 paragraph 13(4) (adjustment of various grants for schools and colleges). Section 11 empowered the Secretary of State to make grants to local authorities which had 'substantial numbers of immigrants'.

1966 Education (Amendment) Act (Northern Ireland) (NI 1966 c. 18)

1967 Education Act (1967 c. 3): gave the Secretary of State greater powers in relation to grants and loans to aided and special agreement schools etc.

1968 Teachers Superannuation (Scotland) Act (1968 c. 12): amended teachers' superannuation arrangements.

1968 Education Act (1968 c. 17): laid down rules about changing the character of a school (eg to comprehensive).

1968 Education (No. 2) Act (1968 c. 37): made further provision for the government of colleges of education, other further education institutions and special schools maintained by local education authorities.

1969 Education (Scotland) Act (1969 c. 49): amended various laws relating to education in Scotland, especially the 1962 Education (Scotland) Act.

1969 Children and Young Persons Act (1969 c. 54): amended previous legislation relating to the treatment of young offenders and children in care or in foster homes. It extended the powers and responsibilities of local authorities.

1970 Education (School Milk) Act (1970 c. 14): extended the provision of free school milk to junior pupils in middle schools.

1970 Education (Handicapped Children) Act (1970 c. 52): discontinued the classification of handicapped children as unsuitable for education at school, and transferred responsibility for the education of severely handicapped children from health authorities to LEAs.

1971 Teaching Council (Scotland) Act (1971 c. 2): allowed membership fees for the General Teaching Council for Scotland to be deducted from teachers' salaries.

1971 Education (Scotland) Act (1971 c. 42): amended the law relating to free education and the charging of fees in Scotland.

1971 Education (Milk) Act (1971 c. 74): abolished provision of free school milk for 8- to 11-year olds (and led to the jibe 'Thatcher, Thatcher, milk snatcher').

1972 Children Act (1972 c. 44): ensured that the minimum age at which children could be employed would not be affected by any further change in the school leaving age.

1972 Local Government Act (1972 c. 70): this major Act restructured and reorganised local government in England and Wales.

1973 Education Act (1973 c. 16): made provisions relating to certain educational trusts and local education authority awards.

1973 Education (Work Experience) Act (1973 c. 23): allowed LEAs to organise work experience for final year school students.

1973 Employment of Children Act (1973 c. 24): laid down new regulations regarding children's employment and its supervision by local education authorities.

1973 National Health Service Reorganisation Act (1973 c. 32): transferred responsibility for the school health service in England and Wales from local education authorities to new Area Health Authorities (though LEAs were still responsible for dental and medical inspections): the change was effected in April 1974. A similar change took place in Scotland.

1973 Employment and Training Act (1973 c. 50): amended the 1964 Industrial Training Act; provided for the establishment of the Manpower Services Commission, the Employment Service Agency, and the Training Services Agency; and required local education authorities to provide careers advice for pupils.

1973 Education (Scotland) Act (1973 c. 59): increased the powers of the Secretary of State in relation to the employment of teachers.

1974 Local Government Act (1974 c. 7): wide-ranging Act including some provisions relating to education.

1974 Education (Mentally Handicapped Children) (Scotland) Act (1974 c. 27): required Scottish education authorities to provide for the education of mentally handicapped children.

1975 Education Act (1975 c. 2): amended the law relating to local education authority grants, awards to students at adult education colleges, and increased central government funding for aided and special agreement schools.

1975 Child Benefit Act (1975 c. 61): replaced family allowances with child benefit.

1975 Sex Discrimination Act (1975 c. 65): aimed to promote equality of opportunity between men and women, and provided for the establishment of the Equal Opportunities Commission. Education is dealt with in sections 22-28.

1975 Children Act (1975 c. 72): amended previous legislation relating to the welfare of children: deals with adoption, children in custody and care, and fostered children; and sets out the duties and responsibilites of local authorities, parents and guardians.

1976 Education (School-leaving Dates) Act (1976 c. 5): made a minor amendment to section 9 of the 1962 Education Act relating to the summer school leaving date.

1976 Education (Scotland) Act (1976 c. 20): miscellaneous provisions relating to school starting and leaving dates, supply of milk etc.

1976 Race Relations Act (1976 c. 74): updated the law on racial discrimination and provided for the establishment of the Commission for Racial Equality, replacing the Race Relations Board and the Community Relations Commission, which were abolished. It amended the 1975 Sex Discrimination Act to bring it into line with this Act. Education is dealt with in sections 17-19.

1976 Education Act (1976 c. 81): gave the Secretary of State the power to ask LEAs to plan for non-selective (ie comprehensive) secondary education (repealed by the Conservatives in 1979).

1978 Education (Northern Ireland) Act (1978 c. 13): facilitated the establishment in Northern Ireland of integrated schools for pupils of different religious affiliations.

1978 Protection of Children Act (1978 c. 37): made illegal the making and distribution of indecent photographs of children.

1979 Education Act (1979 c. 49): allowed LEAs to retain selective secondary schools by repealing Labour's 1976 Education Act.

1980 Child Care Act (1980 c. 5): consolidated previous legislation relating to the care of children by local authorities or voluntary organisations.

1980 Foster Children Act (1980 c. 6): consolidated previous legislation relating to foster children.

1980 Education Act (1980 c. 20): instituted the assisted places scheme (public money for children to go to private schools), gave parents greater powers on governing bodies and over admissions, and removed LEAs' obligation to provide school milk and meals.

1980 Education (Scotland) Act (1980 c. 44): a wide-ranging Act which consolidated previous legislation and gave effect to recommendations of the Scottish Law Commission.

1980 Local Government, Planning and Land Act (1980 c. 65): a wide-ranging Act which amended previous legislation relating to various aspects of local government, including changes to the Rate Support Grant.

1981 Employment and Training Act (1981 c. 57): abolished the Employment Service Agency and the Training Services Agency.

1981 Education (Scotland) Act (1981 c. 58): extended to Scotland the Thatcher government's assisted places scheme (introduced in England by the 1980 Education Act); amended the 1965 Teaching Council (Scotland) Act; and transferred the power of appointing the Principals of the Universities of St Andrews, Glasgow and Aberdeen to the respective University Courts.

1981 Education Act (1981 c. 60): incorporated some of the proposals of the 1978 Warnock Report - gave parents new rights in relation to special needs.

1982 Industrial Training Act (1982 c. 10): set up a regulatory framework for industrial training boards.

1982 Children's Homes Act (1982 c. 20): provided for the registration, inspection and conduct of homes for children in local authority care.

1983 Education (Fees and Awards) Act (1983 c. 40): provisions relating to university fees and grants for non-UK students.

1984 Education (Amendment) (Scotland) Act (1984 c. 6): gave the Secretary of State power to control the use of dangerous materials or apparatus in Scottish schools.

1984 Education (Grants and Awards) Act (1984 c. 11): introduced Education Support Grants (ESGs) - central government funds given to LEAs for specific purposes.

1984 Rates Act (1984 c. 33): set limits on local authority expenditure by 'rate-capping'.

1984 Child Abduction Act (1984 c. 37): amended the criminal law relating to the abduction of children by parents or others.

1984 Foster Children (Scotland) Act (1984 c. 56): consolidated previous legislation.

1985 Further Education Act (1985 c. 47): empowered local authorities to supply goods and services through further education establishments; amended sex discrimination rules relating to PE teachers.

1985 Child Abduction and Custody Act (1985 c. 60): enabled the UK to ratify international conventions relating to child abduction and custody decisions.

1986 Education (Amendment) Act (1986 c. 1): brief Act increasing education support grant limits and removing payment for lunch duties from the 1965 Remuneration of Teachers Act.

1986 Law Reform (Parent and Child) (Scotland) Act (1986 c. 9): provisions relating to 'birth out of wedlock', parental rights and duties etc.

1986 Local Government Act (1986 c. 10): Section 2 prevented local authorities from publishing political material.

1986 Children and Young Persons (Amendment) Act (1986 c. 28): amended the law relating to children and young people in care.

1986 Education Act (1986 c. 40): brief Act concerning certain further education grants and the pooling of expenditure by local authorities.

1986 Education (No. 2) Act (1986 c. 61): required local education authorities to formulate and publish their curriculum policies, and governors to publish annual reports and hold parents' meetings; laid down rules on pupil admissions, political indoctrination and sex education; abolished corporal punishment; and ended the Secretary of State's duty to make annual reports to Parliament.

1987 Teachers' Pay and Conditions Act (1987 c. 1): abolished the negotiating procedures set up by the 1965 Act - from now until 1991 the Secretary of State imposed teachers' pay and conditions.

1988 Local Government Act (1988 c. 9): sought to force local authorities to put out to tender work (such as cleaning and maintenance) which had previously been undertaken by their own workforces; included the notoriously homophobic Section 28 (which was repealed by New Labour in November 2003).

1988 Employment Act (1988 c. 19): introduced bridging allowances for young people waiting to take up Youth Training Scheme places; renamed the Manpower Services Commission the Training Commission.

1988 Education Reform Act (1988 c. 40): a major act establishing the National Curriculum and its associated testing regime, local management of schools (LMS), open enrolment, opting out (grant-maintained status), abolition of the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) etc.

1988 School Boards (Scotland) Act (1988 c. 47): required Scottish local authorities to establish School Boards.

1989 Employment Act (1989 c. 38): amended the 1975 Sex Discrimination Act to comply with EU Directives; abolished the Training Commission etc.

1989 Self-Governing Schools etc. (Scotland) Act (1989 c. 39): made provision for Scottish schools to opt out of local authority control. In the event, hardly any did so.

1989 Children Act (1989 c. 41): wide-ranging Act which reformed the law relating to local authority services, children's homes, fostering, child minding and adoption.

1990 Education (Student Loans) Act (1990 c. 6): introduced 'top-up' loans for higher education students and so began the diminution of student grants.

1991 School Teachers' Pay and Conditions Act (1991 c. 49): established a review body but allowed the Secretary of State to ignore its recommendations.

1992 Further and Higher Education Act (1992 c. 13): removed further education and sixth form colleges from LEA control and established Further Education Funding Councils (FEFCs); allowed polytechnics to apply for university status; unified the funding of higher education under the Higher Education Funding Councils (HEFCs); introduced competition for funding between institutions; abolished the Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA).

1992 Further and Higher Education (Scotland) Act (1992 c. 37): (the Scottish version of the 1992 Further and Higher Education Act) set out new arrangements for the funding and management of colleges in Scotland.

1992 Education (Schools) Act (1992 c. 38): provided for the creation of Ofsted (Office for Standards in Education) to oversee the inspection of schools (though the name 'Ofsted' did not appear in the Act).

1993 Education Act (1993 c. 35): a huge and wide-ranging Act which sought to make it easier for schools to become grant-maintained, laid down rules for pupil exclusions and for 'failing' schools, replaced the National Curriculum Council (NCC) and the School Examinations and Assessment Council (SEAC) with the School Curriculum and Assessment Authority (SCAA), and defined special educational needs.

1994 University of London Act (1994 c. 16): made new provision for the making of statutes for the University.

1994 Education Act (1994 c. 30): established the Teacher Training Authority (TTA) and laid down new regulations relating to student unions.

1995 Children (Scotland) Act (1995 c. 36): reformed Scottish law relating to adoption, relationships between children and their parents/guardians, children's homes and local authority responsibilities.

1996 Education (Student Loans) Act (1996 c. 9): allowed the Secretary of State to subsidise private sector student loans.

1996 Education (Scotland) Act (1996 c. 43): established the Scottish Qualifications Authority, enabled grants for nursery providers etc.

1996 Nursery Education and Grant-Maintained Schools Act (1996 c. 50): introduced a voucher scheme for nursery education (later withdrawn by Labour), and allowed governors of grant-maintained schools to borrow money.

1996 Education Act (1996 c. 56): a huge Act consolidating previous legislation from the 1944 Education Act onwards.

1996 School Inspections Act (1996 c. 57): consolidated previous legislation on school inspections.

1997 Education Act (1997 c. 44): this was the Conservatives' last education act before Labour returned to power. It extended the assisted places scheme to primary schools, laid down new rules for the restraint, detention and exclusion of pupils, and replaced the National Council for Vocational Qualifications (NCVQ) and the School Curriculum and Assessment Authority (SCAA) with the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA). It was seen by many as evidence that the government was more concerned about the poor behaviour of school pupils than with the disreputable activities of some of its own MPs.

1997 Education (Schools) Act (1997 c. 59): abolished the assisted places scheme and proposed binding home-school agreements (the latter not implemented).

1998 Education (Student Loans) Act (1998 c. 1): transferred provision of student loans to the private sector.

1998 Teaching and Higher Education Act (1998 c. 30): a wide-ranging Act which included provision for the establishment of General Teaching Councils for England and Wales; arrangements for the registration and training of teachers; and provisions relating to students in higher and further education and the funding of higher education.

1998 School Standards and Framework Act (1998 c. 31): a wide-ranging Act which, among other things, encouraged selection by specialisation, changed the names of types of schools, limited infant class sizes, and established Education Action Zones.

1999 Protection of Children Act (1999 c. 14): provided for a list to be kept of persons considered unsuitable to work with children.

2000 Care Standards Act (2000 c. 14): a wide-ranging Act which established the National Care Standards Commission, the General Social Care Council, the Care Council for Wales, and the office of the Children's Commissioner for Wales.

2000 Carers and Disabled Children Act (2000 c. 16): made provisions about the assessment of carers' needs and services to help carers etc.

2000 Learning and Skills Act (2000 c. 21): provided for the establishment of the Learning and Skills Council for England, the National Council for Education and Training for Wales, and the Adult Learning Inspectorate. It abolished the Further Education Funding Councils, required the Secretary of State's approval for external qualifications, and allowed city technology colleges to be renamed city academies.

2000 Children (Leaving Care) Act (2000 c. 35): more duties for local authorities, replacing section 24 of the 1989 Children Act.

2000 Standards in Scotland's Schools etc. Act (2000 Scot asp 6): one of the first Acts of the Scottish Parliament

2001 Special Educational Needs and Disability Act (2001 c. 10): amended Part 4 of the 1996 Education Act and made further provision against discrimination on grounds of disability in schools and in further and higher education institutions.

2001 Children's Commissioner for Wales Act (2001 c. 18): made further provisions relating to the role of the Commissioner.

2002 Education Act (2002 c. 32): wide-ranging Act which implemented the proposals in the 2001 White Paper Schools: achieving success.

2004 Higher Education Act (2004 c. 8): allowed universities to charge fees of up to 3,000 a year.

2004 Children Act (2004 c. 31): based on the 2003 green paper Every Child Matters, which sought to take a holistic view of the welfare of children, this Act provided for the establishment of Children's Commissioners for England and Wales; and made provisions regarding the services provided for children and young people by local authorities and others..

2005 Education Act (2005 c. 18): made provisions regarding school inspections and organisation, and the training of the school workforce. Section 74 provided for the Teacher Training Agency (established by the 1994 Education Act) to be renamed the Training and Development Agency for Schools (TDA).

2006 Equality Act (2006 c. 3): established the Commission for Equality and Human Rights with implications for schools.

2006 Childcare Act (2006 c. 21): set out new arrangements for the provision, regulation and inspection of childcare in England and Wales.

2006 Education and Inspections Act (2006 c. 40): a very controversial Act consisting mainly of amendments to the 1998 School Standards and Framework Act and the 2002 Education Act.

2007 Further Education and Training Act (2007 c. 25): new arrangements relating to further education and the Learning and Skills Council for England.

2008 Sale of Student Loans Act (2008 c. 10): allowed the government to sell off student loans.

2008 Special Educational Needs (Information) Act (2008 c. 11): amended the 1996 Education Act in relation to the provision and publication of information about children with special educational needs.

2008 Children and Young Persons Act (2008 c. 23): new arrangements for the provision of social work services.

2008 Education and Skills Act (2008 c. 25): replaced the school leaving age of 16 with an education leaving age of 18 and made a variety of provisions relating to the education or training of young adults.

2009 Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act (2009 c. 22): created a statutory framework for apprenticeships, and established the Young People's Learning Agency for England (YPLA), the office of Chief Executive of Skills Funding, the Office of Qualifications and Examinations Regulation (Ofqual) and the School Support Staff Negotiating Body (SSSNB).

2010 Child Poverty Act (2010 c. 9): set 'targets relating to the eradication of child poverty'.

2010 Equality Act (2010 c. 15): the last major Act of Gordon Brown's New Labour administration. With many provisions relating to schools, it replaced nine previous Acts and almost a hundred sets of regulations which had been issued over several decades.

2010 Children, Schools and Families Act (2010 c. 26): very limited provisions because of the impending election.

2010 Academies Act (2010 c. 32): provided for rapid expansion of academies.

2011 Education Act (2011 c. 21): a retrogressive Act which dismantled many of the structures and arrangements put in place by the New Labour governments of Tony Blair and Gordon Brown.

2014 Children and Families Act (2014 c. 6): wide-ranging Act covering adoption, family justice, special educational needs and disabilities, childcare, welfare of children, the Children's Commissioner, statutory rights to leave and pay, time off work and ante-natal care, flexible working rights.

2016 Education and Adoption Act (2016 c. 6): made it quicker and easier to convert local authority schools into academies.

2017 Children and Social Work Act (2017 c. 16): made provisions about looked-after children, the welfare of children, and the regulation of social workers. The implications for schools and local education authorities are dealt with in sections 4-7.

2017 Technical and Further Education Act (2017 c. 19): renamed the Insititute for Apprentices the Insititute for Apprentices and Technical Education; most of its other provisions concerned administrative matters.

2017 Higher Education and Research Act (2017 c. 29): provided for the establishment of the Office for Students (OfS) and United Kingdom Research and Innovation (UKRI) and abolished the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) and the office of Director of Fair Access to Higher Education (DFA).

Statutory Instruments (Northern Ireland) 1972-2006

1972 Education and Libraries (Northern Ireland) Order (1972 No. 1263 NI 12): made new arrangements for education and public libraries in Northern Ireland. It provided for the establishment of five education and library boards in place of the previous eight local education authorities and sixteen library authorities.

1976 Education (Northern Ireland) Order (1976 No. 58 NI 2)

1978 Education (Northern Ireland) Order (1978 No. 1040 NI 10)

1980 Education (Northern Ireland) Order (1980 No. 1958 NI 16)

1984 Education (Northern Ireland) Order (1984 No. 1156 NI 6): dealt with the management of grant-aided schools, provision for children with special educational needs, and various other matters. It provided for the establishment of the Northern Ireland Schools Examinations Council, replacing the GCE and CSE Examinations Boards, which were abolished.

1986 Education and Libraries (Northern Ireland) Order (1986 No. 594 NI 3): set out arrangements for the provision of education and library services in Northern Ireland. It consolidated the Education and Libraries (Northern Ireland) Order 1972 and the provisions amending that Order (as listed above).

1987 Education (Northern Ireland) Order (1987 No. 167 NI 2)

1987 Education (Corporal Punishment) (Northern Ireland) Order (1987 No. 461 NI 6)

1990 Education (Student Loans) (Northern Ireland) Order (1990 No. 1506 NI 11)

1993 Education and Libraries (Northern Ireland) Order (1993 No. 2810 NI 12): required education and library boards to undertake certain activities only if they could do so competitively; provided for the amalgamation of further education institutions; amended the Education and Libraries (Northern Ireland) Order 1986 and the Education Reform (Northern Ireland) Order 1989; and provided for the establishment of the Northern Ireland Council for the Curriculum, Examinations and Assessment.

1996 Education (Northern Ireland) Order (1996 No. 274 NI 1)

1996 Education (Student Loans) (Northern Ireland) Order (1996 No. 1918 NI 15)

1997 Education (Northern Ireland) Order (1997 No. 866 NI 5)

1997 Further Education (Northern Ireland) Order (1997 No. 1772 NI 15)

1998 Education (Student Loans) (Northern Ireland) Order (1998 No. 258 NI 1)

1998 Education (Northern Ireland) Order (1998 No. 1759 NI 13): a wide-ranging Statutory Instrument which included provision for the establishment of the General Teaching Council for Northern Ireland.

1998 Education (Student Support) (Northern Ireland) Order (1998 No. 1760 NI 14)

2003 Education and Libraries (Northern Ireland) Order (2003 No. 424 NI 12)

2005 Higher Education (Northern Ireland) Order (2005 No. 1116 NI 5)

2005 Colleges of Education (Northern Ireland) Order (2005 No. 1963 NI 13)

2006 Education (Northern Ireland) Order (2006 No. 1915 NI 11)